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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439010/cyclops-reveals-human-transcriptional-rhythms-in-health-and-disease
#1
Ron C Anafi, Lauren J Francey, John B Hogenesch, Junhyong Kim
Circadian rhythms modulate many aspects of physiology. Knowledge of the molecular basis of these rhythms has exploded in the last 20 years. However, most of these data are from model organisms, and translation to clinical practice has been limited. Here, we present an approach to identify molecular rhythms in humans from thousands of unordered expression measurements. Our algorithm, cyclic ordering by periodic structure (CYCLOPS), uses evolutionary conservation and machine learning to identify elliptical structure in high-dimensional data...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438353/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-the-immune-system-as-a-pro-survival-molecule
#2
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund, Andrea Sboarina, Antonio Vella
PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a fascinating and attractive molecule that has gained particular attention in medicine in recent years. Its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential might resemble the activity of many nature-derived molecules (eg, flavonoids), but its role in biology was selected during a long evolutionary pathway to dampen the damaging effect of cell stress response and of the immune reaction. In this sense, this molecule can be considered an ancient hormone that serves, in its primary role, as a pro-survival agent...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#3
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422426/dinosaurs-chameleons-humans-and-evo-devo-path-linking-%C3%A3-tienne-geoffroy-s-teratology-waddington-s-homeorhesis-alberch-s-logic-of-monsters-and-goldschmidt-hopeful-monsters
#4
REVIEW
Rui Diogo, Geoffrey Guinard, Raul E Diaz
Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421720/enantioselective-organocatalytic-synthesis-of-a-secoyohimbane-inspired-compound-collection-with-neuritogenic-activity
#5
Herbert Waldmann, Tim Förster, Sara Lopéz-Tosco, Slava Ziegler, Andrey P Antonchick
Natural products provide evolutionary validated core structures inspiring the synthesis of new compound collections endowed with neurite growth-promoting activity. Rhynchophylline is the major component of Uncaria species which has been used to treat neurological diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. According to the structure of this spirocyclic secoyohimbane alkaloid, we developed a highly enantioselective and efficient organocatalyzed synthesis method to provide the tetracyclic secoyohimbane scaffold incorporating a quaternary and three tertiary stereogenic centers in a one-pot multistep reaction sequence...
April 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412903/phage-life-cycles-behind-bacterial-biodiversity
#6
Tomasz Olszak, Agnieszka Latka, Bartosz Roszniowski, Miguel Angel Valvano, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Bacteriophages (phages or bacterial viruses) are the most abundant biological entities in our planet; their influence reaches far beyond the microorganisms they parasitize. Phages are present in every environment and shape up every bacterial population in both active and passive ways. They participate in the circulation of organic matter and drive the evolution of microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer at unprecedented scales. The mass flow of genetic information in the microbial world influences the biosphere and poses challenges for science and medicine...
April 13, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411241/2-alkylquinolone-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-the-medicinal-plant-evodia-rutaecarpa-involves-collaboration-of-two-novel-type-iii-polyketide-synthases
#7
Takashi Matsui, Takeshi Kodama, Takahiro Mori, Tetsuhiro Tadakoshi, Hiroshi Noguchi, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
2-Alkylquinolone (2AQ) alkaloids are pharmaceutically and biologically important natural products produced by both bacteria and plants, with a wide range of biological effects, including antibacterial, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and quorum-sensing signaling activities. These diverse activities and 2AQ occurrence in vastly different phyla have raised much interest in the biosynthesis pathways leading to their production. Previous studies in plants have suggested that type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) might be involved in 2AQ biosynthesis, but this hypothesis is untested...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408460/can-histologic-transformation-of-follicular-lymphoma-be-predicted-and-prevented
#8
Robert Kridel, Laurie H Sehn, Randy D Gascoyne
Transformation to aggressive lymphoma is a critical event in the clinical course of follicular lymphoma patients. Yet, it is a challenge to reliably predict transformation at the time of diagnosis. Understanding the risk of transformation would be useful to guide and monitor patients, as well as for evaluation of novel treatment strategies that could potentially prevent transformation. Herein, we review the contribution of clinical, pathological and genetic risk factors to transformation. Patients with multiple clinical high-risk factors are at elevated risk of transformation but we are currently lacking a prognostic index that would specifically address transformation rather than disease progression or overall survival...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405674/-new-developments-in-molecularbiological-diagnostic
#9
Christine Mannhalter
Today, we have access to excellent and advanced molecular methods that are already widely used. This requires rules to control the quality of the methods as well as the laboratory. Both aspects will be discussed in the article. Following the isolation of nucleic acids they are used for genotyping which allows to address several questions: diagnosis of inherited diseases, inherited predispositions, forensic analyses, identification and typing of bacteria or viruses, elucidation of evolutionary aspects. Importantly, it has to be realized that the type and heterogeneity of phenotypically relevant mutations determines the method used for testing...
April 13, 2017: Hämostaseologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398072/the-reactive-species-interactome-evolutionary-emergence-biological-significance-and-opportunities-for-redox-metabolomics-and-personalized-medicine
#10
Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott, Anne Koning, Gunter Georg Kuhnle, Peter Nagy, Christopher Bianco, Andreas Pasch, David A Wink, Jon Fukuto, Alan A Jackson, Harry van Goor, Kenneth R Olson, Martin Feelisch
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is thought to account for aberrant redox homeostasis and contribute to aging and disease. However, more often than not administration of antioxidants is ineffective, suggesting our current understanding of the underlying regulatory processes is incomplete. Recent Advances. Similar to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), reactive sulfur species (RSS) are now emerging as important signaling molecules, targeting regulatory cysteine redox switches in proteins, affecting gene regulation, ion transport, intermediary metabolism and mitochondrial function...
