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Aortic disease

Malgorzata Karbowska, Tomasz W Kaminski, Beata Znorko, Tomasz Domaniewski, Tomasz Misztal, Tomasz Rusak, Anna Pryczynicz, Katarzyna Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Krystyna Pawlak, Dariusz Pawlak
Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a 20-fold higher risk of dying due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), primarily thrombosis following vascular injury. CKD is connected with retention of uremic toxins, especially indoxyl sulfate (IS), which are currently considered as a non-classical CKD-specific risk factor for CVDs. The present study aimed to examine the effect of chronic exposure to IS on the hemostatic system and arterial thrombosis in a model without greater interferences from the uremic milieu consisting of additional uremic toxins...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cédric Draulans, Steven Joniau, Valérie Fonteyne, Louke Delrue, Karel Decaestecker, Wouter Everaerts, Piet Dirix, Laura Van den Bergh, Wouter Crijns, Hans Vandendriessche, Lodewijk Van Wynsberge, Piet Ost, Nicolaas Lumen, Pieterjan Buelens, Karin Haustermans, Charlien Berghen, Gert De Meerleer
BACKGROUND: In patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with histopathologically proven pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis (pN1) after extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND), multimodality treatment consisting of treatment of the primary tumor and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) offers promising results, leading to better cause-specific survival rates compared with ADT alone. However, in case more than one pelvic LN is invaded by the tumor, approximately 40% of the patients relapse biochemically and clinically...
December 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Francesco Giannini, Luca Baldetti, Guglielmo Gallone, Georgios Tzanis, Azeem Latib, Antonio Colombo
Although the field of transcatheter therapies for valvular heart disease (VHD) is continuously expanding in western countries, uptake of this treatment in Asia has been slow, mainly due to the high cost of devices, need for specific training programs, and lack of specialized heart teams and dedicated structures. Moreover, anatomic considerations of the Asian population, such as smaller aorta and peripheral vessel size, high prevalence of bicuspid aortic valves, high calcium burden of stenotic aortic valve leaflets, low coronary ostia, and high prevalence of rheumatic etiology, might raise concerns about feasibility, risk of procedural complications, prosthesis durability, and long-term outcomes after transcatheter treatment of VHD...
December 18, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Emma Altobelli, Leonardo Rapacchietta, Valerio F Profeta, Roberto Fagnano
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for AAA. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and we performed a meta-analysis that evaluated the following risk factors: gender, smoking habits, hypertension, coronary artery disease and family history of AAA...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michel Villatoro-Villar, Michael S Bold, Kenneth J Warrington, Cynthia S Crowson, Gaurav Goyal, Mithun Shah, Ronald S Go, Matthew J Koster
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare histiocytosis of the "L" (Langerhans) group with multisystem involvement that can affect the large and medium-sized arteries mimicking vasculitis. Aortic involvement is common but the frequency and outcome of aortic branch vessel abnormalities are less well described.Patients with ECD were retrospectively identified. Images containing information of arterial involvement within 6 months of diagnosis were considered baseline and compared to last follow-up studies...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wouter Willaert, Sarah Cosyns, Wim Ceelen
The progression of colon cancer (CC) involves hematogenous and lymphatic spread to locoregional lymph nodes (LN), distant LN, and metastatic sites including the liver. The biological mechanisms that govern CC progression remain elusive. The Halsted model assumes an orderly, stepwise progression from the primary tumor to nearby nodes, henceforth to anatomically more distant nodes, and ultimately to distant organs. The Fisher model, on the other hand, regards the release of metastatic cells as early and essentially random events...
December 13, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Zaiqiang Yu, Masahito Minakawa, Norihiro Kondo, Kazuyuki Daitoku, Ikuo Fukuda
INTRODUCTION: Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) combined with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a rare vascular disease. One stage open surgery to treat this condition, becomes a challenge for our cardiovascular surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 69-year-old man presented with a saccular type aortic arch aneurysm, shaggy aorta and severe atherosclerotic stenosis of the thoracoabdominal aorta with middle aortic syndrome and aberrant right subclavian artery, renovascular hypertension, renal dysfunction, and intermittent claudication of both legs...
November 24, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jillian M Haines
Megaesophagus affects dogs worldwide but limited information is available regarding its characteristics in the general population of dogs. The objectives of this study were to provide information on a large population of dogs diagnosed with megaesophagus in regards to population characteristics, medical and family history, diagnosis, concurrent disease, and predisposing factors. A link to a web-based survey was provided on megaesophagus support websites and 838 eligible surveys were evaluated. Breeds most frequently associated with congenital megaesophagus were German shepherds, mixed breed "goldendoodles", Labrador retrievers, great Danes, and dachshunds...
November 30, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Leonardo Elia, Gianluigi Condorelli
Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death and disability. Despite enormous progress in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment over the years, the incidence of this group of pathologies continues to increase worldwide. An important step in reversing this situation is filling in the gaps we have in our understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis and of the pathogenic processes leading to disease. On this point, the discovery of epigenetics - heritable chemical modifications of DNA bases and histone proteins, as well as non-coding RNA-based mechanisms regulating gene expression - has opened up new vistas...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Kenta Yoshida, Koichi Uemura, Masahiro Inoue, Nobuhiko Mizuno, Takayuki Murakami, Futoshi Tsuchiya
A 68-year-old man with swelling of his left testis was referred to our hospital. There was no history of hematologic disease. The diameter of the testicular mass was 40 mm. We performed a left orchiectomy. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse infiltration of immature neoplastic cells with a high nuclearcytoplasmic ratio. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cells were positive for myeloperoxidase, while T-cell and B-cell markers were negative. There was no evidence of leukemia cells in peripheral blood or in bone marrow...
