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Atsushi Usami, Masahito Ishikawa, Katsutoshi Hori
The biotransformation of citral, an industrially important monoterpenoid, has been extensively studied using many microbial biocatalysts. However, the metabolic pathways involved in its biotransformation are still unclear, because citral is a mixture of the trans-isomer geranial and the cis-isomer neral. Here, we applied the heterologous expression of geoA, a gene encoding geraniol dehydrogenase that specifically converts geraniol to geranial and nerol to neral, to identify the metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of citral...
August 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Bakht Zada, Chonglong Wang, Ji-Bin Park, Seong-Hee Jeong, Ju-Eon Park, Hawaibam Birla Singh, Seon-Won Kim
Background: Current petroleum-derived fuels such as gasoline (C5 -C12 ) and diesel (C15 -C22 ) are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons with different chain lengths and chemical structures. Isoprenoids are hydrocarbon-based compounds with different carbon chain lengths and diverse chemical structures, similar to petroleum. Thus, isoprenoid alcohols such as isopentenol (C5 ), geraniol (C10 ), and farnesol (C15 ) have been considered to be ideal biofuel candidates. NudB, a native phosphatase of Escherichia coli , is reported to dephosphorylate isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) into isopentenol...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Simone Giacosa, Manuela Giordano, Mar Vilanova, Enzo Cagnasso, Susana Río Segade, Luca Rolle
BACKGROUND: Cane-cut on-vine is a grape dehydration technique used for dry and sweet wines production. The aim of this work was to study the influence of cane-cut applied at harvest on Moscato bianco grapes during on-vine withering process in order to produce dehydrated berries with different chemical composition and volatile profile. RESULTS: On-vine withering system using cane-cut induced, after 24 days of dehydration, an increase of total volatile content versus grape produced with a normal on-vine withering process...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sarma R Kumar, H B Shilpashree, Dinesh A Nagegowda
Catharanthus roseus is the sole source of two of the most important anticancer monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), vinblastine and vincristine and their precursors, vindoline and catharanthine. The MIAs are produced from the condensation of precursors derived from indole and terpene secoiridoid pathways. It has been previously reported that the terpene moiety limits MIA biosynthesis in C. roseus . Here, to overcome this limitation and enhance MIAs levels in C. roseus , bifunctional geranyl(geranyl) diphosphate synthase [G(G)PPS] and geraniol synthase (GES) that provide precursors for early steps of terpene moiety (secologanin) formation, were overexpressed transiently by agroinfiltration and stably by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ane C C Santos, Paulo F Cristaldo, Ana P A Araújo, Carlisson R Melo, Ana P S Lima, Emile D R Santana, Bruna M S de Oliveira, José W S Oliveira, Jodnes S Vieira, Arie F Blank, Leandro Bacci
The recent decline of Apis mellifera populations around the world has been subject of intense research due to ecological and economic damages resulting from the loss of pollination services. The intensive use of insecticides from the neonicotinoids group is among the possible causal factors of this decline, including also sub-lethal effects. However, the use of synthetic insecticides has been increased on a global scale in the recent decades. In order to evaluate an alternative to the use of neonicotinoids, this work investigated the effects of a bioinsecticide and its major compound on A...
July 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ruchi Sharma, Rekha Rao, Sunil Kumar, Sheefali Mahant, Sarita Khatkar
Mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, filariasis, chikunguniya, yellow fever, dengue and Japanese encephalitis are the major cause of remarkable morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans worldwide. Since ancient times, aromatic plants are used for their medicinal value. Essential oils derived from these plants may be used as effective alternatives/adjuvents in pharmaceuticals, biomedical, cosmetic, food, veterinary and agriculture applications. These oils have also gained popularity and interest for prevention and treatment of various disorders...
July 17, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar might be altered by inter-annual climate variability and management practices such as irrigation. These compounds determine, in part, aroma and sensory characteristics of wines. The current study aimed at assessing the amino acid profile of musts and wines and the volatile composition of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Godello' grown in the Ribeiro Designation of Origin (NW Spain) under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation (SI) conditions over three years (2012-2014)...
September 2018: Food Research International
Alejandra Rojas-Olivos, Rodolfo Solano-Gómez, Carlos Granados-Echegoyen, Luis Alberto Santiago-Santiago, Jorge García-Dávila, Rafael Pérez-Pacheco, Luicita Lagunez-Rivera
INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx...
May 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Jerome Niogret, Nancy D Epsky
Small cage and wind tunnel bioassays were used to understand the role of volatile chemicals found in ginger root oil and other essential oils in the attraction of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Small cage bioassays found that both a 10 component blend (geraniol, linalool, β-myrcene, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and α-humulene) and a 4 component subset of that blend (geraniol, linalool, β-myrcene and limonene) were more attractive than paired mineral oil controls...
June 29, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Jianrong Wei, Qiong Zhou, Loyal Hall, Andrew Myrick, Kelli Hoover, Kathleen Shields, Thomas C Baker
We performed single-sensillum recordings from male and female antennae of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, that included as stimuli the two components of this species' aggregation-sex pheromone in addition to various general odorants. We compared the aggregation-sex-pheromone-component responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to those of OSNs that responded to a variety of plant-related odorants. In the smooth-tipped, tapered, trichoid sensilla on the most distal antennal flagellomeres nos...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Naveen K Kalagatur, Oriparambil S Nirmal Ghosh, Naveen Sundararaj, Venkataramana Mudili
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum . The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lina Hagvall, Magnus Bruze, Malin Engfeldt, Marléne Isaksson, Magnus Lindberg, Kristina Ryberg, Berndt Stenberg, Cecilia Svedman, Ann-Therese Karlberg, Johanna Bråred Christensson
BACKGROUND: Geraniol is a widely used fragrance terpene, and is included in fragrance mix I. Geraniol is prone to autoxidation, forming the skin sensitizers geranial, neral, and geraniol-7-hydroperoxide. Oxidized geraniol has previously been patch tested in 1 clinic, giving 1% to 4.6% positive reactions in consecutive patients when tested at 2% to 11%. AIM: To compare test reactions to pure and oxidized geraniol, to compare 2 different test concentrations of oxidized geraniol and to investigate the pattern of concomitant reactions to fragrance markers of the baseline series in a multicentre setting...
