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Neonatal brain

Junrong Huang, Gang Liu, Bowen Shi, Guochen Shi, Xiaomin He, Zhaohui Lu, Jinghao Zheng, Haibo Zhang, Huiwen Chen, Zhongqun Zhu
BACKGROUND: Periventricular leukomalacia is a common white-matter injury after neonatal cardiac surgery; however, its potential cellular mechanism remains uncertain. There is limited study regarding periventricular leukomalacia treatment. METHODS: A neonatal rat brain slice perfusion model was used for reproducing the condition of cardiopulmonary bypass, and oxygen glucose deprivation simulated circulatory arrest. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: (1) control group with 36°C; (2) 60 minutes of oxygen glucose deprivation group on 15°C, 25°C, 36°C, respectively; and (3) 60 minutes of oxygen glucose deprivation group on 15°C, 25°C, 36°C, plus minocycline (10 μmol/L), respectively...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Amanda C Kentner, Stephanie Scalia, Junyoung Shin, Mattia M Migliore, Alejandro N Rondón-Ortiz
Both basic and clinical research support the use of tactile stimulation to rescue several neurobiobehavioral consequences that follow early life stress including. Here, using a translational rodent model of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we tested the individual prophylactic potential of a variety of sensory interventions including tactile (brushing pups with a paint brush to mimic maternal licking), auditory (a simulated lactating rat dam heart beat), and olfactory (a series of aroma therapy scents) stimulation...
July 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Toshimitsu Otani, Daigo Ochiai, Hirotaka Masuda, Yushi Abe, Marie Fukutake, Tadashi Matsumoto, Kei Miyakoshi, Mamoru Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of cerebral palsy. Increasing evidence has suggested that mesenchymal stem cells have a favorable effect on HIE. However, the efficacy of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS) for HIE, especially in the chronic phase, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the neurorestorative effect of hAFS on the chronic phase of HIE. METHODS: hAFS were isolated from AF cells as CD117-positive cells...
August 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
Mary Dunbar, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke encompasses a heterogeneous group of focal neurological injuries early in brain development that probably affects more than 5 million people worldwide. Many such injuries are symptomatic in the first days of life, including neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and neonatal haemorrhagic stroke. The remaining focal neurological injuries usually present later in the first year with motor asymmetry, such as arterial presumed perinatal ischaemic stroke, periventricular venous infarction, and presumed perinatal haemorrhagic stroke...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Qian Xing, Zhongyan Shan, Yun Gao, Jingyuan Mao, Xiu Liu, Jiashu Yu, Huakun Sun, Chenling Fan, Hong Wang, Hongmei Zhang, Weiping Teng
To investigate the mechanism responsible for the neurological alterations, miRNA expression profile and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in brain tissues of fetal or neonatal rats and from maternal rats with hypothyroidism. Ninety female Wistar rats were divided into a control and a hypothyroid group, which were mated. Brain samples of the offspring were obtained at maternal embryonic day (E) E13 and E17 as well as postnatal day (P) P0 and P7, and the hippocampus and cortex were separated at P7...
August 17, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Brianna Adamson, Nicole Letourneau, Catherine Lebel
BACKGROUND: Maternal anxiety disorders are common during pregnancy and postpartum, and are associated with increased behaviour problems and risk of mental health difficulties in children. Understanding alterations in brain structure and function associated with maternal anxiety may help elucidate potential mechanisms via which high maternal anxiety could affect children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of extant research studying the associations between prenatal anxiety and children's brain structure and function, as assessed through neuroimaging...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Onintza Sagredo, Javier Palazuelos, Ana Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Valentina Satta, Ismael Galve-Roperh, José Martínez-Orgado
The endocannabinoid system exerts a crucial neuromodulatory role in many brain areas that is essential for proper regulation of neuronal activity. The role of cannabinoid signalling controlling neuronal activity in the adult brain is also evident when considering its contribution to adult brain insults or neurodegenerative diseases. In the context of brain genetic or acquired encephalopathies administration of cannabinoid-based molecules has demonstrated to exert symptomatic relief and hence, they are proposed as new potential therapeutic compounds...
August 14, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Luisa Azambuja Alcalde, Betânia Souza de Freitas, Gustavo Dalto Barroso Machado, Pedro Castilhos de Freitas Crivelaro, Victoria Campos Dornelles, Henrique Gus, Ricardo Tavares Monteiro, Luiza Wilges Kist, Mauricio Reis Bogo, Nadja Schröder
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in neural development and physiology, as well as in pathological states. Post-mortem studies demonstrate that BDNF is reduced in the brains of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Iron accumulation has also been associated to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In rats, iron overload induces persistent memory deficits, increases oxidative stress and apoptotic markers, and decreases the expression of the synaptic marker, synaptophysin...
August 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Ali Jalali, Allan F Simpao, Jorge A Gálvez, Daniel J Licht, Chandrasekhar Nataraj
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is brain injury that develops commonly in neonates after cardiac surgery. Earlier identification of patients who are at higher risk for PVL may improve clinicians' ability to optimize care for these challenging patients. The aim of this study was to apply machine learning algorithms and wavelet analysis to vital sign and laboratory data obtained from neonates immediately after cardiac surgery to predict PVL occurrence. We analyzed physiological data of patients with and without hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) during the first 12 h after cardiac surgery...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
S M Walker, A Melbourne, H O'Reilly, J Beckmann, Z Eaton-Rosen, S Ourselin, N Marlow
BACKGROUND: Surgery or multiple procedural interventions in extremely preterm neonates influence neurodevelopmental outcome and may be associated with long-term changes in somatosensory function or pain response. METHODS: This observational study recruited extremely preterm (EP, <26 weeks' gestation; n=102, 60% female) and term-born controls (TC; n=48) aged 18-20 yr from the UK EPICure cohort. Thirty EP but no TC participants had neonatal surgery. Evaluation included: quantitative sensory testing (thenar eminence, chest wall); clinical pain history; questionnaires (intelligence quotient; pain catastrophising; anxiety); and structural brain imaging...
