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Evolutionary medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906333/large-scale-geographical-mapping-of-essential-oil-volatiles-in-heracleum-apiaceae-identification-of-novel-compounds-and-unraveling-cryptic-variation
#1
Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Mitra Mohammadi Bazargani, Jens Rohloff
Conspecific populations of plants in their native range are expected to show considerable variation due to long-term ecological and evolutionary factors. We investigated the levels of secondary metabolites in Heracleum including H. persicum a valuable medicinal plant to depict the magnitude of cryptic variation and the potential significance of novel chemical traits. The essential oil volatiles from fruits of 34 populations from different species of Heracleum in Iranian distribution range and a native and invasive population of H...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874832/sequencing-and-analysis-of-chrysanthemum-carinatum-schousb-and-kalimeris-indica-the-complete-chloroplast-genomes-reveal-two-inversions-and-rbcl-as-barcoding-of-the-vegetable
#2
Xia Liu, Boyang Zhou, Hongyuan Yang, Yuan Li, Qian Yang, Yuzhuo Lu, Yu Gao
Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb and Kalimeris indica are widely distributed edible vegetables and the sources of the Chinese medicine Asteraceae . The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Asteraceae usually occurs in the inversions of two regions. Hence, the cp genome sequences and structures of Asteraceae species are crucial for the cp genome genetic diversity and evolutionary studies. Hence, in this paper, we have sequenced and analyzed for the first time the cp genome size of C. carinatum Schousb and K. indica , which are 149,752 bp and 152,885 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) (24,523 bp and 25,003) separated by a large single copy (LSC) region (82,290 bp and 84,610) and a small single copy (SSC) region (18,416 bp and 18,269), respectively...
June 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872426/comprehensive-antiretroviral-restriction-factor-profiling-reveals-the-evolutionary-imprint-of-the-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-ifn-%C3%AE-response-in-htlv-1-associated-neuroinflammation
#3
Fabio E Leal, Soraya Maria Menezes, Emanuela A S Costa, Phillip M Brailey, Lucio Gama, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Jurgen Vercauteren, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Rui Andre Saraiva Raposo, Johan Van Weyenbergh
HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM/TSP) is a progressive neuroinflammatory disorder for which no disease-modifying treatment exists. Modest clinical benefit from type I interferons (IFN-α/β) in HAM/TSP contrasts with its recently identified IFN-inducible gene signature. In addition, IFN-α treatment in vivo decreases proviral load and immune activation in HAM/TSP, whereas IFN-β therapy decreases tax mRNA and lymphoproliferation. We hypothesize this "IFN paradox" in HAM/TSP might be explained by both cell type- and gene-specific effects of type I IFN in HTLV-1-associated pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791319/malignancy-in-a-retrospective-cohort-of-17-patients-with-dermatomyositis-or-polymyositis-in-southern-tunisia
#4
Khadija Sellami, Madiha Mseddi, Mouna Snoussi, Hela Gharbi, Faten Frikha, Rayda Ben Salah, Moez Jallouli, Sameh Marzouk, Abderrahmen Masmoudi, Zouhir Bahloul, Hamida Turki
INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of dermatomyositis (DM)/polymyositis (PM) in adults is partly related to their association with neoplasia. The aim of our study was to report the epidemiologic, clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of DM associated with malignancy in patients from Sfax, south eastern of Tunisia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with DM or PM admitted in Dermatology and Internal Medicine Departments of Hedi Chaker University Hospital of Sfax between 1996 and 2015...
