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Xinxin Zhang, Guanqun Zhan, Ming Jin, Hui Zhang, Jun Dang, Yan Zhang, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito
BACKGROUND: Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Nora Gibitz-Eisath, Miriam Eichberger, Regina Gruber, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner
This study presents a fast and validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of the major compounds in Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae), a medicinal plant listed in the European, British, and, Chinese Pharmacopoeias. In order to get reference substances, nine compounds, belonging to iridoids, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides, were isolated from the herb extract. Two of them, namely cistanoside D and leucosceptoside A, were found in this plant species for the first time...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Kai Xiong, Zhengcai Ju, Tong Zhang, Zhengtao Wang, Han Han
Picroside I is an iridoid glycoside derived from Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth and Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell and characterized by many biological activities. In this study, a fast, selective, and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine picroside I in rat plasma. Analytes were separated by using an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column at a running time of 2 min. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions were m/z 491.1 → 147.1 for picroside I and m/z 511...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
M Johanna Bapela, Heino Heyman, Francois Senejoux, J J Marion Meyer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Vha-Venda people living in rural areas of Limpopo Province of South Africa regularly use traditional plant-based medicines to treat malaria. In our earlier publication, twenty indigenous plant species used to treat malaria or its symptoms by Vha-Venda people were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity. The main objective of the current study was to assess the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in discriminating classes of secondary compounds that are responsible for the observed antimalarial activity and the isolation of antiplasmodial compounds...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Heba-Tollah M Sweelam, Howaida I Abd-Alla, Ahmed B Abdelwahab, Mahmoud M Gabr, Gilbert Kirsch
The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids...
March 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Yukun Zhang, Changyuan Wang, Yue Jin, Qining Yang, Qiang Meng, Qi Liu, Yongguo Dai, Lifei Cai, Zhihao Liu, Kexin Liu, Huijun Sun
Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside, has been found present in large quantities in the root of Rehmannia glutinosa L. and showed a strong antioxidant capacity in the previous study. In the present work, the protective effect of catalpol against AS via inhibiting oxidative stress, DNA damage, and telomere shortening was found in LDLr-/- mice. This study also shows that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1 α )/telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) pathway, which is the new link between mitochondria and telomere, was involved in the protective effects of catalpol...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Wenhua Ji, Rongyu Wang, Yan Mu, Xiao Wang
An efficient analytical method based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was established for the determination of iridoid glycosides (IGs) in Di-huang pills. As the solid-phase extraction medium, superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high affinity and selectivity to IGs in water media were fabricated using divinyl galactose as a single cross-linking monomer. The structure, porosity, and hydrophilicity of MIPs were characterized...
July 25, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ziguan Zhu, Qingping Xie, Yazeng Huang, Shuijun Zhang, Yu Chen
Aucubin represents an iridoid glucoside separated from multiple Chinese herbs, which has been demonstrated to possess numerous pharmacological activities. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the roles and mechanisms of aucubin in the suppression of mouse MC3T3‑E1 osteoblast apoptosis induced by Titanium particles and the promotion of bone formation. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to analyze cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. ELISA and para‑nitrophenyl phosphate colorimetry were carried out to evaluate the oxidative stress markers and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)...
September 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
M Ivanović, M E Alañón, D Arráez-Román, A Segura-Carretero
Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) have been postulated as alternative green solvents for the isolation of valuable bioactive compounds from Lippia citriodora. Thus, 11 different NADESs, based on choline chloride (ChCl) as the hydrogen bond acceptor in combination with different hydrogen bond donors (organic acids, polyalcohols, sugars, and urea) were tested. According to the results obtained, ChCl-lactic acid exhibited the highest extraction yield for iridoids, 7.25 mg g-1 , phenylpropanoids, 17.23 mg g-1 , and flavonoids, 9...
September 2018: Food Research International
Caitlin A Kelly, M Deane Bowers
Many insect herbivores are dietary specialists capable of sequestering the secondary metabolites produced by their host plants. These defensive compounds have important but complex implications for tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. The sequestration of host plant secondary metabolites defends herbivores from attack by generalist predators, but may also compromise the immune response, making insect herbivores more vulnerable to parasitism. Here, we investigate the role of plant secondary metabolites in mediating interactions between a specialist herbivore and its natural enemies...