November 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Daryl Sudasena, Dinu Valentin Balanescu, Teodora Donisan, Saamir Hassan, Nicolas Palaskas, Peter Kim, Kaveh Karimzad, Juan Lopez-Mattei, Salman Arain, K Lance Gould, Cezar Iliescu
The use of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors such as sorafenib is limited by a risk of severe cardiovascular toxicity. A 28-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia treated with prednisone, tacrolimus, and sorafenib following stem cell transplantation presented with severe bilateral lower extremity claudication. The patient was discharged against medical advice prior to finalizing a cardiovascular evaluation, but returned 1 week later with signs suggestive of septic shock. Laboratory tests revealed troponin I of 12...
December 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Yuanli Lei, Zhelong Jiang, Jiaozhen Chen, Dongsheng Wang, Guangliang Hong, Shouquan Chen
In acute aortic dissection (AD) in pregnancy, increased cardiovascular stress due to pregnancy is an important factor leading to an emergent aortic event. It is rare but often results in a devastating event for both the pregnant patient and the foetus. Two cases of acute AD (Stanford type A) in pregnant females are presented in the present study. The patients were diagnosed via echocardiography, and the diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomography angiography prior to aortic surgery. Up to 50% of ADs in pregnancy occur in patients with fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene mutations...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Romain Capoulade, Jean-Jacques Schott, Thierry Le Tourneau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Elizabeth Chandy, Alexander Ivanov, Devindra S Dabiesingh, Alexandra Grossman, Prasanthi Sunkesula, Lakshmi Velagapudi, Virna L Sales, Edward J Colombo, Igor Klem, Terrence J Sacchi, John F Heitner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), plaque destabilization and vessel inflammation, represented by vessel edema, often occur simultaneously in multiple coronaries, as well as extend to the cerebrovascular system. Our aim was to determine whether the inflammatory vascular processes occurring within the coronaries during ACS extend simultaneously to the descending aorta. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 111 patients (56 ACS patients and 55 non-ACS patients with known coronary artery disease) to undergo cardiac magnetic resonance of the thoracic aortic wall at presentation and at three-month follow-up...
2018: PloS One
Jing Ma, Dan Zhao, Xiaolin Wang, Chuanrui Ma, Ke Feng, Shuang Zhang, Yuanli Chen, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Ke Qian, Xiaoju Li, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
Disorders of lipid metabolism and inflammation play an important role in atherosclerosis. LongShengZhi capsule (LSZ), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treatment of patients with vascular diseases for many years. Herein, we determined the effect of LSZ on the progression of established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient (apoE) mice. ApoE mice were pre-fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerosis, then started with LSZ treatment contained in HFD for 10 weeks. Although LSZ had little effect on HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia, it substantially reduced en face and sinus aortic lesions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Nidhish Tiwari, Nidhi Madan
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly and it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is also highly prevalent in elderly patients with AS, and AS patients with hypertension have worse outcomes. Accurate assessment of AS severity and understanding its relationship with arterial compliance has become increasingly important as the options for valve management, particularly transcatheter interventions, have grown. The parameters used for quantifying stenosis severity have traditionally mainly focused on the valve itself...
2018: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
Jibo Han, Xiaowen Shi, Zhanxiong Zheng, Bin Zhang, Fengjie Shi, Liqin Jiang, Jianjiang Xu
Introduction: Schisandrin B (SchB), the main active constituent in Schisandra chinensis , has antioxidant activities. Endothelial dysfunction leads to various cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is a crucial pathophysiological mechanism underpinning endothelial dysfunction. Methods: We elucidated the role and underlying mechanisms of SchB in angiotensin II-induced rat aortic endothelial-cell deficits and explored targets of SchB through siRNA analysis and molecular docking...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Sanjay Sinha, Jamil Aboulhosn, Jeremy Asnes, Martin Bocks, Evan Zahn, Bryan H Goldstein, Jeffrey Zampi, William Hellenbrand, Morris Salem, Daniel Levi
OBJECTIVES: To describe a multi-center experience of percutaneous transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) using the Edwards Sapien S3 Valve. BACKGROUND: Off-label use of the Sapien S3 valve can allow for TPVR in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and large diameter dysfunctional right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The initial experience at five centers with the SAPIEN S3 valve for TPVR is presented with a focus on procedural techniques, success, complications, and efficacy...
December 7, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Mingyue Liu, Qingdong Zeng, Yongnan Li, Gang Liu, Bingyang Ji
Brain injury associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been recognized in patients with congenital heart diseases and those undergoing aortic arch surgeries. However, the preclinical investigation of long-term cerebral injury and recovery mechanisms related to DHCA has been restricted to a satisfactory recovery animal model with a determined recovery time. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term surviving DHCA model without blood priming in rats, in order to investigate the pathophysiology of long-term complications in further studies...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Hao Nie, Hong-Xia Wang, Cui Tian, Hua-Liang Ren, Fang-Da Li, Chao-Yu Wang, Hui-Hua Li, Yue-Hong Zheng
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Chemokine receptor CXCR2 mediates inflammatory cell chemotaxis in several diseases. However, the role of CXCR2 in AAA and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we found that the CXCR2 expressions in AAA tissues from human and angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo E-/- ) mice were significantly increased. The pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 (SB265610) markedly reduced Ang II-induced AAA formation...
December 7, 2018: Heart and Vessels
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