April 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396796/evolutionary-medicine-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#11
Althea Anne D Perez, Scott W Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393213/micrornas-driving-invasion-and-metastasis-in-ovarian-cancer-opportunities-for-translational-medicine-review
#12
Carlos Palma Flores, Raúl García-Vázquez, Dolores Gallardo Rincón, Erika Ruiz-García, Horacio Astudillo de la Vega, Laurence A Marchat, Yarely M Salinas Vera, César López-Camarillo
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women. In spite of the advantages in early detection and treatment options, overall survival rates have improved only slightly in the last decades. Therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches need to overcome resistance and improve the patient survival and outcome. MicroRNAs are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNAs that function as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of messenger RNAs...
May 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373232/texbook-of-evolutionary-psychiatry-and-psychosomatic-medicine-the-origins-of-psychopathology-2nd-edn
#13
Mohammed J Abbas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369350/draft-genome-of-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-and-genetic-polymorphism-among-color-variants
#14
Jihoon Jo, Jooseong Oh, Hyun-Gwan Lee, Hyun-Hee Hong, Sung-Gwon Lee, Seongmin Cheon, Elizabeth M A Kern, Soyeong Jin, Sung-Jin Cho, Joong-Ki Park, Chungoo Park
The Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867) is an economically important species as a source of seafood and ingredient in traditional medicine. It is mainly found off the coasts of northeast Asia. Recently, substantial exploitation and widespread biotic diseases in A. japonicus have generated increasing conservation concern. However, the genomic knowledge base and resources available for researchers to use in managing this natural resource and to establish genetically based breeding systems for sea cucumber aquaculture are still in a nascent stage...
January 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358353/a-new-tyrannosaur-with-evidence-for-anagenesis-and-crocodile-like-facial-sensory-system
#15
Thomas D Carr, David J Varricchio, Jayc C Sedlmayr, Eric M Roberts, Jason R Moore
A new species of tyrannosaurid from the upper Two Medicine Formation of Montana supports the presence of a Laramidian anagenetic (ancestor-descendant) lineage of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. In concert with other anagenetic lineages of dinosaurs from the same time and place, this suggests that anagenesis could have been a widespread mechanism generating species diversity amongst dinosaurs, and perhaps beyond. We studied the excellent fossil record of the tyrannosaurid to test that hypothesis. Phylogenetic analysis places this new taxon as the sister species to Daspletosaurus torosus...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340696/comments-on-the-history-of-medical-biological-studies-of-aging-the-birth-of-scientific-gerontology
#16
L Robert, J Labat-Robert
Recent books (Immunity. How Elie Metchnikoff changed the course of modern medicine and Expectations of Life) reviewed the important contribution of Metchnikoff to the emergence of gerontology as a new branch of biomedical sciences. Here, we insist on Metchnikoff's contribution and pivotal role in the emergence of nutrition as a science and its importance for health and longevity. The discovery of phagocytosis by Metchnikoff and of its evolutionary ancestry are at the origin of the emergence of cellular immunity as an independent science besides humoral immunity...
January 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340266/rna-seq-based-transcriptome-and-the-reproduction-related-genes-for-the-aphid-schlechtendalia-chinensis-hemiptera-aphididae
#17
P Liu, Z X Yang, X M Chen, P Yang
Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279524/two-residues-determine-the-product-profile-of-the-class-ii-diterpene-synthases-tps14-and-tps21-of-tripterygium-wilfordii
#18
Nikolaj L Hansen, Jakob N Nissen, Björn Hamberger
The medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) contains a pair of class II diterpene synthases (diTPS) of specialized labdane-type metabolism that, despite remarkably close homology, form strikingly different products. TwTPS21 catalyzes bicyclization of the linear C20 precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-copal-8-ol diphosphate, while TwTPS14 forms kolavenyl diphosphate. To determine the amino acid signature controlling the functional divergence of the homologues, we modeled their structures based on an existing crystal structure of the Arabidopsis ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, archetypal of diTPSs in general metabolism of gibberellin phytohormones...
March 6, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274726/a-population-genetics-perspective-on-the-determinants-of-intra-tumor-heterogeneity
#19
Zheng Hu, Ruping Sun, Christina Curtis
Cancer results from the acquisition of somatic alterations in a microevolutionary process that typically occurs over many years, much of which is occult. Understanding the evolutionary dynamics that are operative at different stages of progression in individual tumors might inform the earlier detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Although these processes cannot be directly observed, the resultant spatiotemporal patterns of genetic variation amongst tumor cells encode their evolutionary histories. Such intra-tumor heterogeneity is pervasive not only at the genomic level, but also at the transcriptomic, phenotypic, and cellular levels...
March 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265493/transcriptome-analysis-of-polygonum-minus-reveals-candidate-genes-involved-in-important-secondary-metabolic-pathways-of-phenylpropanoids-and-flavonoids
#20
Kok-Keong Loke, Reyhaneh Rahnamaie-Tajadod, Chean-Chean Yeoh, Hoe-Han Goh, Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein, Zamri Zainal, Ismanizan Ismail, Normah Mohd Noor
BACKGROUND: Polygonum minus is an herbal plant in the Polygonaceae family which is rich in ethnomedicinal plants. The chemical composition and characteristic pungent fragrance of Polygonum minus have been extensively studied due to its culinary and medicinal properties. There are only a few transcriptome sequences available for species from this important family of medicinal plants. The limited genetic information from the public expressed sequences tag (EST) library hinders further study on molecular mechanisms underlying secondary metabolite production...
2017: PeerJ
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