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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347688/infection-dynamics-on-spatial-small-world-network-models
#1
Bryan Iotti, Alberto Antonioni, Seth Bullock, Christian Darabos, Marco Tomassini, Mario Giacobini
The study of complex networks, and in particular of social networks, has mostly concentrated on relational networks, abstracting the distance between nodes. Spatial networks are, however, extremely relevant in our daily lives, and a large body of research exists to show that the distances between nodes greatly influence the cost and probability of establishing and maintaining a link. A random geometric graph (RGG) is the main type of synthetic network model used to mimic the statistical properties and behavior of many social networks...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347413/off-diagonal-expansion-quantum-monte-carlo
#2
Tameem Albash, Gene Wagenbreth, Itay Hen
We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm designed to simulate quantum as well as classical systems at equilibrium, bridging the algorithmic gap between quantum and classical thermal simulation algorithms. The method is based on a decomposition of the quantum partition function that can be viewed as a series expansion about its classical part. We argue that the algorithm not only provides a theoretical advancement in the field of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but is optimally suited to tackle quantum many-body systems that exhibit a range of behaviors from "fully quantum" to "fully classical," in contrast to many existing methods...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345632/brain-machine-interfaces-for-controlling-lower-limb-powered-robotic-systems
#3
Yongtian He, David Eguren, José M Azorín, Robert Grossman, Trieu Phat Luu, Jose Luis Pepe Contreras-Vidal
Lower-limb, powered robotics systems such as exoskeletons and orthoses have emerged as novel robotic interventions to assist or rehabilitate people with walking disabilities. These devices are generally controlled by certain physical maneuvers, for example pressing buttons or shifting body weight. Although effective, these control schemes are not what humans naturally use. The usability and clinical relevance of these robotics systems could be further enhanced by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). A number of preliminary studies have been published on this topic, but a systematic understanding of the experimental design, tasks, and performance of BMI-exoskeleton systems for restoration of gait is lacking...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341760/correlated-photon-dynamics-in-dissipative-rydberg-media
#4
Emil Zeuthen, Michael J Gullans, Mohammad F Maghrebi, Alexey V Gorshkov
Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of a large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341698/general-linearized-theory-of-quantum-fluctuations-around-arbitrary-limit-cycles
#5
Carlos Navarrete-Benlloch, Talitha Weiss, Stefan Walter, Germán J de Valcárcel
The theory of Gaussian quantum fluctuations around classical steady states in nonlinear quantum-optical systems (also known as standard linearization) is a cornerstone for the analysis of such systems. Its simplicity, together with its accuracy far from critical points or situations where the nonlinearity reaches the strong coupling regime, has turned it into a widespread technique, being the first method of choice in most works on the subject. However, such a technique finds strong practical and conceptual complications when one tries to apply it to situations in which the classical long-time solution is time dependent, a most prominent example being spontaneous limit-cycle formation...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335620/maternal-dominance-and-additive-genetic-effects-in-nile-tilapia-influence-on-growth-fillet-yield-and-body-size-traits
#6
R Joshi, J A Woolliams, The Meuwissen, H M Gjøen
There are only few studies of dominance effects in non-inbred aquaculture species, since commonly used mating designs often have low power to separate dominance, maternal and common environmental effects. Here, a factorial design with reciprocal cross, common rearing of eggs and subsequent lifecycle stages and pedigree assignment using DNA microsatellites was used to separate these effects and estimate dominance (d2) and maternal (m2) ratios in Nile tilapia for six commercial traits. The study included observations on 2524 offspring from 155 full-sib families...
