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Evolutionary medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444867/evolutionary-stability-of-antibiotic-protection-in-a-defensive-symbiosis
#1
Tobias Engl, Johannes Kroiss, Marco Kai, Taras Y Nechitaylo, Aleš Svatoš, Martin Kaltenpoth
The increasing resistance of human pathogens severely limits the efficacy of antibiotics in medicine, yet many animals, including solitary beewolf wasps, successfully engage in defensive alliances with antibiotic-producing bacteria for millions of years. Here, we report on the in situ production of 49 derivatives belonging to three antibiotic compound classes (45 piericidin derivatives, 3 streptochlorin derivatives, and nigericin) by the symbionts of 25 beewolf host species and subspecies, spanning 68 million years of evolution...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440336/the-genome-microbiome-and-evolutionary-medicine
#2
Robert C Brunham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401047/evolutionary-perspectives-on-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-psychiatric-disorders
#3
Matthew C Keller
Evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary theory to help elucidate why humans are vulnerable to disease and disorders. I discuss two different types of evolutionary explanations that have been used to help understand human psychiatric disorders. First, a consistent finding is that psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable, and many, such as schizophrenia, are also highly disabling and appear to decrease Darwinian fitness. Models used in evolutionary genetics to understand why genetic variation exists in fitness-related traits can be used to understand why risk alleles for psychiatric disorders persist in the population...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394142/hypermetabolism-and-nutritional-support-in-sepsis
#4
John C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Surgical metabolism has been a founding field of investigation in surgery without which the boundaries of critical care, trauma, and surgical oncology could not have advanced. Traditionally, understanding the shifts in electrolytes, carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids that could explain the rapidly evolving proteolysis after catabolic stress and tumor growth has been a major focus of research that led to our current approach to maintaining homeostasis over the course of major surgical intervention and injury...
February 2, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393575/where-is-in-2017-the-evo-in-evo-devo-evolutionary-developmental-biology
#5
Rui Diogo
After the inaugural Pan-American-Evo-Devo meeting (2015, Berkeley), I showed how major concerns about evo-devo (Evolutionary Developmental Biology) research were demonstrated by a simple, non-biased quantitative analysis of the titles/abstracts of that meeting's talks. Here, I apply the same methodology to the titles/abstracts of the recent Pan-American-Evo-Devo meeting (2017, Calgary). The aim is to evaluate if the concerns raised by me in that paper and by other authors have been addressed and/or if there are other types of differences between the two meetings that may reflect trends within the field of evo-devo...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393502/using-drugs-to-target-necroptosis-dual-roles-in-disease-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Zhen Wang, Li-Min Guo, Hong-Kang Zhou, Hong-Ke Qu, Shu-Chao Wang, Feng-Xia Liu, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
February 1, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388949/a-literature-review-at-genome-scale-improving-clinical-variant-assessment
#7
Christopher A Cassa, Daniel M Jordan, Ivan Adzhubei, Shamil Sunyaev
PurposeOver 150,000 variants have been reported to cause Mendelian disease in the medical literature. It is still difficult to leverage this knowledge base in clinical practice, as many reports lack strong statistical evidence or may include false associations. Clinical laboratories assess whether these variants (along with newly observed variants that are adjacent to these published ones) underlie clinical disorders.MethodsWe investigated whether citation data-including journal impact factor and the number of cited variants (NCV) in each gene with published disease associations-can be used to improve variant assessment...
February 1, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370840/identification-of-compound-heterozygous-variants-in-the-noncoding-rnu4atac-gene-in-a-chinese-family-with-two-successive-foetuses-with-severe-microcephaly
#8
Ye Wang, Xueli Wu, Liu Du, Ju Zheng, Songqing Deng, Xin Bi, Qiuyan Chen, Hongning Xie, Claude Férec, David N Cooper, Yanmin Luo, Qun Fang, Jian-Min Chen
BACKGROUND: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) over the last few years has been increasingly employed for clinical diagnosis. However, one caveat with its use is that it inevitably fails to detect disease-causative variants that occur within noncoding RNA genes. Our experience in identifying pathogenic variants in the noncoding RNU4ATAC gene, in a Chinese family where two successive foetuses had been affected by severe microcephaly, is a case in point. These foetuses exhibited remarkably similar phenotypes in terms of their microcephaly and brain abnormalities; however, the paucity of other characteristic phenotypic features had made a precise diagnosis impossible...
