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Aortic disease

Xinjian Zhang, Shuai Liu, Xinyu Weng, Teng Wu, Liming Yu, Yong Xu, Junli Guo
Endothelial cell derived secretive factors play pivotal roles maintaining the homeostasis by influencing the behaviors of other cells. When dysregulated, these factors may contribute to the disruption of physiological integrity and promote disease genesis in a number of different tissues and organs. In the present study we investigated how targeted deletion of brahma related gene 1 (Brg1), a chromatin remodeling protein, in endothelium might affect the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) induced by calcium chloride (CaCl2 )...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Tomasz Roleder, Michał Hawranek, Tomasz Gąsior, Daniel Cieśla, Marian Zembala, Wojciech Wojakowski, Mariusz Gąsior, Zbigniew Gąsior
Introduction During the last decade, aortic stenosis (AS) has emerged as one of the most significant subjects in cardiovascular diseases. Objectives The following study extracted data from the local registry to present the characteristics of AS patients. Patients and methods The report referred to the SILCARD database, which is based on the agreement between Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases in Zabrze and the Regional Department of National Health Fund in Katowice to conduct a comprehensive analysis of patients with cardiovascular diseases in the Silesian Province...
October 18, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Chunghee Joo, Joo-Won Min, Giyong Noh, Jaeho Seo
INTRODUCTION: Aortic dissection is a very rare but life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality. Unexpected sudden cardiac death due to aortic rupture following laparoscopic appendectomy is very rare and may be difficult to diagnose. However, early diagnosis of aortic dissection is essential for the timely treatment and outcome of aortic dissection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old man underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy. Postoperatively, the patient complained of dyspnea and chest pain...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nitin Sabharwal, Abhinav Saxena, Aleksandre Toreli, Vineet Meghrajani, Bilal Malik, Jacob Shani
Anomalous aortic origin of coronary arteries from the opposite sinus (AAOCA) is a rare finding which, when discovered, raises questions regarding its approach and management. Modern imaging techniques can help us to identify certain anatomical features of the anomalous coronary arteries to further classify them as benign or malignant anomalies. We present a case of a 64-year-old male who had an incidental finding of AAOCA with the left anterior descending artery arising from the right coronary cusp from an ostium anterior to the one that gave rise to both the left circumflex artery and right coronary artery (RCA)...
August 3, 2018: Curēus
Shahzad Alam, Akunuri Shalini, Rajesh G Hegde, Rufaida Mazahir, Akanksha Jain
Objective: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the timing of first extubation and compare the outcome of patient extubated early with others; we also evaluated the predictors of early extubation in our cohort. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study included children <1 year of age undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Timing of first extubation was noted, and patients were dichotomized in the group taking 6 h after completion of surgery as cutoff for early extubation...
October 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Fanny Laroumanie, Arina Korneva, Matthew R Bersi, Matthew R Alexander, Liang Xiao, Xue Zhong, Justin P Van Beusecum, Yuhan Chen, Mohamed A Saleh, William G McMaster, Kyle A Gavulic, Bethany L Dale, Shilin Zhao, Yan Guo, Yu Shyr, Daniel S Perrien, Nancy J Cox, John A Curci, Jay D Humphrey, Meena S Madhur
Aortic dissection (AD) is a life-threatening vascular disease with limited treatment strategies. Here, we show that loss of the GWAS-identified SH2B3 gene, encoding lymphocyte adaptor protein LNK, markedly increases susceptibility to acute AD and rupture in response to angiotensin (Ang) II infusion. As early as day 3 following Ang II infusion, prior to the development of AD, Lnk-/- aortas display altered mechanical properties, increased elastin breaks, collagen thinning, enhanced neutrophil accumulation, and increased MMP-9 activity compared with WT mice...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Perry V Halushka, Andrew J Goodwin, Marc K Halushka
Cardiovascular diseases exist across all developed countries societies. Biomarkers that can predict or diagnose diseases early in their pathogeneses can reduce their morbidity and mortality in afflicted individuals. microRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that modulate translation and have been identified as potential fluid-based biomarkers across numerous maladies. We describe the current state of cardiovascular disease biomarkers across a range of diseases, including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, hypertension, heart failure, heart transplantation, aortic stenosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sepsis...