January 16, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331210/to-roll-the-eyes-and-snap-a-bite-function-development-and-evolution-of-craniofacial-muscles
#7
REVIEW
Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328645/assessing-intermolecular-interactions-in-guest-free-clathrate-hydrate-systems
#8
Iván León-Merino, Raúl Rodríguez-Segundo, Daniel J Arismendi-Arrieta, Rita Prosmiti
Recently, empty hydrate structures sI, sII, sH and others have been proposed as low-density ice structures by both experimental observations and computer simulations. Some of them have been synthesized in the laboratory and motivates to reexamine the stability of such guest-free clathrate structures. Using empirical and ab initio-based water models, as well as dispersion-corrected density functional theory approaches, we predict their stability, including cooperative many-body effects, in comparison with reference data from converged wavefunction-based DF-MP2 electronic structure calculations...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328033/-elemental-status-of-patients-with-various-forms-of-vitiligo
#9
N I Tsiskarishvili, A Katsitadze, N V Tsiskarishvili, I Charischarishvili
Vitiligo is a multifactorial disease in which, in each specific case of its manifestation, different mechanisms of its pathogenesis and different levels of melanin formation in the skin can be involved. Skin is one of the most metabolically active organs. Carrying out a number of vital functions (barrier, protective, respiratory, excretory, metabolic, immune, etc.), it needs microelementss. Of the 92 naturally occurring chemical elements, 81 are found in the human body. Lack of the vital elements, leads to the emergence of diseases, which are based on deficiency, excess or imbalance of micro- and macroelements in the body...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314554/going-from-evidence-to-recommendations-can-grade-get-us-there
#10
Mathew Mercuri, Brian Baigrie, Ross E G Upshur
The evidence based medicine movement has championed the need for objective and transparent methods of clinical guideline development. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was developed for that purpose. Central to this framework is criteria for assessing the quality of evidence from clinical studies and the impact that body of evidence should have on our confidence in the clinical effectiveness of a therapy under examination. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation has been adopted by a number of professional medical societies and organizations as a means for orienting the development of clinical guidelines...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309270/a-simple-model-for-predicting-two-year-risk-of-diabetes-development-in-individuals-with-prediabetes
#11
Harry Glauber, William M Vollmer, Gregory A Nichols
CONTEXT: Given the dramatic rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in recent decades, identifying individuals at increased risk of T2DM and validating methods to reduce their risk of disease progression is important. With more than one-third of US adults having prediabetes, a more precise stratification of absolute risk of T2DM incidence would help in prioritizing prevention efforts. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple and clinically useful schema to stratify short-term (2-year) absolute risk of T2DM...
2018: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303438/prospective-randomized-blinded-and-placebo-controlled-study-of-cerebrolysin-dose-response-effects-on-long-term-functional-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Yanlu Zhang, Michael Chopp, Zheng Gang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Li Zhang, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Stefan Winter, Hemma Brandstätter, Asim Mahmood, Ye Xiong
OBJECTIVE Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation that mimics the properties of neurotrophic factors and has had beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). To further evaluate treatment schemes, the authors assessed the dose-response of Cerebrolysin on functional improvement in a rat model of mild TBI (mTBI). METHODS This dose-response study was a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled preclinical experiment. Male Wistar adult rats, subjected to mTBI induced by a closed head impact, were treated randomly with 0 (saline as placebo), 0...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290248/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-isolated-hilar-and-mediastinal-non-small-cell-lung-cancers
#13
Zachary D Horne, Adam H Richman, Michael J Dohopolski, David A Clump, Steven A Burton, Dwight E Heron
OBJECTIVES: The seminal phase II trial for pulmonary stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) suggested that SBRT to central lesions resulted in unacceptable toxicity. Alternative dose-fractionation schemes have been proposed which may improve safety without compromise of efficacy. We report our institutional outcomes of SBRT for hilar/mediastinal non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with NSCLC in a hilar or mediastinal nodal station which was treated with SBRT...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285994/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-countermovement-performance-after-short-term-traditional-and-daily-undulated-loaded-vertical-jump-training
#14
Thiemo Pelzer, Boris Ullrich, Stefan Endler, Christian Rasche, Mark Pfeiffer
In order to assess lower extremity muscle mechanical properties in athletes, power-load characteristics during multi-joint tasks are frequently examined. This work compared 6 weeks of traditional (TP) and daily-undulated (DUP) periodized loaded countermovement jumping (CMJ). 20 amateur athletes (age: 24.2 ± 2.6 years, height: 175.6 ± 7.1 cm, body mass: 71.5 ± 7.7 kg, 10 males/10 females) exercised three times weekly using maximal CMJs with loads corresponding to 0%, 15% and 30% of body mass. Prior to the training period, subjects were once-only assigned by random to either the TP or DUP training scheme...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282090/pharmacokinetic-and-safety-profile-of-tofacitinib-in-children-with-polyarticular-course-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-results-of-a-phase-1-open-label-multicenter-study
#15
Nicolino Ruperto, Hermine I Brunner, Zbigniew Zuber, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Daniel J Kingsbury, Ivan Foeldvari, Gerd Horneff, Elzbieta Smolewska, Richard K Vehe, Anasuya Hazra, Rong Wang, Charles A Mebus, Christine Alvey, Manisha Lamba, Sriram Krishnaswami, Thomas C Stock, Min Wang, Ricardo Suehiro, Alberto Martini, Daniel J Lovell
BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common pediatric rheumatic disease and a leading cause of childhood disability. The objective of this study was to characterize the PK, safety, and taste acceptability of tofacitinib in patients with JIA. METHODS: This Phase 1, open-label, multiple-dose (twice daily [BID] for 5 days) study of tofacitinib in patients with active (≥ 5 joints) polyarticular course JIA was conducted from March 2013-December 2015...