January 25, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366662/cd45-in-human-physiology-and-clinical-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Rheinländer, Burkhart Schraven, Ursula Bommhardt
CD45 is an evolutionary highly conserved receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase exclusively expressed on all nucleated cells of the hematopoietic system. It is characterized by the expression of several isoforms, specific to a certain cell type and the developmental or activation status of the cell. CD45 is one of the key players in the initiation of T cell receptor signaling by controlling the activation of the Scr family protein-tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn. CD45 defiency results in T- and B-lymphocyte dysfunction in the form of severe combined immune deficiency...
January 20, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354373/assessment-of-three-plastid-dna-barcode-markers-for-identification-of-clinacanthus-nutans-acanthaceae
#10
Noor Zafirah Ismail, Hasni Arsad, Mohammed Razip Samian, Mohammad Razak Hamdan, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using three plastid DNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL) as DNA barcodes to identify the medicinal plant Clinacanthus nutans. In this study, C. nutans was collected at several different locations. Total genomic DNA was extracted, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequenced using matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL, primers. DNA sequences generated from PCR were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank. Identification of C...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350780/an-evolutionary-concept-analysis-of-futility-in-health-care
#11
Lauren Morata
AIM: To report a concept analysis of futility in health care. BACKGROUND: Each member of the healthcare team: the physician, the nurse, the patient, the family and all others involved perceive futility differently. The current evidence and knowledge in regard to futility in health care manifest a plethora of definitions, meanings and interpretations without consensus. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched included Medline, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycINFO...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326013/a-cluster-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-patients-arriving-in-europe-from-the-horn-of-africa-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#12
Timothy M Walker, Matthias Merker, Astrid M Knoblauch, Peter Helbling, Otto D Schoch, Marieke J van der Werf, Katharina Kranzer, Lena Fiebig, Stefan Kröger, Walter Haas, Harald Hoffmann, Alexander Indra, Adrian Egli, Daniela M Cirillo, Jérôme Robert, Thomas R Rogers, Ramona Groenheit, Anne T Mengshoel, Vanessa Mathys, Marjo Haanperä, Dick van Soolingen, Stefan Niemann, Erik C Böttger, Peter M Keller
BACKGROUND: The risk of tuberculosis outbreaks among people fleeing hardship for refuge in Europe is heightened. We describe the cross-border European response to an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients from the Horn of Africa and Sudan. METHODS: On April 29 and May 30, 2016, the Swiss and German National Mycobacterial Reference Laboratories independently triggered an outbreak investigation after four patients were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305972/lea-proteins-from-gastrodia-elata-enhance-tolerance-to-low-temperature-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Xu Zeng, Hong Ling, Jianwen Yang, Yuanyuan Li, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were initially discovered about 35years ago as accumulating late in embryogenesis of cotton seeds. Although abundant in seeds and pollens, these proteins have been found to protect cells against desiccation, cold, high temperature, and high salinity. OBJECTIVE: Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in Gastrodia elata, a well-known medicinal orchid in China. Moreover, we researched on LEA family evolutionary relationships and functional characteristics...
January 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288361/genome-sequence-and-comparative-analysis-of-jiangella-alba-yim-61503t-isolated-from-a-medicinal-plant-maytenus-austroyunnanensis
#14
Jian-Yu Jiao, Nimaichand Salam, Lan Liu, Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao, Xiao-Tong Zhang, Bao-Zhu Fang, Ming-Xian Han, Zi-Tong Zhang, Jing Chen, Jiao Zhao, Yu Zhou, Dalal Hussien M Alkhalifah, Qing Liu, Min Xiao, Hans-Peter Klenk, Wen-Jun Li
A draft genome sequence of Jiangella alba YIM 61503T revealed a genome size of 7,664,864 bp arranged in 33 scaffolds. The genome was predicted to contain 7196 predicted genes, including 51 coding for RNA. Phylogenetic and comparative analyses of the draft genome of J. alba YIM 61503T with the available genomes of other Jiangella species suggested a proximal similarity between strains J. alba YIM 61503T and J. muralis DSM 45357T, while indicating a high divergence between J. gansuensis YIM 002T and other Jiangella species...
