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Neonatal brain

Elaine S Chan, Julie Lauzon, Lothar Resch, Bob Argiropoulos, Laura Schmitt, Rati Chadha
Alpha thalassemia major is a hemoglobinopathy caused by the inactivation or deletion of all 4 α-globin alleles. We describe a case of α-thalassemia major with atypical ultrasound and neuropathological findings. The mother had her first prenatal visit at 27 4/7 gestational weeks. Ultrasound revealed a hydropic fetus with multiple anomalies. However, the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) suggested that the likelihood of fetal anemia was low. Given the poor prognosis of hydrops fetalis, the parents opted for the termination of pregnancy...
December 14, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Gyde Steffen, Michael Pietsch, Martin Kaase, Sören Gatermann, Guido Werner, Stephan Fuchs, Yvonne Pfeifer, Wolfgang Schmitt, Henning Adam, Tim Eckmanns, Sebastian Haller
BACKGROUND: In August 2015 seventeen neonates with Enterobacter (E.) cloacae colonisation were identified in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Germany. Two developed severe brain abscesses. Despite temporary NICU closure in September another infant with E. cloacae colonisation was detected in October 2015. METHODS: We defined potential cases as inpatients treated in the NICU or any paediatric/maternity ward in 2015 with E. cloacae in any specimen before molecular typing...
December 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Luofang Peng, Maoen Zhu, Yong Yang, Yingqi Weng, Wangyuan Zou, Xiaoyan Zhu, Qulian Guo, Tao Zhong
Neonatal inflammation induces long-term effects on brain function. We investigated the effects of systematic neonatal inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection at postnatal day 3 (P3) and P5 in a mouse model of spatial memory capacity measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) task in adulthood. Subsequently, we assessed histone acetylation and immediate-early response gene expression (c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the hippocampus in response to MWM acquisition training. The LPS-treated mice exhibited a significant spatial cognitive impairment, which was accompanied by insufficient histone acetylation of the H4K12 specific lysine residue and repressed c-Fos gene expression immediately after acquisition training...
December 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Diego F Niño, Qinjie Zhou, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Laura Y Martin, Sanxia Wang, William B Fulton, Hongpeng Jia, Peng Lu, Thomas Prindle, Fan Zhang, Joshua Crawford, Zhipeng Hou, Susumu Mori, Liam L Chen, Andrew Guajardo, Ali Fatemi, Mikhail Pletnikov, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan, Chhinder P Sodhi, David J Hackam
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe gastrointestinal disease of the premature infant. One of the most important long-term complications observed in children who survive NEC early in life is the development of profound neurological impairments. However, the pathways leading to NEC-associated neurological impairments remain unknown, thus limiting the development of prevention strategies. We have recently shown that NEC development is dependent on the expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the intestinal epithelium, whose activation by bacteria in the newborn gut leads to mucosal inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Xin Chen, Wansheng Peng, Zhen Zhang, Qian Zhao, Yan Zhou, Li Chen, Jiahua Pan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective brain hypothermia (SBH) in the treatment of neonates with moderate or severe neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and the effect of SBH treatment on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and central nervous specific protein S100. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. From January 2015 to June 2017, 42 children with moderate to severe HIE in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College were enrolled, and they were randomly divided into SBH treatment group and routine treatment group after obtaining the consent of the guardian of the children...
November 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Cynthia E Rogers, Rachel E Lean, Muriah D Wheelock, Christopher D Smyser
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in antenatal and neonatal care, preterm birth remains a leading cause of neurological disabilities in children. Infants born prematurely, particularly those delivered at the earliest gestational ages, commonly demonstrate increased rates of impairment across multiple neurodevelopmental domains. Indeed, the current literature establishes that preterm birth is a leading risk factor for cerebral palsy, is associated with executive function deficits, increases risk for impaired receptive and expressive language skills, and is linked with higher rates of co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and autism spectrum disorders...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Xin Zhao, Yanwu Jin, Haibo Li, Yuxiu Jia, Yuelan Wang
The molecular mechanisms underlying sevoflurane (SEVO)-induced impairment of learning and memory remain unclear. Specifically, a role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of the neuron proliferation in the developing brain exposed to SEVO has not been reported previously. Here, we studied the effects of SEVO exposure on the neural cell proliferation, and on the learning and memory of neonatal rats. We found that SEVO exposure significantly decreased neuron cell proliferation, reduced BDNF levels in brain, and impaired learning and memory of neonatal rats in Morris water maze test and Plus-Maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT), likely through downregulation of CCNA2 protein...
December 12, 2018: Aging
Enrrico Bloise, Pasquapina Ciarmela, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Stefano Luisi, Felice Petraglia, Fernando M Reis
Activins are dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and resulting from the assembly of two beta subunits, which may also be combined with alpha subunits to form inhibins. Activins were discovered in 1986 following the isolation of inhibins from porcine follicular fluid, and were characterized as ovarian hormones that stimulate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release by the pituitary gland. In particular, activin A was shown to be the isoform of greater physiological importance in humans...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Chin Wai Hui, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Kaushik Sharma, Antoneta T Joseph, Kanchan Bisht, Katherine Picard, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Lalit K Srivastava
Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals...
December 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
An Eerdekens, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe, Johan Verhaeghe, Gunnar Naulaers, Christine Vanhole
AIM: Thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal and neonatal brain development. This paper provides an overview of the normal role of thyroid hormones in fetal brain development and the pathophysiology of transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP). It also discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic controversies around THOP and looks at directions for future research. METHODS: We used the PubMed and Embase databases to identify papers published in English from 1969 to June 2018...