June 21, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
(no author information available yet)
The evolution of chemical complexity has been a major driver of plant diversification, with novel compounds serving as key innovations. The species-rich mint family (Lamiaceae) produces an enormous variety of compounds that act as attractants and defense molecules in nature and are used widely by humans as flavor additives, fragrances, and anti-herbivory agents. To elucidate the mechanisms by which such diversity evolved, we combined leaf transcriptome data from 48 Lamiaceae species and four outgroups with a robust phylogeny and chemical analyses of three terpenoid classes (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and iridoids) that share and compete for precursors...
August 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
Nehuen Noacco, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, Margarita García de Bravo, Guillermo R Castro, German A Islan
The development of simple, fast and reproducible techniques that provide information about the antioxidant activity (AA) of different compounds is essential to screen and discover new molecules with potential applications in the therapeutic, cosmetic, toxicological and food fields. Here, a novel and simple colorimetric method ("BCB assay") is proposed for measuring the AA of chemical compounds by protection of the reporter dye Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) from loss of color due to oxidation by hypochlorite (a physiological oxidant)...
August 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Baoping Ling, Xiya Wang, Hao Su, Rutao Liu, Yongjun Liu
Linalool dehydratase/isomerase (LinD) from Castellaniella defragrans is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of β-myrcene to (S)-linalool and the isomerization of (S)-linalool to geraniol. In this paper, on the basis of recently obtained crystal structures, the catalytic mechanism of LinD has been explored by a combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. Two computational models have been constructed. Model I (LinD-linalool) was derived from the crystal structure of the selenomethionine derivative of LinD (Semet-LinD) in complex with the natural substrate geraniol, whereas model II (LinD-β-myrcene) was constructed from the crystal structure of LinD in complex with β-myrcene...
June 27, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
L Camesasca, M Minteguiaga, L Fariña, V Salzman, P S Aguilar, C Gaggero, F Carrau
The objective of this work is to demonstrate if the hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase Coq1p might be involved in monoterpenes synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although its currently known function in yeast is to catalyze the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis. However, in a BY4743 laboratory strain, the presence of an empty plasmid in a chemically defined grape juice medium results in a statistically significant increase of linalool, (E)-nerolidol and (E,E)-farnesol. When COQ1 is overexpressed from a plasmid, the levels of the volatile isoprenoids are further increased...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Kannappan Arunachalam, Mohankumar Ramar, Srinivasan Ramanathan, Archunan Govindaraju, Karutha Pandian Shunmugiah, Ruckmani Kandasamy, Veera Ravi Arumugam
Staphylococcal infections associated with indwelling medical devices are difficult to eradicate owing to its recalcitrant nature of biofilms to conventional antibiotics. In our earlier study, we reported the efficacy of geraniol (GE) in inhibiting the in vitro biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and adaptive resistant development. To examine the in vivo potential of GE in eradicating the in vivo colonization of S. epidermidis, an implanted rat jugular vein catheter model was developed. Oral supplementation of GE (GE at 200 mg/kg bw for three days) in rats infected with S...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
W P Jongeneel, J E Delmaar, B G H Bokkers
A methodology to assess the health impact of skin sensitizers is introduced, which consists of the comparison of the probabilistic aggregated exposure with a probabilistic (individual) human sensitization or elicitation induction dose. The health impact of potential policy measures aimed at reducing the concentration of a fragrance allergen, geraniol, in consumer products is analysed in a simulated population derived from multiple product use surveys. Our analysis shows that current dermal exposure to geraniol from personal care and household cleaning products lead to new cases of contact allergy and induce clinical symptoms for those already sensitized...
September 2018: Environment International
Jantaporn Thongekkaew, Tsutomu Fujii, Kazuo Masaki, Kazuya Koyama
Important 'floral' aromas naturally occur in grapes predominantly as flavourless glycoconjugate precursors. Since these aroma compounds can be released by hydrolysis, different glycosidase enzymes can potentially contribute different aromas to wines. In this paper, the effects of crude and purified Candida easanensis JK8 β-glucosidases on wine aroma precursors of Muscat of Alexandria grape powder were investigated by GC/MS combined with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). A total of 19 bound volatile compounds were identified, including phenols, terpenes, aldehyde, ester and alcohols...
June 6, 2018: Natural Product Research
María I Chavez, Mauricio Soto, Franco A Cimino, Andrés F Olea, Luis Espinoza, Katy Díaz, Lautaro Taborga
A series of new and known geranylated phenol/methoxyphenol derivatives has been tested in vitro as inhibitor agents of mycelial growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi . The activity of tested compounds is correlated with the nature, number, and position of the substituent group on the aromatic ring. Results indicate that the most active geranylated derivatives are those having two hydroxyl groups (or one ⁻OH and one ⁻OCH₃) attached to the aromatic ring. Interestingly, these derivatives are as active as Metalaxil® , a commonly used commercial fungicide...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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