December 29, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237703/genome-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-medicinal-plant-calotropis-gigantea-a-producer-of-anti-cancer-and-anti-malarial-cardenolides
#15
Genevieve M Hoopes, John P Hamilton, Jeongwoon Kim, Dongyan Zhao, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Emily Crisovan, C Robin Buell
Calotropis gigantea produces specialized secondary metabolites known as cardenolides which have anti-cancer and anti-malarial properties. Although transcriptomic studies have been conducted in other cardenolide-producing species, no nuclear genome assembly for an Asterid cardenolide-producing species has been reported to date. A high quality de novo assembly was generated for C. gigantea, representing 157,284,427 bp with an N50 scaffold size of 805,959 bp, for which quality assessments indicated a near complete representation of the genic space...
December 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225593/diverse-cone-snail-species-harbor-closely-related-streptomyces-species-with-conserved-chemical-and-genetic-profiles-including-polycyclic-tetramic-acid-macrolactams
#16
Michelle Quezada, Cuauhtemoc Licona-Cassani, Pablo Cruz-Morales, Angela A Salim, Esteban Marcellin, Robert J Capon, Francisco Barona-Gómez
Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218763/single-cell-mass-spectrometry-approaches-to-explore-cellular-heterogeneity
#17
Linwen Zhang, Akos Vertes
Compositional diversity is a fundamental property in cell populations that is responsible for evolutionary adaptation and resilience. Single-cell analysis promises new insights into this cellular heterogeneity and the corresponding subpopulations on the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a label-free technique that enables the multiplexed analysis of proteins, peptides, lipids, and metabolites in individual cells. The abundances of these molecular classes are correlated with the physiological states and environmental responses of the cells...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196697/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-zanthoxylum-bungeanum-using-illumina-sequencing-for-evolutionary-analysis-and-simple-sequence-repeat-marker-development
#18
Shijing Feng, Lili Zhao, Zhenshan Liu, Yulin Liu, Tuxi Yang, Anzhi Wei
Zanthoxylum, an ancient economic crop in Asia, has a satisfying aromatic taste and immense medicinal values. A lack of genomic information and genetic markers has limited the evolutionary analysis and genetic improvement of Zanthoxylum species and their close relatives. To better understand the evolution, domestication, and divergence of Zanthoxylum, we present a de novo transcriptome analysis of an elite cultivar of Z. bungeanum using Illumina sequencing; we then developed simple sequence repeat markers for identification of Zanthoxylum...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174462/critical-care-and-personalized-or-precision-medicine-who-needs-whom
#19
Shihab Sugeir, Stephen Naylor
The current paradigm of modern healthcare is a reactive response to patient symptoms, subsequent diagnosis and corresponding treatment of the specific disease(s). This approach is predicated on methodologies first espoused by the Cnidean School of Medicine approximately 2500years ago. More recently escalating healthcare costs and relatively poor disease treatment outcomes have fermented a rethink in how we carry out medical practices. This has led to the emergence of "P-Medicine" in the form of Personalized and Precision Medicine...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174119/engaging-the-front-line-tapping-into-hospital-wide-quality-and-safety-initiatives
#20
Jed Wolpaw, Deborah Schwengel, Nadia Hensley, Bommy Hong Mershon, Tracey Stierer, Anne Steele, Alexandra Hansen, Colleen G Koch
Healthcare increasingly is moving from volume- to value-based care, with an emphasis on linking a larger percentage of payments to the quality of care provided. There is a renewed interest in designing a focused, strategic approach to quality and safety education and engagement of trainees in hospital-wide quality, safety, and patient experience initiatives. Hospitals, trainees, and patients benefit as a result of engaging frontline learners in these activities. Hospitals can leverage the intelligence from the front line to contribute to improved hospital safety, increased employee and patient engagement, and better identification of vulnerable areas of safety risks...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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