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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670636/positive-selection-driving-cytoplasmic-genome-evolution-of-the-medicinally-important-ginseng-plant-genus-panax
#1
Peng Jiang, Feng-Xue Shi, Ming-Rui Li, Bao Liu, Jun Wen, Hong-Xing Xiao, Lin-Feng Li
Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661005/ethopathology-and-civilization-diseases-niko-and-elisabeth-tinbergen-on-autism
#2
Marga Vicedo
The idea that some diseases result from a poor fit between modern life and our biological make-up is part of the long history of what historian of medicine Charles Rosenberg has called the "progress-and-pathology narrative." This article examines a key episode in that history: 1973 Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen's use of an evolutionary framework to identify autism as a pathogenic effect of progress. Influenced by British psychiatrist John Bowlby's work, Tinbergen and his wife Elisabeth saw autistic children as victims of environmental stress caused mainly by mothers' failure to bond with their children and to protect them from conflicting situations...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657963/hologenomics-systems-level-host-biology
#3
Kevin R Theis
The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis explaining host evolution in the context of the host microbiomes. As a hypothesis, it needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to the extent of fidelity of transgenerational coassociation of host and microbial lineages and the relative fitness consequences of repeated associations within natural holobiont populations. Behavioral ecologists are in a prime position to test these predictions because they typically focus on animal phenotypes that are quantifiable, conduct studies over multiple generations within natural animal populations, and collect metadata on genetic relatedness and relative reproductive success within these populations...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642545/chloroplast-genome-of-the-folk-medicine-and-vegetable-plant-talinum-paniculatum-jacq-gaertn-gene-organization-comparative-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#4
Xia Liu, Yuan Li, Hongyuan Yang, Boyang Zhou
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes...
April 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617830/detecting-signatures-of-positive-selection-along-defined-branches-of-a-population-tree-using-lsd
#5
Pablo Librado, Ludovic Orlando
Identifying the genomic basis underlying local adaptation is paramount to evolutionary biology, and bears many applications in the fields of conservation biology, crop and animal breeding, as well as personalized medicine. While many approaches have been developed to detect signatures of positive selection within single populations and population pairs, the increasing wealth of high-throughput sequencing data requires improved methods capable of handling multiple, and ideally large number of, populations in a single analysis...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616406/georgy-gause-s-shift-from-ecology-and-evolutionary-biology-to-antibiotics-research-reasons-objectives-circumstances
#6
Nataliia Kodash, Martin Fischer
Georgy Gause (1910-1986) is best known for his contribution to ecology and evolutionary theory. His book "The Struggle for Existence" (1934) inspired generations of ecologists. Yet his scientific interests were diverse, embracing many aspects of the life sciences and medicine. The most notable shift in his research took place in the early 1940s when he began to study antibiotics and discovered Gramicidin S. Superficially, this shift looked like an attempt to switch from purely theoretical to applied research during the years of World War II, but Gause's decision may also have been seriously affected by the "Great Purge" and the growth of Lysenkoism...
April 3, 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614961/phylogenomics-and-barcoding-of-panax-toward-the-identification-of-ginseng-species
#7
V Manzanilla, A Kool, L Nguyen Nhat, H Nong Van, H Le Thi Thu, H J de Boer
BACKGROUND: The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. RESULTS: We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species...
April 3, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611045/sages-mini-med-school-inspiring-high-school-students-through-exposure-to-the-field-of-surgery
#8
James C Rosser, Timothy B Legare, Charles Jacobs, Katherine M Choi, Jeffrey P Fleming, Jamie Nakagiri
OBJECTIVE: The SAGES Mini Med School (SMMS) was designed to expose high school students to the field of surgery through mentoring, knowledge transfer, and hands-on experience with simulation. The objective of this paper is to profile the evolutionary development, performance metrics, and satisfaction queries of this innovative effort. METHODS: Sixty-one high school students, grades 9-12, took part in the (SMMS) program during the 2015 SAGES Annual Congress. The students completed a surgical skills lab session where they attempted tasks associated with the development of open surgical and laparoscopic skills...