October 17, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Pinelopi Grigoropoulou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Maria Sykara, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increased aortic stiffness, assessed with the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Statins reduce effectively cardiovascular disease and mortality in high-risk patients. The aim of this prospective non-randomized, observational study was to examine the impact of treatment with either 10 mg atorvastatin plus diet or diet alone on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia...
October 17, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Jiechang Zhu, Xiangchen Dai, Phasakorn Noiniyom, Yudong Luo, Hailun Fan, Zhou Feng, Yiwei Zhang, Fanguo Hu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of fenestrated thoracic endovascular aortic repair (f-TEVAR) using physician-modified stent grafts (PMSGs) in zone 0 and zone 1 for aortic arch diseases. METHODS: f-TEVAR using PMSGs in Z0 and Z1 was performed on ten high-risk patients for open surgery from November 2015 to September 2017. Indications were complicated acute type B dissection (ABAD) with retrograde dissection involving the mid-arch (n = 1), distal arch aneurysms (n = 3), mid-arch aneurysms of the inner arch curvature (n = 3) and penetrating aortic ulcer located in the mid- or proximal arch (n = 3)...
October 11, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Aldis H Petriceks, John C Olivas, Darren Salmi
The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three competencies, see
January 2018: Academic Pathology
Sarah C Skinner, Mor Diaw, Vincent Pialoux, Maïmouna Ndour Mbaye, Pauline Mury, Philomène Lopez, Delphine Bousquet, Fatou Gueye, Demba Diedhiou, Philippe Joly, Céline Renoux, Djiby Sow, Saliou Diop, Brigitte Ranque, Agnès Vinet, Abdoulaye Samb, Nicolas Guillot, Philippe Connes
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing in Sub-Saharan Africa, where sickle-cell trait (SCT) is also frequent. Although SCT is generally considered a benign condition, evidence suggests that SCT could exaggerate vascular dysfunction in T2D. However, it remains unclear whether SCT could increase the risk of the development of T2D complications. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether T2D complications were more prevalent among Senegalese individuals with SCT and T2D than among those with T2D only...
October 16, 2018: Diabetes Care
Yulia N Grigorova, Wen Wei, Natalia Petrashevskaya, Valentina Zernetkina, Ondrej Juhasz, Rachel Fenner, Christian Gilbert, Edward G Lakatta, Joseph I Shapiro, Alexei Y Bagrov, Olga V Fedorova
High salt (HS) intake stimulates the production of marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous steroidal Na/K-ATPase ligand, which activates profibrotic signaling. HS is accompanied by a blood pressure (BP) increase in salt-sensitive hypertension, but not in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether HS stimulates MBG production and activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) profibrotic signaling in young normotensive rats, and whether these changes can be reversed by reducing salt to a normal salt (NS) level...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gaoyang Guo, Linhe Jin, Wanyu Jin, Liang Chen, Yang Lei, Yunbing Wang
In recent years, the number of heart valve replacements has multiplied with valve diseases because of aging populations and the surge in rheumatic heart disease in young people. Among them, bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) have become increasingly popular. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) valve as an emerging BHV has been increasingly applied to patients. However, the current commercially used BHVs treated with glutaraldehyde (Glut) still face the problem of durability. BHVs derived from Glut-treated xenogenetic tissues would undergo structural degeneration and calcification sometimes even as short as less than 10 years...
October 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Xin Li, Daniel Staub, Vasileios Rafailidis, Mohammed Al-Natour, Sanjeeva Kalva, Sasan Partovi
Ultrasound has been established as an important diagnostic tool in assessing vascular abnormalities. Standard B-mode and Doppler techniques have inherent limitations with regards to detection of slow flow and small vasculature. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a complementary tool and is useful in assessing both the macro- and microvascular anatomy of the aorta. CEUS can also provide valuable physiological information in real-time scanning sessions due to the physical and safety profiles of the administered microbubbles...
