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Evolutionary medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196697/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-zanthoxylum-bungeanum-using-illumina-sequencing-for-evolutionary-analysis-and-simple-sequence-repeat-marker-development
#1
Shijing Feng, Lili Zhao, Zhenshan Liu, Yulin Liu, Tuxi Yang, Anzhi Wei
Zanthoxylum, an ancient economic crop in Asia, has a satisfying aromatic taste and immense medicinal values. A lack of genomic information and genetic markers has limited the evolutionary analysis and genetic improvement of Zanthoxylum species and their close relatives. To better understand the evolution, domestication, and divergence of Zanthoxylum, we present a de novo transcriptome analysis of an elite cultivar of Z. bungeanum using Illumina sequencing; we then developed simple sequence repeat markers for identification of Zanthoxylum...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174462/critical-care-and-personalized-or-precision-medicine-who-needs-whom
#2
Shihab Sugeir, Stephen Naylor
The current paradigm of modern healthcare is a reactive response to patient symptoms, subsequent diagnosis and corresponding treatment of the specific disease(s). This approach is predicated on methodologies first espoused by the Cnidean School of Medicine approximately 2500years ago. More recently escalating healthcare costs and relatively poor disease treatment outcomes have fermented a rethink in how we carry out medical practices. This has led to the emergence of "P-Medicine" in the form of Personalized and Precision Medicine...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174119/engaging-the-front-line-tapping-into-hospital-wide-quality-and-safety-initiatives
#3
Jed Wolpaw, Deborah Schwengel, Nadia Hensley, Bommy Hong Mershon, Tracey Stierer, Anne Steele, Alexandra Hansen, Colleen G Koch
Healthcare increasingly is moving from volume- to value-based care, with an emphasis on linking a larger percentage of payments to the quality of care provided. There is a renewed interest in designing a focused, strategic approach to quality and safety education and engagement of trainees in hospital-wide quality, safety, and patient experience initiatives. Hospitals, trainees, and patients benefit as a result of engaging frontline learners in these activities. Hospitals can leverage the intelligence from the front line to contribute to improved hospital safety, increased employee and patient engagement, and better identification of vulnerable areas of safety risks...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167482/taxonomy-and-identification-of-the-genus-scolopendra-in-china-using-integrated-methods-of-external-morphology-and-molecular-phylogenetics
#4
Sihe Kang, Yimei Liu, Xiaoxuan Zeng, Haiying Deng, Ying Luo, Keli Chen, Shilin Chen
The centipede Scolopendra has important medicinal value and high toxicity, making it to be an interesting subject for evolutionary studies. However, species identification in China is difficult because of limited resource exploration and lack of recent taxonomic revision. To improve the identification and taxonomy of the genus Scolopendra in China, an in-depth investigation was conducted, and an integrated method that combined morphological characteristics with molecular data was applied. The identification key was revised to show the main difference among species...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167240/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-chenopodium-album-from-northeastern-india
#5
Rajkumari Jashmi Devi, Biseshwori Thongam
Chenopodium album belongs to the complex genus Chenopodium of the family Amaranthaceae. It is an economically and medicinally important plant. We report here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. album from northeastern India. This study shall add extensive information on the evolutionary relationships of the genus Chenopodium.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160852/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences-of-aconitum-pseudolaeve-and-aconitum-longecassidatum-and-development-of-molecular-markers-for-distinguishing-species-in-the-aconitum-subgenus-lycoctonum
#6
Inkyu Park, Sungyu Yang, Goya Choi, Wook Jin Kim, Byeong Cheol Moon
Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai and Aconitum longecassidatum Nakai, which belong to the Aconitum subgenus Lycoctonum, are distributed in East Asia and Korea. Aconitum species are used in herbal medicine and contain highly toxic components, including aconitine. A. pseudolaeve, an endemic species of Korea, is a commercially valuable material that has been used in the manufacture of cosmetics and perfumes. Although Aconitum species are important plant resources, they have not been extensively studied, and genomic information is limited...