July 12, 2018: Oecologia
Jingyu He, Xianyuan Lu, Ting Wei, Yaqian Dong, Zheng Cai, Lan Tang, Menghua Liu
Hedyotis diffusa is a folk herb that is used for treating inflammation-related diseases in Asia. Previous studies have found that iridoids in H. diffusa play an important role in its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and potential mechanism of five iridoids (asperuloside (ASP), asperulosidic acid (ASPA), desacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA), scandoside methyl ester (SME), and E -6- O - p -coumaroyl scandoside methyl ester (CSME)) that are presented in H. diffusa using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cuicui Yang, Xuelian Li, Wenbin Gao, Qi Wang, Li Zhang, Yali Li, Lin Li, Lan Zhang
Neurofibrillary pathology contributes to neuronal dysfunction and correlates with the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau phosphorylation is mainly regulated by a balance of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activities. Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is a main component extracted from Cornus officinalis . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CIG on GSK-3β and PP2A, thus to explore the mechanisms of CIG to inhibit tau hyperphosphorylation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiao Yang, Shiwei Wei, Bin Liu, Doudou Guo, Bangxiao Zheng, Lei Feng, Yumin Liu, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Lijun Luo, Danfeng Huang
Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable that represents a significant dietary source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. However, the levels of metabolites in different lettuce cultivars are poorly characterized. In this study, we used combined GC × GC-TOF/MS and UPLC-IMS-QTOF/MS to detect and relatively quantify metabolites in 30 lettuce cultivars representing large genetic diversity. Comparison with online databases, the published literature, standards as well using collision cross-section values enabled putative identification of 171 metabolites...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ya-Jie Pan, Ying-Chao Lin, Bo-Fan Yu, Yuan-Gang Zu, Fang Yu, Zhong-Hua Tang
BACKGROUND: The medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus), accumulates a wide range of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Ethylene (ET) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) were previously reported as effective elicitors for the production of various valuable secondary metabolites of C. roseus, while a few ET or MeJA induced transcriptomic research is yet reported on this species. In this study, the de-novo transcriptome assembly of C. roseus is performed by using the next-generation sequencing technology...
July 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Qiyan Cai, Teng Ma, Yanping Tian, Chengren Li, Hongli Li
The heightened vulnerability of premyelinating oligodendrocytes (PreOLs) in response to hypoxia⁻ischemia may contribute to perinatal white matter injury and subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction. Intracellular Ca2+ overload is considered a crucial mechanism predisposing PreOLs to ischemic injury. We previously reported that catalpol, an iridoid glycoside extracted from Rehmannia root, inhibits intracellular Ca2+ overload of PreOLs in an in vitro ischemia model. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anand S Sandholu, Madhura Mohole, William L Duax, Hirekodathakallu V Thulasiram, Durba Sengupta, Kiran Kulkarni
Iridoid synthases belong to the family of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids. Despite having high sequence and structural homology with progesterone 5β-reductase, these enzymes exhibit differential substrate specificities. Previously, two loops, L1 and L2 at substrate-binding pocket, were suggested to be involved in generating substrate specificity. However, the structural basis of specificity determinants was elusive. Here, combining sequence and structural analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics simulations, we have shown that iridoid synthase contains two channels for substrate entry whose geometries are altered by L1-L2 dynamics, primarily orchestrated by interactions of residues Glu161 and Gly162 of L1 and Asn358 of L2...
June 26, 2018: FEBS Letters
Yaru Wang, Cuizhu Wang, Hongqiang Lin, Yunhe Liu, Yameng Li, Yan Zhao, Pingya Li, Jinping Liu
Hedyotis diffuse Willd. (HD) and Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (HC), two closely related species of the same genus, are both used for health benefits and disease prevention in China. HC is also indiscriminately sold as HD in the wholesale chain and food markets. This confusion has led to a growing concern about their identification and quality evaluation. In order to further understand the molecular diversification between them, we focus on the screening of chemical components and the analysis of non-targeted metabolites...
June 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Andrew L Pais, Xu Li, Qiu-Yun Jenny Xiang
Understanding intraspecific relationships between genetic and functional diversity is a major goal in the field of evolutionary biology and is important for conserving biodiversity. Linking intraspecific molecular patterns of plants to ecological pressures and trait variation remains difficult due to environment-driven plasticity. Next-generation sequencing, untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling, and interdisciplinary approaches integrating population genomics, metabolomics, and community ecology permit novel strategies to tackle this problem...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Duc Dat Le, Duc Hung Nguyen, Bing Tian Zhao, Jeong Ah Kim, Seok Kyu Kim, Byung Sun Min, Jae Sue Choi, Mi Hee Woo
Four undescribed 23,24-O-isopropylidene-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids and an undescribed 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoid, together with five known 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids, were isolated and identified. In addition, three undescribed iridoid glucosides and four known ones were also identified. All the isolates were identified using spectroscopic techniques, and the absolute configurations of 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids were determined by CD method for the first time...
September 2018: Phytochemistry
(no author information available yet)
The evolution of chemical complexity has been a major driver of plant diversification, with novel compounds serving as key innovations. The species-rich mint family (Lamiaceae) produces an enormous variety of compounds that act as attractants and defense molecules in nature and are used widely by humans as flavor additives, fragrances, and anti-herbivory agents. To elucidate the mechanisms by which such diversity evolved, we combined leaf transcriptome data from 48 Lamiaceae species and four outgroups with a robust phylogeny and chemical analyses of three terpenoid classes (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, iridoids) that share and compete for precursors...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Plant
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