December 28, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273745/imaging-the-square-of-the-correlated-two-electron-wave-function-of-a-hydrogen-molecule
#16
M Waitz, R Y Bello, D Metz, J Lower, F Trinter, C Schober, M Keiling, U Lenz, M Pitzer, K Mertens, M Martins, J Viefhaus, S Klumpp, T Weber, L Ph H Schmidt, J B Williams, M S Schöffler, V V Serov, A S Kheifets, L Argenti, A Palacios, F Martín, T Jahnke, R Dörner
The toolbox for imaging molecules is well-equipped today. Some techniques visualize the geometrical structure, others the electron density or electron orbitals. Molecules are many-body systems for which the correlation between the constituents is decisive and the spatial and the momentum distribution of one electron depends on those of the other electrons and the nuclei. Such correlations have escaped direct observation by imaging techniques so far. Here, we implement an imaging scheme which visualizes correlations between electrons by coincident detection of the reaction fragments after high energy photofragmentation...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260635/comparison-of-two-indices-to-annotate-complications-after-radical-nephroureterectomy
#17
Rosa Park, Christopher Rjepaj, Kathleen Lehman, Jay D Raman
INTRODUCTION: The Clavien-Dindo (CD) and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) are two grading systems that annotate adverse events following surgical procedures. We compare these two classification systems in a cohort of patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 110 consecutive RNU patients were reviewed for complications occurring within 30 days of surgery. Grading by the CD classification system and values for CCI were calculated...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244776/internet-of-things-iot-based-design-of-a-secure-and-lightweight-body-area-network-ban-healthcare-system
#18
Yong-Yuan Deng, Chin-Ling Chen, Woei-Jiunn Tsaur, Yung-Wen Tang, Jung-Hsuan Chen
As sensor networks and cloud computation technologies have rapidly developed over recent years, many services and applications integrating these technologies into daily life have come together as an Internet of Things (IoT). At the same time, aging populations have increased the need for expanded and more efficient elderly care services. Fortunately, elderly people can now wear sensing devices which relay data to a personal wireless device, forming a body area network (BAN). These personal wireless devices collect and integrate patients' personal physiological data, and then transmit the data to the backend of the network for related diagnostics...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244513/scission-free-energies-for-wormlike-surfactant-micelles-development-of-a-simulation-protocol-application-and-validation-for-personal-care-formulations
#19
Huan Wang, Xueming Tang, David Michael Eike, Ronald G Larson, Peter H Koenig
We present a scheme to calculate wormlike micelle scission free energies from a potential of mean force (PMF) derived from a Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM) applied to coarse grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. In contrast to previous related work, we use a specially chosen external potential based on a reaction coordinate that reversibly drives surfactants out of the nascent scission location. For the application to a model body wash formulation, we predict how addition of NaCl and small molecules such as perfume raw materials (PRMs) affect scission energies...
December 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227893/targeted-eco-pharmacovigilance-for-ketoprofen-in-the-environment-need-strategy-and-challenge
#20
REVIEW
Jun Wang, Shu-Qi Zhao, Meng-Ya Zhang, Bing-Shu He
Implementing "targeted" eco-pharmacovigilance(EPV) which focuses on individual or specific pharmaceuticals on a prioritised basis is a feasible, economical and customized approach to reduce the environmental concentrations and risks of pharmaceuticals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) remaining in environment are a kind of priority hazard substances, due to a notable case that diclofenac residues caused the loss of more than 99% of vultures across the Indian sub-continent. Ketoprofen, as another widely used NSAID with comparable or even higher global consumption than diclofenac, in the environment has been shown to present a potential risk to non-target terrestrial and aquatic species...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
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