October 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Tawfik Addi, Stéphane Poitevin, Nathalie McKay, Kamel Eddine El Mecherfi, Omar Kheroua, Noémie Jourde-Chiche, Alix de Macedo, Bertrand Gondouin, Claire Cerini, Philippe Brunet, Françoise Dignat-George, Stéphane Burtey, Laetitia Dou
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high risk of thrombosis. Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA), an indolic uremic toxin, induces the expression of tissue factor (TF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study aimed to understand the signaling pathways involved in AhR-mediated TF induction by IAA. We incubated human endothelial cells with IAA at 50 µM, the maximal concentration found in patients with CKD. IAA induced TF expression in different types of human endothelial cells: umbilical vein (HUVEC), aortic (HAoEC), and cardiac-derived microvascular (HMVEC-C)...
October 15, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Masahiro Yura, Tsunehiro Takahashi, Kazumasa Fukuda, Rieko Nakamura, Norihito Wada, Junichi Fukada, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Hiroya Takeuchi, Naoyuki Shigematsu, Yuko Kitagawa
We report a patient with highly advanced gastric carcinoma who was treated successfully with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) comprising S-1 and cisplatin. The patient was a 71-year-old male who was diagnosed with advanced gastric carcinoma by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) by medical examination. EGD demonstrated type 3 advanced gastric carcinoma in the posterior wall of the upper gastric body. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed that the gastric wall was thickened due to gastric primary tumor, and large lymph nodes (LNs) including the lesser curvature LN, anterosuperior LN along the common hepatic artery and some para-aortic LNs were detected...
September 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Fahad Khan, Muhammad Naveed Sattar, Sohaib Khan, Nawaz Lashari
Infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but a very serious infection during pregnancy. In most cases, the disease tends to run a subacute course and involves the mitral valve. We present the case of a 25-year old pregnant female who developed shortness of breath and fever 2 weeks prior to parturition. The symptoms did not subside after her delivery, which was carried out via c-section. Based on vegetations attached to aortic valve cusps and positive blood culture for staphylococcus Aureus, the diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Laura Galian-Gay, Amelia Carro Hevia, Gisela Teixido-Turà, José Rodríguez Palomares, Laura Gutiérrez-Moreno, Giuliana Maldonado, María Teresa Gonzàlez-Alujas, Augusto Sao-Aviles, Pastora Gallego, Francisco Calvo-Iglesias, Javier Bermejo, Juan Robledo-Carmona, Violeta Sánchez, Daniel Saura, Teresa Sevilla, Sergio Burillo-Sanz, Andrea Guala, David Garcia-Dorado, Arturo Evangelista
OBJECTIVE: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of BAV in first-degree relatives (FDR) and the inheritance pattern according to different morphotypes and aortic dilation. METHODS: BAV probands were consecutively studied at eight tertiary referral centres. After sequential screening, FDR were included in the study. The BAV morphotype, aortic dilation and aortic phenotype were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography...
October 15, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Alessandra Feraco, Massimiliano Caprio
Atherosclerosis is due to a chronic inflammatory response affecting vascular endothelium and is promoted by several factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. To date, there is evidence to support a role for circulating aldosterone as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mouse models have been generated to study cellular and molecular processes leading to atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we describe a protocol that takes advantage of continuous infusion of aldosterone in ApoE-/- mice and generates atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic root after 4 weeks of treatment...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Oren M Rotman, Matteo Bianchi, Ram P Ghosh, Brandon Kovarovic, Danny Bluestein
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an effective minimally-invasive alternative to surgical valve replacement in medium- to high-risk, elderly patients with calcific aortic valve disease and severe aortic stenosis. The rapid growth of the TAVR devices market has led to a high variety of designs, each aiming to address persistent complications associated with TAVR valves that may hamper the anticipated expansion of TAVR utility. Areas Covered: Here we outline the challenges and the technical demands that TAVR devices need to address for achieving the desired expansion, and review design aspects of selected, latest generation, TAVR valves of both clinically-used and investigational devices...
October 15, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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