December 7, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Salvador Piris Borregas, María José Torres Valdivieso, Cristina Martín-Arriscado, Javier de la Cruz Bértolo, Purificación Sierra García, Carmen Rosa Pallás Alonso
AIM: Validated a model that used bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), brain injuries measured using ultrasound and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) to predict late death or disability in premature infants at seven years of age. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at the 12 de Octubre Hospital neonatal unit in Madrid. A logistic model was applied to estimate the independent prognostic contribution of each morbidity and the effect that the combination of morbidities had on the seven-year outcomes...
December 8, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Claire E Kelly, Deanne K Thompson, Jeanie Ly Cheong, Jian Chen, Joy E Olsen, Abbey L Eeles, Jennifer M Walsh, Marc L Seal, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle
AIM: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm. METHOD: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE])...
December 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Yuehua Xu, Miao Cao, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Xindi Wang, Tina Jeon, Minhui Ouyang, Lina Chalak, Nancy Rollins, Hao Huang, Yong He
Individual variability in human brain networks underlies individual differences in cognition and behaviors. However, researchers have not conclusively determined when individual variability patterns of the brain networks emerge and how they develop in the early phase. Here, we employed resting-state functional MRI data and whole-brain functional connectivity analyses in 40 neonates aged around 31-42 postmenstrual weeks to characterize the spatial distribution and development modes of individual variability in the functional network architecture...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Evan Woodley, Karlaina J L Osmon, Patrick Thompson, Christopher Richmond, Zhilin Chen, Steven J Gray, Jagdeep S Walia
GM2 gangliosidoses are a family of severe neurodegenerative disorders resulting from a deficiency in the β-hexosaminidase A enzyme. These disorders include Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, caused by mutations in the HEXA gene and HEXB gene, respectively. The HEXA and HEXB genes are required to produce the α and β subunits of the β-hexosaminidase A enzyme, respectively. Using a Sandhoff disease mouse model, we tested for the first time the potential of a comparatively lower dose (2.04 × 1013 vg/kg) of systemically delivered single-stranded adeno-associated virus 9 expressing both human HEXB and human HEXA cDNA under the control of a single promoter with a P2A-linked bicistronic vector design to correct the neurological phenotype...
March 15, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Behzad Barekatain, Samira Saraeian, Maryam Farghadani, Amir Mohammad Armanian, Armindokht Shahsanaee, Elham Rouhani, Ali Safaei
Background: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most common brain hemorrhage in preterm neonates. The importance of this hemorrhage lies in its severe complications. There is no definite treatment for IVH in neonates; therefore, the prevention of IVH should be considered. Some studies have shown that Vitamin E can probably decrease the risk of IVH and the other study has not shown its efficacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Vitamin E on incidence and severity of IVH in preterm neonates...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Hyun-Seung Lee, Yeon Hee Kim, Ho-Seok Kwak, Jung-Yeol Han, Sun-Jin Jo, Hae Kook Lee
Background: In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium as biomarkers of prenatal ethanol exposure and growth deficits, as birth outcomes, that constitute several of the key cardinal features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Methods: A total of 157 meconium samples were collected from enrolled infants within 24 hours of birth, and nine FAEEs were quantified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yize Li, Linlin Zhang, Chunyan Wang, Xiaohong Tang, Yi Chen, Xin Wang, Lin Su, Nan Hu, Keliang Xie, Yonghao Yu, Guolin Wang
In recent years, the neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in the developing brain has been studied and raised great concern as a major health issue to the public and physicians. Sevoflurane inhalation may induce neurotoxicity expressed as memory and learning impairment in young animals. In the current study, we investigated the role of nectin-1 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) in sevoflurane-induced learning deficits and dendritic spines loss in neonatal mice. Neonatal mice (P7) were treated with 3% sevoflurane with 60% O2 or 60% O2 for 6 h...
December 7, 2018: Brain Research
Cheng-Qiu Lu, Jie Lin, Lin Yuan, Jian-Guo Zhou, Kun Liang, Qing-Hua Zhong, Jin-Hua Huang, Li-Ping Xu, Hui Wu, Zhi Zheng, Li-Li Ping, Yi Sun, Zhan-Kui Li, Ling Liu, Qin Lyu, Chao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of pregnancy induced hypertension on neonatal outcomes in early and moderate preterm infants of gestational age less than 34 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively collected data in 773 premature deliveries less than 34 weeks from 10 centers in China between July 2014 and July 2016 were analyzed in this cohort study. Univariate and Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to exam the effect of pregnancy induced hypertension on neonatal outcomes, including mortality to discharge, intrauterine growth restriction, severe brain injury, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, early onset of sepsis and retinopathy of prematurity...
October 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Antoinette Depoorter, Roland P Neumann, Christian Barro, Urs Fisch, Peter Weber, Jens Kuhle, Sven Wellmann
Background: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a highly promising biomarker of neuroaxonal injury that has mainly been studied in adult neurodegenerative disease. Its involvement in neonatal disease remains largely unknown. Our aim was to establish NfL plasma concentrations in preterm and term infants in the first week of life. Methods: Plasma NfL was measured by single molecule array immunoassay in two neonatal cohorts: cohort 1 contained 203 term and preterm infants, median gestational age (GA) 37.9 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 31...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Starlee Lively, Raymond Wong, Doris Lam, Lyanne C Schlichter
Addressing potential sex differences in pre-clinical studies is crucial for developing therapeutic interventions. Although sex differences have been reported in epidemiological studies and from clinical experience, most pre-clinical studies of neuroinflammation use male rodents; however, sexual dimorphisms in microglia might affect the CNS inflammatory response. Developmental changes are also important and, in rodents, there is a critical period of sexual brain differentiation in the first 3 weeks after birth...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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