April 2, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604169/genome-and-evolution-of-the-shade-requiring-medicinal-herb-panax-ginseng
#9
Nam-Hoon Kim, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Beom-Soon Choi, Woojong Jang, Junki Lee, Hyun Hee Kim, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Binh Van Nguyen, Yun Sun Lee, Hyun-Seung Park, Hyun Jo Koo, Jee Young Park, Sampath Perumal, Ho Jun Joh, Hana Lee, Jinkyung Kim, In Seo Kim, Kyunghee Kim, Lokanand Koduru, Kyo Bin Kang, Sang Hyun Sung, Yeisoo Yu, Daniel S Park, Doil Choi, Eunyoung Seo, Seungill Kim, Young-Chang Kim, Dong Yun Hyun, Youn-Il Park, Changsoo Kim, Tae-Ho Lee, Hyun Uk Kim, Moon Soo Soh, Yi Lee, Jun Gyo In, Heui-Soo Kim, Yong-Min Kim, Deok-Chun Yang, Rod A Wing, Dong-Yup Lee, Andrew H Paterson, Tae-Jin Yang
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production, and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59,352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two inter-continental migrations...
March 31, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576440/evolution-of-dietary-preferences-and-the-innate-urge-to-heal-drug-discovery-lessons-from-ayurveda
#10
REVIEW
Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Highly specialized and functionally integrated cognitive systems facilitate hedonistic and healthy food preferences. Guided by survival needs, flavor preferences not only select safe, nutritious dietary components, but also those with negligible calorific value but significant health benefits, for example, spices. Feeding behavior, both innate and acquired, is guided not only by taste receptors on the tongue but also visceral organs. The gustatory cortex receives information from all senses, not just taste, suggesting multiple checkpoints in predicting and evaluating healthy foods...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558516/low-genetic-diversity-of-the-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-htlv-1-in-an-endemic-area-of-the-brazilian-amazon-basin
#11
Akim Felipe Santos Nobre, Danilo de Souza Almeida, Louise Canto Ferreira, Deimy Lima Ferreira, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Maria de Nazaré do Socorro de Almeida Viana, Ingrid Christiane Silva, Bruna Teles Pinheiro, Stephen Francis Ferrari, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Edna Aoba Ishikawa, Rita Catarina Medeiros Sousa, Maísa Silva de Sousa
The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1) is a Deltaretrovírus that was first isolated in the 1970s, and associated with Adult T-cell Leucemia-Lymphoma (ATLL), and subsequently to Tropical Spastic Paraparesis-Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The genetic diversity of the virus varies among geographic regions, although its mutation rate is very low (approximately 1% per thousand years) in comparison with other viruses. The present study determined the genetic diversity of HTLV-1 in the metropolitan region of Belém, in northern Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548878/natural-products-as-modulators-of-the-nuclear-receptors-and-metabolic-sensors-lxr-fxr-and-rxr
#12
REVIEW
Verena Hiebl, Angela Ladurner, Simone Latkolik, Verena M Dirsch
Nuclear receptors (NRs) represent attractive targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In addition, natural products are an interesting pool of potential ligands since they have been refined under evolutionary pressure to interact with proteins or other biological targets. This review aims to briefly summarize current basic knowledge regarding the liver X (LXR) and farnesoid X receptors (FXR) that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXR). Natural product-based ligands for these receptors are summarized and the potential of LXR, FXR and RXR as targets in precision medicine is discussed...