November 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153398/maximizing-power-in-phylogenetics-and-phylogenomics-a-perspective-illuminated-by-fungal-big-data
#7
Alex Dornburg, Jeffrey P Townsend, Zheng Wang
Since its original inception over 150 years ago by Darwin, we have made tremendous progress toward the reconstruction of the Tree of Life. In particular, the transition from analyzing datasets comprised of small numbers of loci to those comprised of hundreds of loci, if not entire genomes, has aided in resolving some of the most vexing of evolutionary problems while giving us a new perspective on biodiversity. Correspondingly, phylogenetic trees have taken a central role in fields that span ecology, conservation, and medicine...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148538/molecular-testing-for-braf-mutations-to-inform-melanoma-treatment-decisions-a-move-toward-precision-medicine
#8
Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Francesco Massari, Gregory T MacLennan, Rodolfo Montironi
Approximately one-half of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanomas harbor a mutation in the BRAF gene, with V600E being the most common mutation. Targeted therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors is associated with significant long-term treatment benefit in patients with BRAF V600-mutated melanoma. Therefore, molecular testing for BRAF mutations is a priority in determining the course of therapy. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed and scientific congress databases using the terms 'BRAF,' 'mutation,' and 'cancer/tumor...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#9
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130757/international-barcode-of-life-focus-on-big-biodiversity-in-south-africa
#10
Sarah J Adamowicz, Peter M Hollingsworth, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Michelle van der Bank
Participants in the 7th International Barcode of Life Conference (Kruger National Park, South Africa, 20-24 November 2017) share the latest findings in DNA barcoding research and its increasingly diversified applications. Here, we review prevailing trends synthesized from among 429 invited and contributed abstracts, which are collated in this open-access special issue of Genome. Hosted for the first time on the African continent, the 7th Conference places special emphasis on the evolutionary origins, biogeography, and conservation of African flora and fauna...
November 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#11
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126228/prospective-randomized-blind-effect-on-outcome-study-of-conventional-vs-high-frequency-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-patients-with-pain-and-disability-due-to-failed-back-surgery-syndrome
#12
Jose De Andres, Vicente Monsalve-Dolz, Gustavo Fabregat-Cid, Vicente Villanueva-Perez, Anushik Harutyunyan, Juan Marcos Asensio-Samper, Nerea Sanchis-Lopez
Objectives: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) show variable results and limited to moderate evidence. In the last years the stimulation of high frequency (HF) has been considered as a better alternative in this pathology for its supposed benefits compared to the stimulation with conventional frequency (CF). To compare in one year follow-up, the efficacy of high-frequency SCS (HF) versus conventional frequency SCS (CF) on the patients with FBSS...
November 4, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123529/t-cell-mediated-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-are-candidates-for-therapeutic-tolerance-induction-with-heat-shock-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Ariana Barbera Betancourt, Qingkang Lyu, Femke Broere, Alice Sijts, Victor P M G Rutten, Willem van Eden
Failing immunological tolerance for critical self-antigens is the problem underlying most chronic inflammatory diseases of humans. Despite the success of novel immunosuppressive biological drugs, the so-called biologics, in the treatment of diseases such rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes, none of these approaches does lead to a permanent state of medicine free disease remission. Therefore, there is a need for therapies that restore physiological mechanisms of self-tolerance. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have shown disease suppressive activities in many models of experimental autoimmune diseases through the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121662/qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment-of-illumina-s-forensic-str-and-snp-kits-on-miseq-fgx%C3%A2
#14
Vishakha Sharma, Hoi Yan Chow, Donald Siegel, Elisa Wurmbach
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is a powerful tool transforming DNA analysis in multiple fields ranging from medicine, to environmental science, to evolutionary biology. In forensic applications, MPS offers the ability to significantly increase the discriminatory power of human identification as well as aid in mixture deconvolution. However, before the benefits of any new technology can be employed, a thorough evaluation of its quality, consistency, sensitivity, and specificity must be rigorously evaluated in order to gain a detailed understanding of the technique including sources of error, error rates, and other restrictions/limitations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#15
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113536/the-pigmented-epithelium-a-bright-partner-against-photoreceptor-degeneration
#16
Joaquín Letelier, Paola Bovolenta, Juan R Martínez-Morales
Sight depends on the intimate association between photoreceptors and pigment epithelial cells. The evolutionary origin of this cellular tandem can be traced back to the emergence of bilateral animals, at least 450 million years ago, as they define the minimal unit of the ancestral prototypic eye. Phototransduction is a demanding process from the energetic and homeostatic points of view, and not surprisingly photoreceptive cells are particularly susceptible to damage and degeneration. Here, we will examine the different ancillary roles that the pigmented cells play in the physiology and homeostasis of photoreceptors, linking each one of these processes to the most common hereditary retinal diseases...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112749/pgg-population-a-database-for-understanding-the-genomic-diversity-and-genetic-ancestry-of-human-populations
#17
Chao Zhang, Yang Gao, Jiaojiao Liu, Zhe Xue, Yan Lu, Lian Deng, Lei Tian, Qidi Feng, Shuhua Xu
There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry...
November 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111802/perioperative-medicine-an-evolutionary-process
#18
Matthew Dickinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110756/apol1-nephropathy-a-population-genetics-and-evolutionary-medicine-detective-story
#19
REVIEW
Etty Kruzel-Davila, Walter G Wasser, Karl Skorecki
Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases encompassing hypertension-attributed kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and progressive lupus nephritis...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074950/divergent-evolutionary-trajectories-in-transplanted-tumor-models
#20
Carlos Villacorta-Martin, Amanda J Craig, Augusto Villanueva
Human-derived tumor models are becoming popular in the context of personalized medicine, but a new study shows that these models could be less representative of primary tumors than previously thought, particularly when using late passages.
October 27, 2017: Nature Genetics
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