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Neonatal brain

Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Robert Quencer, Nisreen S Ezuddin, Gaurav Saigal
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a recognized cause of childhood and neonatal stroke with high morbidity and mortality and a challenging diagnosis in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that measuring Hounsfield units (HU) of blood in venous sinuses is a more reliable method to diagnose CVST and that normalizing the measured HU in relation to the patient's hematocrit levels may further improve detection of CVST in the pediatric population...
October 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Dan Chen, Yalian Ji
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of neonatal sepsis caused by Citrobacter freundii as well as the current status and treatment strategy of multi-drug resistance for infection with this bacterium. METHODS: Nine newborns were diagnosed with C. freundii sepsis between January 2014 and December 2017,we collated and analysed a range of data of the nine patients, including general information,laboratory tests during infection,blood culture and treatments...
October 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jacqueline Salas, Nihaal Reddy, Emanuele Orru, Kathryn A Carson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Vera Joanna Burton, Carl E Stafstrom, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury of the brain and resultant encephalopathy (HIE) leads to major developmental impairments by school age. Conventional/anatomical MRI often fails to detect hippocampal injury in mild cases. We hypothesize that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has greater sensitivity for identifying subtle hippocampal injury. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed DTI data collected from a cohort of neonates with HIE and controls...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Renata Bartesaghi, Sandra Guidi
Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) has been attributed to neurogenesis impairment during fetal brain development. Consistently with explicit memory alterations observed in children with DS, fetuses with DS exhibit neurogenesis impairment in the hippocampus, a key region involved in memory formation and consolidation. Recent evidence suggests that the subiculum plays a unique role in memory retrieval, a process that is also altered in DS. While much attention has been devoted to the hippocampus, there is a striking lack of information regarding the subiculum of individuals with DS and DS models...
October 16, 2018: Brain Pathology
Abdelrahim A Sadek, Mohammed H Hassan, Nesreen A Mohammed
Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is considered to be a rare inborn error of metabolism but one of the commonest causes of mental retardation if untreated. Objectives: The present study was done to characterize the clinical patterns of PKU and analyze various neuropsychiatric outcomes in PKU children in Sohag Province, Egypt. Patients and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 113 PKU patients, diagnosed during the period from 2012 to 2017, at the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Dennis Pägelow, Chintan Chhatbar, Andreas Beineke, Xiaokun Liu, Andreas Nerlich, Kira van Vorst, Manfred Rohde, Ulrich Kalinke, Reinhold Förster, Stephan Halle, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Mathias W Hornef, Marcus Fulde
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a major cause of mortality in the neonatal population. Commonly used parenteral infection models, however, do not reflect the early course of the disease leaving this critical step of the pathogenesis largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed nasal exposure of 1-day-old newborn mice to Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). We found that nasal, but not intragastric administration, led to early CNS infection in neonate mice. In particular, upon bacterial invasion of the olfactory epithelium, Lm subsequently spread along the sensory neurons entering the brain tissue at the cribriform plate and causing a significant influx of monocytes and neutrophils...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Viviane Rostirola Elsner, Laura Reck Cechinel, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira de Meireles, Karine Bertoldi, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Although the involvement of gender in epigenetic machinery in peripheral tissues during the neonatal period has been suggested, the gender-related epigenetic profile of brain areas during the adolescent period is rarely exploited. Furthermore, the influence of time of day on hippocampal acetylation marks has been demonstrated in young adult and aged rats; however, there are no studies reporting epigenetic changes in the adolescent period. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on hippocampal DNA methyltransferase 1 content and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity of adolescent rats at different time points, specifically early morning and afternoon...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Subhabrata Mitra, Giles S Kendall, Alan Bainbridge, Magdalena Sokolska, Mary Dinan, Cristina Uria-Avellanal, David Price, Katie Mckinnon, Roxana Gunny, Angela Huertas-Ceballos, Xavier Golay, Nicola J Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Brain proton (1 H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) lactate/N-acetylaspartate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio is used for prognostication in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). At 3 Tesla in NE babies, the objectives were to assess: (1) sensitivity and specificity of basal ganglia and thalamus (BGT) 1 H MRS Lac/NAA for the prediction of Bayley III outcomes at 2 years using optimised metabolite fitting (Tarquin) with threonine and total NAA; (2) prediction of motor outcome with diffusion-weighted MRI; (3) BGT Lac/NAA correlation with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) MRI score...
