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Janaína M de Ávila, Alessandra O Pereira, Lucimara L Zachow, Adriana Z Gehm, Maura Z Santos, Marco A Mostardeiro, Davi Back, Ademir F Morel, Ionara I Dalcol
Two new iridoids (1-2) and a new decomposition product of valepotriates (3), together with fifteen known compounds (4-18) were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Valeriana polystachya Smith, a native species from the Pampa Biome. Their structures were elucidated by means of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and optical rotation. The structures of 3 and 18 were further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the group of the isolated compounds, 6β-hydroxysitostenone, hydroxymaltol and isovillosol were isolated from the Valeriana genus for the first time...
October 16, 2018: Fitoterapia
Laura Hannemann, Calin Rares Lucaciu, Sapna Sharma, Thomas Rattei, Klaus F X Mayer, Alfons Gierl, Monika Frey
In the plant kingdom beta-glucosidases (BGLUs) of the glycosidase hydrolase family 1 have essential function in primary metabolism and are particularly employed in secondary metabolism. They are essential for activation in two-component defence systems based on stabilisation of reactive compounds by glycosylation. Based on de novo assembly we isolated and functionally characterised BGLUs expressed in leaves of Lamium galeobdolon (LgGLUs). LgGLU1 could be assigned to hydrolysis of the benzoxazinoid GDIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside)...
October 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
Ahmed Galal Osman, Zulfiqar Ali, Omer Fantoukh, Vijayasankar Raman, Ramsay S T Kamdem, Ikhlas Khan
Four ursane-type triterpenoid glycosides (1-4), two benzophenone glycosides (5 and 6), and one iridoid glucoside (7) were isolated and characterized from the dried roots of Vangueria agrestis. Compounds 1 (3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl]pomolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester) and 5 (2-O-[β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-6,4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone) were found to be new metabolites. The identity of all compounds has been accomplished, primarily, based on 1 D and 2 D NMR and HRESMS analysis...
October 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Zhengkai Wei, Kai Su, Peng Jiang, Mingyu Shi, Jingjing Wang, Guanghong Xie
Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), a Gram-positive organism, is a frequent cause of subclinical mastitis. Geniposide, an iridoid glucoside isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides, has been reported to exhibit antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The ability of S. aureus internalizing into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) has been responsible for the establishment of the bovine mastitis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of geniposide on S. aureus internalization into bMEC and investigated the possible mechanism of action...
October 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Huimin Hu, Changyuan Wang, Yue Jin, Qiang Meng, Qi Liu, Zhihao Liu, Kexin Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Huijun Sun
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and plays a vital role in the development of atherosclerosis. Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, can produce anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and dopaminergic neurons protecting effects. This study aimed to determine the protecting effects of catalpol against homocysteine (HCY)-induced injuries in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and uncover the underlying mechanisms: 1...
October 12, 2018: Inflammation
Balraj Singh Gill, Richa Mehra, Navgeet, Sanjeev Kumar
Natural products are rich in several potent bioactive compounds, targeting complex network of proteins involved in various diseases. Vitex negundo (VN), commonly known as "chaste tree", is an ethnobotanically important plant with enormous medicinal properties. Different species of Vitex vary in chemical composition, thus producing different phytochemicals. Several bioactive compounds have been extracted from leaves, seeds, roots in form of volatile oils, flavonoids, lignans, iridoids, terpenes, and steroids...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Diana C G A Pinto, Naima Rahmouni, Noureddine Beghidja, Artur M S Silva
The genus Scabiosa (family Caprifoliaceae) is considered large (618 scientific plant names of species) although only 62 have accepted Latin binominal names. The majority of the Scabiosa species are widely distributed in the Mediterranean region and some Scabiosa species are used in traditional medicine systems. For instance, Scabiosa columbaria L. is used traditionally against diphtheria while S. comosa Fisch. Ex Roem. and Schult. is used in Mongolian and Tibetan traditional medical settings to treat liver diseases...
