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Evolutionary medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#1
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092471/genomics-pipelines-and-data-integration-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-research-setting
#2
Jeremy Davis-Turak, Sean M Courtney, E Starr Hazard, W Bailey Glen, Willian da Silveira, Timothy Wesselman, Larry P Harbin, Bethany J Wolf, Dongjun Chung, Gary Hardiman
The emergence and mass utilization of high-throughput (HT) technologies, including sequencing technologies (genomics) and mass spectrometry (proteomics, metabolomics, lipids), has allowed geneticists, biologists, and biostatisticians to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype on a massive scale. These new technologies have brought rapid advances in our understanding of cell biology, evolutionary history, microbial environments, and are increasingly providing new insights and applications towards clinical care and personalized medicine...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049346/genoproteomics-assisted-improvement-of-andrographis-paniculata-toward-a-promising-molecular-and-conventional-breeding-platform-for-autogamous-plants-affecting-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#3
Alireza Valdiani, Daryush Talei, Surrinder K Lattoo, Rodomiro Ortiz, Søren Kjærsgaard Rasmussen, Jacqueline Batley, Mohd Yusop Rafii, Mahmood Maziah, Kallevettankuzhy K Sabu, Rambod Abiri, Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Soon Guan Tan
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. (AP) is a hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and habitual inbreeding plant. Its main bioactive component is andrographolide, which is capable of inducing autophagic cell death in some human cancer cells and helps fight HIV/AIDS. Increasing the andrographolide content by investigating the genetic mechanisms controlling its biosynthesis in order to improve and develop high-yielding cultivars are the main breeding targets for AP. However, there might exist some limitations or barriers for crossability within AP accessions...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048907/su-f-r-46-predicting-distant-failure-in-lung-sbrt-using-multi-objective-radiomics-model
#4
Z Zhou, M Folkert, P Iyengar, Y Zhang, J Wang
PURPOSE: To predict distant failure in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using a new multi-objective radiomics model. METHODS: Currently, most available radiomics models use the overall accuracy as the objective function. However, due to data imbalance, a single object may not reflect the performance of a predictive model. Therefore, we developed a multi-objective radiomics model which considers both sensitivity and specificity as the objective functions simultaneously...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028006/identification-and-analysis-of-the-human-sex-biased-genes
#5
Sisi Guo, Yuan Zhou, Pan Zeng, Guoheng Xu, Guoqing Wang, Qinghua Cui
Tremendous differences between human sexes are universally observed. Therefore, identifying and analyzing the sex-biased genes are becoming basically important for uncovering the mystery of sex differences and personalized medicine. Here, we presented a computational method to identify sex-biased genes from public gene expression databases. We obtained 1407 female-biased genes (FGs) and 1096 male-biased genes (MGs) across 14 different tissues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that compared with MGs, FGs have higher evolutionary rate, higher single-nucleotide polymorphism density, less homologous gene numbers and smaller phyletic age...
December 27, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995013/complete-plastid-genome-of-eriobotrya-japonica-thunb-lindl-and-comparative-analysis-in-rosaceae
#6
Liqun Shen, Qijie Guan, Awais Amin, Wei Zhu, Mengzhu Li, Ximin Li, Lin Zhang, Jingkui Tian
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl (loquat) is an evergreen Rosaceae fruit tree widely distributed in subtropical regions. Its leaves are considered as traditional Chinese medicine and are of high medical value especially for cough and emesis. Thus, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of E. japonica to better utilize this important species. The complete plastid genome of E. japonica is 159,137 bp in length, which contains a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IR, 26,326 bp) separated by large (LSC, 89,202 bp) and small (SSC, 19,283 bp) single-copy regions...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991798/comfortably-numb-and-back-plasma-metabolomics-reveals-biochemical-adaptations-in-the-hibernating-13-lined-ground-squirrel
#7
Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Lori K Bogren, Sandra L Martin, Kirk C Hansen
Hibernation is an evolutionary adaptation that affords some mammals the ability to exploit the cold to achieve extreme metabolic depression (torpor) while avoiding ischemia/reperfusion or hemorrhagic shock injuries. Hibernators cycle periodically out of torpor, restoring high metabolic activity. If understood at the molecular level, the adaptations underlying torpor-arousal cycles may be leveraged for translational applications in critical fields such as intensive care medicine. Here, we monitored 266 metabolites to investigate the metabolic adaptations to hibernation in plasma from 13-lined ground squirrels (57 animals, 9 time points)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991670/the-fascinating-facets-of-plant-selenium-accumulation-biochemistry-physiology-evolution-and-ecology
#8
REVIEW
Michela Schiavon, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: The importance of selenium (Se) for medicine, industry and the environment is increasingly apparent. Se is essential for many species, including humans, but toxic at elevated concentrations. Plant Se accumulation and volatilization may be applied in crop biofortification and phytoremediation. Topics covered here include beneficial and toxic effects of Se on plants, mechanisms of Se accumulation and tolerance in plants and algae, Se hyperaccumulation, and ecological and evolutionary aspects of these processes...