May 21, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790439/principles-of-evolutionary-medicine
#5
Sunjai Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765380/the-complete-plastome-sequences-of-seven-species-in-gentiana-sect-kudoa-gentianaceae-insights-into-plastid-gene-loss-and-molecular-evolution
#6
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Yan-Wei Cheng, Fa-Qi Zhang, Shi-Long Chen, Qing-Bo Gao
The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in the study of phylogenomics, molecular dating, and molecular evolution. Gentiana sect. Kudoa is a predominantly alpine flowering plant that is valued for its contributions to medicine, ecology, and horticulture. Previous evolutionary studies showed that the plastid gene loss pattern and intra-sectional phylogenetics in sect. Kudoa are still unclear. In this study, we compared 11 Gentiana plastomes, including 7 newly sequenced plastomes from sect. Kudoa , to represent its three serious: ser...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764517/new-insights-from-the-widening-homogeneity-perspective-to-target-intratumor-heterogeneity
#7
REVIEW
Mengying Tong, Ziqian Deng, Xiaolong Zhang, Bin He, Mengying Yang, Wei Cheng, Quentin Liu
Precision medicine has shed new light on the treatment of heterogeneous cancer patients. However, intratumor heterogeneity strongly constrains the clinical benefit of precision medicine. Thus, rethinking therapeutic strategies from a different facet within the precision medicine framework will not only diversify clinical interventions, but also provide an avenue for precision medicine. Here, we explore the current approaches for targeting intratumor heterogeneity and their limitations. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical strategy with a "homogenization" feature based on iatrogenic evolutionary selection to target intratumor heterogeneity...
May 4, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742964/efficient-generation-of-cynomolgus-monkey-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-organoids-with-pharmacokinetic-functions
#8
Daichi Onozato, Misaki Yamashita, Ryosuke Fukuyama, Takumi Akagawa, Yuriko Kida, Akiko Koeda, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
In preclinical studies, the cynomolgus monkey (CM) model is frequently used to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human small intestine, because of its evolutionary closeness to humans. Intestinal organoids that mimic the intestinal tissue have attracted attention in regenerative medicine and drug development. In this study, we generated intestinal organoids from CM induced pluripotent stem (CMiPS) cells and analysed their pharmacokinetic functions. CMiPS cells were induced into the hindgut; then, the cells were seeded on microfabricated culture vessel plates to form spheroids...
May 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739980/systematic-analysis-of-demeter-like-dna-glycosylase-genes-shows-lineage-specific-smi-mir7972-involved-in-smdml1-regulation-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#9
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730807/religiosity-spirituality-matters-on-plant-based-local-medical-system
#10
Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Daniel Carvalho Pires Sousa, Rafael Corrêa Prota Santos Reinaldo, André Luiz Borba do Nascimento, Paulo Henrique Santos Gonçalves
Religiosity/spirituality can affect health and quality of life in myriad ways. Religion has been present since the first moments of our evolutionary history, whether it is understood as a byproduct or as an adaptation of our cognitive evolution. We investigated how religion influences medicinal plant-based local medical systems (LMSs) and focuses on how individual variation in the degree of religiosity/spirituality affects the structure of LMSs. The knowledge of people about their medical systems was obtained through the free-listing technique, and level of religiosity/spirituality was calculated using the Brazilian version of the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720713/treatment-resistance-in-urothelial-carcinoma-an-evolutionary-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Bishoy M Faltas
The emergence of treatment-resistant clones is a critical barrier to cure in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Setting the stage for the evolution of resistance, urothelial carcinoma is characterized by extensive mutational heterogeneity, which is detectable even in patients with early stage disease. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy both act as selective pressures that shape the evolutionary trajectory of urothelial carcinoma throughout the course of the disease. A detailed understanding of the dynamics of evolutionary drivers is required for the rational development of curative therapies...
May 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713629/helminths-and-cancers-from-the-evolutionary-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Larissa L S Scholte, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Laila A Nahum
Helminths include free-living and parasitic Platyhelminthes and Nematoda which infect millions of people worldwide. Some Platyhelminthes species of blood flukes ( Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum , and Schistosoma mansoni ) and liver flukes ( Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini ) are known to be involved in human cancers. Other helminths are likely to be carcinogenic. Our main goals are to summarize the current knowledge of human cancers caused by Platyhelminthes, point out some helminth and human biomarkers identified so far, and highlight the potential contributions of phylogenetics and molecular evolution to cancer research...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698745/evolution-regulation-and-function-of-porcine-selenogenome
#13
REVIEW
Xiao-Dong Chen, Ze-Ping Zhao, Ji-Chang Zhou, Xin Gen Lei
Much less research on regulation and function of selenoproteins has been conducted in domestic pigs than in rodents or humans, although pigs are an excellent model of human nutrition and medicine and pork is a widely consumed meat in the world. Phylogenetically, the 25 identified porcine selenoproteins fell into two primitive groups, and might be further divided into three parallel branches. Despite a high similarity to that of humans and rodents, the porcine selenoproteome exhibited the closest evolutionary relationship with that of sheep and cattle among eight domestic species...