October 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Morgan Mosley, Andrew J Jacobs, Yarely C Hoffiz, Nancy G Forger
Labor and a vaginal delivery trigger changes in peripheral organs that prepare the mammalian fetus to survive ex utero. Surprisingly little attention has been given to whether birth also influences the brain, and to how alterations in birth mode affect neonatal brain development. These are important questions, given the high rates of cesarean section (C-section) delivery worldwide, many of which are elective. We examined the effect of birth mode on neuronal cell death, a widespread developmental process that occurs primarily during the first postnatal week in mice...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David Jebb, Michael Hiller
Apart from glucose, fatty acid-derived ketone bodies provide metabolic energy for the brain during fasting and neonatal development. We investigated the evolution of HMGCS2 , the key enzyme required for ketone body biosynthesis (ketogenesis). Unexpectedly, we found that three mammalian lineages, comprising cetaceans (dolphins and whales), elephants and mastodons, and Old World fruit bats have lost this gene. Remarkably, many of these species have exceptionally large brains and signs of intelligent behavior...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Amalie Katrine Rendboe, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Silvia Rudloff, Anne Bladt Brandt, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Anne Birgitte Heckmann, Maciej Chichlowski, Per Torp Sangild, Thomas Thymann, Stine Brandt Bering
Oligosaccharides support gut development and bacterial colonization in term infants, but it is unknown if they benefit preterm infants. Using preterm pigs, we investigated effects of bovine milk supplements enriched with oligosaccharides to improve gut development and colonization. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (n = 57) were reared for 19 days. The pigs were fed bovine milk supplemented with an oligosaccharide-enriched whey containing sialyllactose, or a heterogeneous oligosaccharide ingredient. To evaluate the influence of artificial rearing, near-term, vaginally born pigs raised by their sow (n = 12) were compared with artificially reared, caesarean-delivered near-term pigs (n = 14)...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Anton Tokariev, Susanna Stjerna, Aulikki Lano, Marjo Metsäranta, J Matias Palva, Sampsa Vanhatalo
Preterm birth is the greatest risk factor for lifelong neurocognitive deficits, globally. The effect of prematurity on early cortical network function has, however, remained poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel methodology that allows reliable assessment of functional connectivity in neonatal brain activity at millisecond and multisecond scales in terms of cortical phase and amplitude correlations, respectively. We measured scalp electroencephalography at term-equivalent age in infants exposed to very early prematurity as well as in healthy controls...
February 23, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Maurizio Zavattoni, Giuseppina Lombardi, Francesca Garofoli, Guido Scalia, Annalisa Rizzo, Micol Angelini, Antonella Sarasini, Milena Furione, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection in developed countries. Recent studies highlighted similar percentages of symptoms in HCMV congenitally-infected infants following either primary or non-primary maternal infections. OBJECTIVES: To highlight correlation between neonatal brain abnormalities, detected by ultrasounds and magnetic resonance image in HCMV congenitally-infected infants, and maternal virological parameters during pregnancy, especially in seroimmune mothers...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Xuyun Wen, Han Zhang, Gang Li, Mingxia Liu, Weiyan Yin, Weili Lin, Jun Zhang, Dinggang Shen
The human brain develops rapidly in the first postnatal year, in which rewired functional brain networks could shape later behavioral and cognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonances imaging (rs-fMRI) and complex network analysis have been widely used for characterizing the developmental brain functional connectome. Yet, such studies focusing on the first year of postnatal life are still very limited. Leveraging normally developing longitudinal infant rs-fMRI scans from neonate to one year of age, we investigated how brain functional networks develop at a fine temporal scale (every 3 months)...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Yuyao Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Hongjiang Wei, Victor Han, Wen-Zhen Zhu, Chunlei Liu
The human brain rapidly develops during the first two years following birth. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) provides information of iron and myelin variations. It is considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In the present work, QSM is performed on neonates, 1-year and 2-year old infants, as well as a group of adults for the purpose of reference. Age-specific templates representing common brain structures are built for each age group. The neonate and infant QSM templates have shown some unique findings compared to conventional T1w and T2w imaging techniques...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Manon Gijtenbeek, Enrico Lopriore, Sylke J Steggerda, Arjan B Te Pas, Dick Oepkes, Monique C Haak
BACKGROUND: Newborns with anemia are at increased risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), yet reports on the association between fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) and PPHN are rare. To optimize care for pregnancies complicated by FMH, clinicians should be aware of the risks of FMH and the possible diagnostic and therapeutic options. To increase the current knowledge, the incidence of PPHN and short-term neurologic injury in FMH cases were studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We included all FMH cases (≥30 mL fetal blood transfused into the maternal circulation) admitted to our neonatal unit between 2006 and 2018...
October 13, 2018: Transfusion
Katharina Goeral, Azadeh Hojreh, Gregor Kasprian, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Michael Weber, Christian Mitter, Angelika Berger, Daniela Prayer, Peter C Brugger, Klara Vergesslich-Rothschild, Janina M Patsch
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) of the neonatal brain and to describe normal imaging features. METHODS: We performed transcranial ultrasound with SMI in 19 healthy term-born neonates. SMI was done according to a structured examination protocol, using two linear 18 MHz and 14 MHz transducers. Superficial and deep scans were acquired in the coronal and sagittal planes, using the left and right superior frontal gyri as anatomical landmarks...
October 9, 2018: European Radiology
John Ibrahim, Imran Mir, Lina Chalak
The aim is to review the evidence about the utility of term-equivalent age (TEA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm neonates. Preterm birth accounts for ~12% of all deliveries in the United States and is the leading cause of neurologic disabilities in children. From the neonatologist perspective, it is critically important to identify preterm infants at risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental disability who may benefit from early intervention services. However "the choose wisely campaign" also emphasizes the need to have ongoing cost/benefit discussions regarding care of preterm newborns to avoid waste that comes from subjecting infants to procedures that do not help...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea, Hilary D Andoh, Audrey Frimpong-Barfi, Francis M Asenso-Boadi
The major causes of newborn deaths in sub-Saharan Africa are well-known and countries are gradually implementing evidence-based interventions and strategies to reduce these deaths. Facility-based care provides the best outcome for sick and or small babies; however, little is known about the cost and burden of hospital-based neonatal services on parents in West Africa, the sub-region with the highest global neonatal death burden. To estimate the actual costs borne by parents of newborns hospitalised with birth-associated brain injury (perinatal asphyxia) and preterm/low birth weight, this study examined economic costs using micro-costing bottom-up approach in two referral hospitals operating under the nationwide social health insurance scheme in an urban setting in Ghana...
2018: PloS One
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