October 9, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Yong Cui, Yanjie Wang, Danyu Zhao, Xiaofan Feng, Lin Zhang, Chun Liu
Neuroinflammation is closely related with the pathogenesis and progress of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Loganin, an iridoid glycoside obtained from traditional Chinese medicine Cornus officinalis, has properties of inhibiting inflammation and improving memory. The present study was aimed to investigate effects of loganin on Aβ-induced inflammation and to explore the underlying mechanisms. BV-2 microglia cells were stimulated with 10 µM Aβ1-42 for 24 h to induce inflammatory damage...
October 4, 2018: Cell Biology International
Rachel Fellows, Christopher M Russo, Catarina S Silva, Soon Goo Lee, Joseph M Jez, John D Chisholm, Chloe Zubieta, Max H Nanao
The short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily (SDR) is a large family of NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes found in all kingdoms of life. SDRs are particularly well-represented in plants, playing diverse roles in both primary and secondary metabolism. In addition, some plant SDRs are also able to catalyse a reductive cyclisation reaction critical for the biosynthesis of the iridoid backbone that contains a fused 5 and 6-membered ring scaffold. Mining the EST database of Plantago major, a medicinal plant that makes iridoids, we identified a putative 5β-progesterone reductase gene, PmMOR (P...
October 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pham Ngoc Khanh, Tran Thu Huong, Ottavia Spiga, Alfonso Trezza, Ninh The Son, To Dao Cuong, Vu Thi Ha, Nguyen Manh Cuong
OBJECTIVE: Prismatomeris memecyloides Craib (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used by ethnic minorities in Vietnam for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical compositions and screen in silico its possible inhibitory effect against PDE-5 which reduced cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels and indirectly caused the male ED. METHODS: Separation of natural compounds were carried out on chromatographic column with silica gel or reversed phase materials, eluting with different solvent gradients...
October 2018: Revista Internacional de Andrología
Larissa Marina Pereira Silva, Jovelina Samara Ferreira Alves, Emerson Michell da Silva Siqueira, Manoel André de Souza Neto, Lucas Silva Abreu, Josean Fechine Tavares, Dayanne Lopes Porto, Leandro de Santis Ferreira, Daniel Pecoraro Demarque, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Cícero Flávio Soares Aragão, Silvana Maria Zucolotto
Genipa americana is a medicinal plant popularly known as "jenipapo", which occurs in Brazil and belongs to the Rubiaceae family. It is a species widely distributed in the tropical Central and South America, especially in the Cerrado biome. Their leaves and fruits are used as food and popularly in folk medicine to treat anemias, as an antidiarrheal, and anti-syphilitic. Iridoids are the main secondary metabolites described from G. americana , but few studies have been conducted with their leaves. In this study, the aim was to chemical approach for identify the main compounds present at the extract of G...
October 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lijuan Zhou, Han Wang, Jing Jing, Lijuan Yu, Xianjie Wu, Zhongfa Lu
Hair loss is characterized by a shortened hair anagen phase and hair follicles (HF) miniaturization. Morroniside is the most abundant iridoid glycoside extracted from Cornus officinalis and has various bioactivities in different cell functions and tissue regeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanism of morroniside on hair growth and regulation of HF cycle transition. Morroniside treatment significantly enhanced outer root sheath cell (ORSC) proliferation and migration in vitro...