December 19, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920373/human-influences-on-evolution-and-the-ecological-and-societal-consequences
#9
Andrew P Hendry, Kiyoko M Gotanda, Erik I Svensson
Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of 'contexts', including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914918/epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#10
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Kirk Gosik, Sujuan Xing, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Rongling Wu
Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing...
November 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914321/functional-regulation-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis-by-rna-interferences-of-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-gene-in-panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius
#11
Chao Lu, Shoujing Zhao, Guanning Wei, Huijuan Zhao, Qingling Qu
Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899636/the-monarch-initiative-an-integrative-data-and-analytic-platform-connecting-phenotypes-to-genotypes-across-species
#12
Christopher J Mungall, Julie A McMurry, Sebastian Köhler, James P Balhoff, Charles Borromeo, Matthew Brush, Seth Carbon, Tom Conlin, Nathan Dunn, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, J P Gourdine, Julius O B Jacobsen, Dan Keith, Bryan Laraway, Suzanna E Lewis, Jeremy NguyenXuan, Kent Shefchek, Nicole Vasilevsky, Zhou Yuan, Nicole Washington, Harry Hochheiser, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Peter N Robinson, Melissa A Haendel
The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887642/rapid-scoring-of-genes-in-microbial-pan-genome-wide-association-studies-with-scoary
#13
Ola Brynildsrud, Jon Bohlin, Lonneke Scheffer, Vegard Eldholm
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become indispensable in human medicine and genomics, but very few have been carried out on bacteria. Here we introduce Scoary, an ultra-fast, easy-to-use, and widely applicable software tool that scores the components of the pan-genome for associations to observed phenotypic traits while accounting for population stratification, with minimal assumptions about evolutionary processes. We call our approach pan-GWAS to distinguish it from traditional, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based GWAS...
November 25, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881265/importance-of-economic-evaluation-in-health-care-an-indian-perspective
#14
Amit Dang, Nishkarsh Likhar, Utkarsh Alok
Health economic studies provide information to decision makers for efficient use of available resources for maximizing health benefits. Economic evaluation is one part of health economics, and it is a tool for comparing costs and consequences of different interventions. Health technology assessment is a technique for economic evaluation that is well adapted by developed countries. The traditional classification of economic evaluation includes cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880687/commentary-developing-the-future-life-course-epidemiology-dohad-and-evolutionary-medicine
#15
Mark Hanson, Peter Gluckman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872028/monogamy-and-nonmonogamy-evolutionary-considerations-and-treatment-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Marianne Brandon
INTRODUCTION: Few topics generate such controversy and emotional reactivity as the nature of human mating behavior. Unfortunately, and potentially to the detriment of good patient care, sexual medicine practitioners have largely avoided this matter. An understanding of the scientific literature can empower practitioners to more effectively confront the inevitable monogamy and nonmonogamy challenges present in research and clinical practice. AIM: To review and summarize relevant scientific literature as a context to evaluate the more common myths and misunderstanding relating to the practice of monogamy and nonmonogamy in humans...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872026/male-and-female-sexual-dysfunction-in-a-rapidly-changing-cultural-environment-addressing-gender-equality-versus-equivalence-in-the-bedroom
#17
REVIEW
Marianne Brandon, Abraham Morgentaler
INTRODUCTION: The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic...
April 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843724/complete-chloroplast-genome-of-a-valuable-medicinal-plant-huperzia-serrata-lycopodiaceae-and-comparison-with-its-congener
#18
Zhi-You Guo, Hong-Rui Zhang, Nawal Shrestha, Xian-Chun Zhang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Here we report the complete chloroplast genome of the important medicinal species Huperzia serrata (Lycopodiaceae) and compare it to the chloroplast genome of the congeneric species H. lucidula. METHODS AND RESULTS: The whole chloroplast genome of H. serrata was sequenced using an Illumina platform and assembled with Geneious version R9.0.5. The genome size of H. serrata was 154,176 bp, with 36.3% GC content. The complete chloroplast genome contained 120 unique genes, including 86 coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes...
November 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812292/artificial-blood-substitutes-first-steps-on-the-long-route-to-clinical-utility
#19
REVIEW
Samira Moradi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar
The 21st century is challenging for human beings. Increased population growth, population aging, generation of new infectious agents, and natural disasters are some threatening factors for the current state of blood transfusion. However, it seems that science and technology not only could overcome these challenges but also would turn many human dreams to reality in this regard. Scientists believe that one of the future evolutionary innovations could be artificial blood substitutes that might pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803702/comparative-profiling-of-mirnas-and-target-gene-identification-in-distant-grafting-between-tomato-and-lycium-goji-berry
#20
A B M Khaldun, Wenjun Huang, Haiyan Lv, Sihong Liao, Shaohua Zeng, Ying Wang
Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill.) to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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