September 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Aline Vilar Machado-Nils, Daniella Sabino Battagello, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jéssica Andrade-Silva, Sinésio Silva-Junior, Raphael Afonso Matos, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Russel J Reiter, Paul Jonh Lucassen, Aniko Korosi, José Cipolla-Neto
Maternal melatonin provides photoperiodic information to the fetus and thus influences the regulation and timing of the offspring's internal rhythms and preparation for extra-uterine development. There is clinical evidence that melatonin deprivation of both mother and fetus during pregnancy, and of the neonate during lactation, results in negative long-term health outcomes. As a consequence, we hypothesized that the absence of maternal pineal melatonin might determine abnormal brain programming in the offspring, which would lead to long-lasting implications for behavior and brain function...
August 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Andrea Lakatos, Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Szabó, Ágnes Jermendy, Zsolt Bagyura, Péter Barsi, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák
Background and purpose: To develop an evidence-based, standardized structured reporting (SR) method for brain MRI examinations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suitable both for clinical and research use. Methods: SR template development was based on comprehensive review of the pertinent literature with the basic sections and subdivisions of the template defined according to MRI sequences (both conventional and diffusion-weighted, MR-spectroscopy (MRS), and T2*-weighted imaging), and the items targeted on age-related imaging patterns of HIE...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Harry T Chugani
In this review, we discuss molecular brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2(18 F)fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) in human newborns and infants, and illustrate how this technology can be applied to probe the neuropathophysiology of neonatal neurologic disorders. PET studies have been difficult to perform in sick babies because of patient transportation issues and suboptimal spatial resolution. With approval from the FDA and the institutional review board, we modified and installed the Focus 220 animal microPET scanner (Concorde Microsystems, Knoxville, TN) directly in our neonatal intensive care unit in Children's Hospital of Michigan and verified the high spatial resolution (<2 mm full-width-at-half-maximum) of this microPET...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
K E Foy, E Mew, T M Cook, J Bower, P Knight, S Dean, K Herneman, B Marden, F E Kelly
In 2011, the Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) reported high rates of airway complications in adult intensive care units (ICUs), including death or brain injury, and recommended preparation for airway difficulty, immediately available difficult airway equipment and routine use of waveform capnography monitoring. More than 80% of UK adult intensive care units have subsequently changed practice. Undetected oesophageal intubation has recently been listed as a 'Never Event' in UK practice, with capnography mandated...
August 15, 2018: Anaesthesia
Hiba Zaidan, Gokul Ramaswami, Michal Barak, Jin B Li, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Adenosine to inosine RNA editing is an epigenetic process that entails site-specific modifications in double-stranded RNA molecules, catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Using the multiplex microfluidic PCR and deep sequencing technique, we recently showed that exposing adolescent female rats to chronic unpredictable stress before reproduction affects editing in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of their newborn offspring, particularly at the serotonin receptor 5-HT2c (encoded by Htr2c) ...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Yingzhu Feng, Chien-Sheng Chen, Jessica Ho, Donna Pearce, Shaohui Hu, Bochu Wang, Prashant Desai, Kwang Sik Kim, Heng Zhu
Bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants is an acute lethal disease and occurs in response to microbial exploitation of the blood brain barrier (BBB), resulting in the intracranial inflammation. Several pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), can cause this devastating disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these pathogens exploit the BBB remain incompletely understood. To identify important players on both the pathogen and host sides that govern the E. coli-BBB cell interactions, we took advantage of the E...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jing-Bo Sun, Yan Li, Ye-Feng Cai, Yan Huang, Shu Liu, Patrick Kk Yeung, Min-Zhen Deng, Guang-Shun Sun, Prince Lm Zilundu, Qian-Sheng Hu, Rui-Xin An, Li-Hua Zhou, Li-Xin Wang, Xiao Cheng
Scutellarin, a bioactive flavone isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has anti-inflammatory, anti-neurotoxic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects and has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. However, the mechanisms by which scutellarin mediates neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia remain unclear. The interaction between scutellarin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) was assessed by molecular docking study, which showed that scutellarin selectively binds to NOX2 with high affinity...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ryan J Piers
Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a prominent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this review is to explore differences in structural brain volume detected by magnetic resonance imaging between cognitively intact ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers across the lifespan (i.e., older adults, middle-aged adults, young adults, children and adolescents, and neonates). Consistent findings are found throughout various developmental stages. This area of research may elucidate the mechanisms by which ApoE4 influences risk of developing Alzheimer's disease...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Aaron Sathyanesan, Srikanya Kundu, Joseph Abbah, Vittorio Gallo
Premature infants are more likely to develop locomotor disorders than term infants. In a chronic sub-lethal hypoxia (Hx) mouse model of neonatal brain injury, we recently demonstrated the presence of cellular and physiological changes in the cerebellar white matter. We also observed Hx-induced delay in Purkinje cell (PC) arborization. However, the behavioral consequences of these cellular alterations remain unexplored. Using the Erasmus Ladder to study cerebellar behavior, we report the presence of locomotor malperformance and long-term cerebellar learning deficits in Hx mice...
August 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Helen Sherrell, Vicky Clifton, Sailesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Intrapartum complications are a major contributor to adverse perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth, hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and subsequent longer term disability. In many cases, hypoxia develops as a gradual process due to the inability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of parturition suggesting reduced fetoplacental reserve before labour commences. The fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is an independent predictor of intrapartum fetal compromise, poor acid base status at birth and of neonatal unit admission at term...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
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