March 13, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546478/transcriptome-mining-and-in-silico-structural-and-functional-analysis-of-ascorbic-acid-and-tartaric-acid-biosynthesis-pathway-enzymes-in-rose-scanted-geranium
#13
Lokesh K Narnoliya, Rajender S Sangwan, Sudhir P Singh
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is widely known as aromatic and medicinal herb, accumulating specialized metabolites of high economic importance, such as essential oils, ascorbic acid, and tartaric acid. Ascorbic acid and tartaric acid are multifunctional metabolites of human value to be used as vital antioxidants and flavor enhancing agents in food products. No information is available related to the structural and functional properties of the enzymes involved in ascorbic acid and tartaric acid biosynthesis in rose-scented geranium...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543231/a-point-mutation-in-the-pre-zrs-disrupts-sonic-hedgehog-expression-in-the-limb-bud-and-results-in-triphalangeal-thumb-polysyndactyly-syndrome
#14
Jacob W P Potuijt, Martijn Baas, Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Hannie Douben, Picard Nguyen, Deon J Venter, Renée Gallagher, Sigrid M Swagemakers, Steven E R Hovius, Christianne A van Nieuwenhoven, Robert-Jan H Galjaard, Peter J van der Spek, Nadav Ahituv, Annelies de Klein
PurposeThe zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is an enhancer that regulates sonic hedgehog during embryonic limb development. Recently, mutations in a noncoding evolutionary conserved sequence 500 bp upstream of the ZRS, termed the pre-ZRS (pZRS), have been associated with polydactyly in dogs and humans. Here, we report the first case of triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPT-PS) to be associated with mutations in this region and show via mouse enhancer assays how this mutation leads to ectopic expression throughout the developing limb bud...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516554/cultural-competence-in-healthcare-in-the-community-a-concept-analysis
#15
Saras Henderson, Maria Horne, Ruth Hills, Elizabeth Kendall
This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511571/private-collection-high-correlation-of-sample-collection-and-patient-admission-date-in-clinical-microbiological-testing-complicates-sharing-of-phylodynamic-metadata
#16
Ryan C Shean, Alexander L Greninger
Infectious pathogens are known for their rapid evolutionary rates with new mutations arising over days to weeks. The ability to rapidly recover whole genome sequences and analyze the spread and evolution of pathogens using genetic information and pathogen collection dates has lead to interest in real-time tracking of infectious transmission and outbreaks. However, the level of temporal resolution afforded by these analyses may conflict with definitions of what constitutes protected health information (PHI) and privacy requirements for de-identification for publication and public sharing of research data and metadata...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493660/core-principles-of-evolutionary-medicine-a-delphi-study
#17
COMMENT
Daniel Z Grunspan, Randolph M Nesse, M Elizabeth Barnes, Sara E Brownell
Background and objectives: Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492264/the-importance-of-evolutionary-medicine-in-developing-countries-a-case-for-pakistan-s-medical-schools
#18
REVIEW
Syed Faaiz Enam, Shumaila Hashmi
Evolutionary Medicine (EM) is a fundamental science exploring why our bodies are plagued with disease and hindered by limitations. EM views the body as an assortment of benefits, mistakes, and compromises molded over millennia. It highlights the role of evolution in numerous diseases encountered in community and family medicine clinics of developing countries. It enables us to ask informed questions and develop novel responses to global health problems. An understanding of the field is thus crucial for budding doctors, but its study is currently limited to a handful of medical schools in high-income countries...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492263/a-roadmap-for-core-concepts-in-evolutionary-medicine
#19
EDITORIAL
Charles L Nunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484301/the-one-health-concept-10-years-old-and-a-long-road-ahead
#20
REVIEW
Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón, Patrick Mavingui, Gilles Boetsch, Jérôme Boissier, Frédéric Darriet, Priscilla Duboz, Clémentine Fritsch, Patrick Giraudoux, Frédérique Le Roux, Serge Morand, Christine Paillard, Dominique Pontier, Cédric Sueur, Yann Voituron
Over the past decade, a significant increase in the circulation of infectious agents was observed. With the spread and emergence of epizootics, zoonoses, and epidemics, the risks of pandemics became more and more critical. Human and animal health has also been threatened by antimicrobial resistance, environmental pollution, and the development of multifactorial and chronic diseases. This highlighted the increasing globalization of health risks and the importance of the human-animal-ecosystem interface in the evolution and emergence of pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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