April 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679784/a-swinging-seesaw-as-a-novel-model-mechanism-for-time-dependent-hormesis-under-dose-dependent-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-a-case-study-on-the-toxicity-of-antibacterial-chemicals-to-aliivibrio-fischeri
#14
Haoyu Sun, Edward J Calabrese, Min Zheng, Dali Wang, Yongzheng Pan, Zhifen Lin, Ying Liu
Hormesis occurs frequently in broadly ranging biological areas (e.g. plant biology, microbiology, biogerontology), toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. While numerous mechanisms (e.g. receptor and pathway mediated pathway responses) account for stimulatory and inhibitory features of hormetic dose responses, the vast majority emphasizes the inclusion of many doses but only one timepoint or use of a single optimized dose that is assessed over a broad range of timepoints. In this paper, a toxicity study was designed using a large number of properly spaced doses with responses determined over a large number of timepoints, which could help us reveal the underlying mechanism of hormesis...
August 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670636/positive-selection-driving-cytoplasmic-genome-evolution-of-the-medicinally-important-ginseng-plant-genus-panax
#15
Peng Jiang, Feng-Xue Shi, Ming-Rui Li, Bao Liu, Jun Wen, Hong-Xing Xiao, Lin-Feng Li
Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661005/ethopathology-and-civilization-diseases-niko-and-elisabeth-tinbergen-on-autism
#16
Marga Vicedo
The idea that some diseases result from a poor fit between modern life and our biological make-up is part of the long history of what historian of medicine Charles Rosenberg has called the "progress-and-pathology narrative." This article examines a key episode in that history: 1973 Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen's use of an evolutionary framework to identify autism as a pathogenic effect of progress. Influenced by British psychiatrist John Bowlby's work, Tinbergen and his wife Elisabeth saw autistic children as victims of environmental stress caused mainly by mothers' failure to bond with their children and to protect them from conflicting situations...
2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657963/hologenomics-systems-level-host-biology
#17
Kevin R Theis
The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis explaining host evolution in the context of the host microbiomes. As a hypothesis, it needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to the extent of fidelity of transgenerational coassociation of host and microbial lineages and the relative fitness consequences of repeated associations within natural holobiont populations. Behavioral ecologists are in a prime position to test these predictions because they typically focus on animal phenotypes that are quantifiable, conduct studies over multiple generations within natural animal populations, and collect metadata on genetic relatedness and relative reproductive success within these populations...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642545/chloroplast-genome-of-the-folk-medicine-and-vegetable-plant-talinum-paniculatum-jacq-gaertn-gene-organization-comparative-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#18
Xia Liu, Yuan Li, Hongyuan Yang, Boyang Zhou
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes...
April 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617830/detecting-signatures-of-positive-selection-along-defined-branches-of-a-population-tree-using-lsd
#19
Pablo Librado, Ludovic Orlando
Identifying the genomic basis underlying local adaptation is paramount to evolutionary biology, and bears many applications in the fields of conservation biology, crop, and animal breeding, as well as personalized medicine. Although many approaches have been developed to detect signatures of positive selection within single populations and population pairs, the increasing wealth of high-throughput sequencing data requires improved methods capable of handling multiple, and ideally large number of, populations in a single analysis...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616406/georgy-gause-s-shift-from-ecology-and-evolutionary-biology-to-antibiotics-research-reasons-objectives-circumstances
#20
Nataliia Kodash, Martin Fischer
Georgy Gause (1910-1986) is best known for his contribution to ecology and evolutionary theory. His book "The Struggle for Existence" (1934) inspired generations of ecologists. Yet his scientific interests were diverse, embracing many aspects of the life sciences and medicine. The most notable shift in his research took place in the early 1940s when he began to study antibiotics and discovered Gramicidin S. Superficially, this shift looked like an attempt to switch from purely theoretical to applied research during the years of World War II, but Gause's decision may also have been seriously affected by the "Great Purge" and the growth of Lysenkoism...
April 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
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