September 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Monika E Czerwińska, Matthias F Melzig
Among 65 species belonging to the genus Cornus only two, Cornus mas L. and Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. (Cornaceae), have been traditionally used since ancient times. Cornus mas (cornelian cherry) is native to southern Europe and southwest Asia, whereas C. officinalis (Asiatic dogwood, cornel dogwood) is a deciduous tree distributed in eastern Asia, mainly in China, as well as Korea and Japan. Based on the different geographic distribution of the closely related species but clearly distinct taxa, the ethnopharmacological use of C...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mohammed S El-Awady, Eman Said, Hany N Baraka
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a universal cause of respiratory failure and death especially after sepsis. The current study evaluates the protective efficacy of acylated catalpol diglycoside (ACD), a plant iridoid glycoside, against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced ALI in rats. ACD prevented LPS-induced elevations in total and differential cell counts and total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung malondialdehyde content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, ACD significantly increased lung glutathione and superoxide dismutase and improved lung histopathology with significant reduction in lung tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content mediated mainly via inhibition of TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Ying Wang, Fang Hong, Dapeng Li, Jin Qi, Xuming Liu
Myeloperoxidase and its product hypochlorous acid are endogenous substances that are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. In the present study, a novel evaluation strategy has been developed to screen for myeloperoxidase inhibitors and hypochlorous acid scavengers in natural products. The evaluation strategy uses two methods: a multi-hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-chemiluminescence online method, and an ultrafiltration-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Lauren E Bradley, Caitlin A Kelly, M Deane Bowers
The checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas anicia (Nymphalidae), specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides and has the ability to sequester these compounds from its host plants. This study investigated larval preference, performance, and sequestration of iridoid glycosides in a population of E. anicia at Crescent Meadows, Colorado, USA. Although previous studies showed that other populations in Colorado use the host plant, Castilleja integra (Orobanchaceae), we found no evidence for E. anicia ovipositing or feeding on C...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lora A Richards, Celso Oliveira, Lee A Dyer, Arran Rumbaugh, Federico Urbano-Muñoz, Ian S Wallace, Craig D Dodson, Christopher S Jeffrey
Diverse mixtures of plant natural products play an important role in plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions. In the pursuit of understanding these chemically-mediated interactions, we are often faced with the challenge of determining ecologically and biologically relevant compounds present in complex phytochemical mixtures. Using a network-based approach, we analyzed binned 1 H-NMR data from 196 prepared mixtures of commonly studied secondary metabolites including alkaloids, amides, terpenes, iridoid glycosides, saponins, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and phytosterols...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Karin Schmidt, Jan Petersen, Jennifer Munkert, Claudia Egerer-Sieber, Michael Hornig, Yves A Muller, Wolfgang Kreis
PRISEs (progesterone 5β-reductase and/or iridoid synthase-like 1,4-enone reductases) are involved in cardenolide and iridoid biosynthesis. We here investigated a PRISE (rAtSt5βR) from Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant producing neither cardenolides nor iridoids. The structure of rAtSt5βR was elucidated with X-ray crystallography and compared to the known structures of PRISEs from Catharanthus roseus (rCrISY) and Digitalis lanata (rDlP5βR). The three enzymes show a high degree of sequence and structure conservation in the active site...
August 29, 2018: Phytochemistry
Hye-Mi Park, Joo-Heon Hong
This study evaluated the antioxidant and protective effects of bioactive compounds isolated from pressurized steam-treated Corni Fructus (PSC). We had previously tested the protective effects of the furan fraction containing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), polyphenol fraction containing gallic acid, and iridoid glycoside fraction containing morroniside and loganin. We measured the potency of antioxidant activities of the bioactive compounds isolated from PSC via oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Fa-Wu Dong, He-Hai Jiang, Liu Yang, Ye Gong, Cheng-Ting Zi, Dan Yang, Chen-Jun Ye, Huan Li, Jian Yang, Yin Nian, Jun Zhou, Jiang-Miao Hu
The roots and rhizomes of Valeriana jatamansi have long been used as folk medicine in Asia and usually named as "Zhizhuxiang" in Chinese for the treatment of abdominal distention and pain. However, its active ingredients and molecular targets for treatment of abdominal pain remain unrevealed. Inhibitors of Cav 2.2 N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are actively sought after for their potential in treating pain, especially chronic pain. As far as we know, the method used for seeking analgesic active ingredient from plant material has rarely been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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