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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915827/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-walking-program-in-a-disadvantaged-area-using-the-re-aim-framework-by-mixed-methods
#1
Camila Tiome Baba, Isabela Martins Oliveira, Adriele Evelyn Ferreira Silva, Leonardo Moreira Vieira, Natalia Caroline Cerri, Alex Antonio Florindo, Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: The positive health impact of physical activity (PA) is well known, yet a large proportion of the world's population remains sedentary. General PA programs are common as health promotion initiatives. However, effectiveness evaluations of such PA programs on individual and organizational aspects, which could inform the decision-making process of public health bodies are still lacking, particularly in the most socially disadvantaged areas, where health promotion schemes are particularly needed...
September 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915732/virial-coefficients-and-equations-of-state-for-hard-polyhedron-fluids
#2
M Eric Irrgang, Michael Engel, Andrew J Schultz, David A Kofke, Sharon C Glotzer
Hard polyhedra are a natural extension of the hard sphere model for simple fluids, but no general scheme exists for predicting the effect of shape on thermodynamic properties, even in fluids of moderate density. Only the second virial coefficient is known analytically for general convex shapes, so higher order equations of state have been elusive. Here we investigate high-precision state functions in the fluid phase of 14 representative polyhedra with different assembly behaviors. We discuss historic efforts in analytically approximating virial coefficients up to $B_4$ and numerically evaluating them to $B_8$ Using virial coefficients as inputs, we show the convergence properties for four equations of state for hard convex bodies...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903358/mri-based-radiotherapy-planning-method-using-rigid-image-registration-technique-combined-with-outer-body-correction-scheme-a-feasibility-study
#3
Ki Mun Kang, Hoon Sik Choi, Bae Kwon Jeong, Jin Ho Song, In-Bong Ha, Yun Hee Lee, Chul Hang Kim, Hojin Jeong
An alternative pseudo CT generation method for magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based radiotherapy planning was investigated in the work. A pseudo CT was initially generated using the rigid image registration between the planning MRI and previously acquired diagnostic CT scan. The pseudo CT generated was then refined to have the same morphology with that of the referenced planning image scan by applying the outer body correction scheme. This method was applied to some sample of brain image data and the feasibility of the method was assessed by comparing dosimetry results with those from the current gold standard CT-based calculations...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887812/a-comprehensive-approach-to-evaluating-and-classifying-sun-protective-clothing
#4
N J Downs, S L Harrison
BACKGROUND: National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and the USA. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF). OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric...
September 8, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886634/coherent-multi-dimensional-spectroscopy-at-optical-frequencies-in-a-single-beam-with-optical-readout
#5
Hélène Seiler, Samuel Palato, Patanjali Kambhampati
Ultrafast coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopies form a powerful set of techniques to unravel complex processes, ranging from light-harvesting, chemical exchange in biological systems to many-body interactions in quantum-confined materials. Yet these spectroscopies remain complex to implement at the high frequencies of vibrational and electronic transitions, thereby limiting their widespread use. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of two-dimensional spectroscopy at optical frequencies in a single beam. Femtosecond optical pulses are spectrally broadened to a relevant bandwidth and subsequently shaped into phase coherent pulse trains...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885546/an-energy-efficient-technique-using-electric-active-shielding-for-capacitive-coupling-intra-body-communication
#6
Chao Ma, Zhonghua Huang, Zhiqi Wang, Linxuan Zhou, Yinlin Li
Capacitive coupling intra-body communication (CC-IBC) has become one of the candidates for healthcare sensor networks due to its positive prevailing features of energy efficiency, transmission rate and security. Under the CC-IBC scheme, some of the electric field emitted from signal (SIG) electrode of the transmitter will couple directly to the ground (GND) electrode, acting equivalently as an internal impedance of the signal source and inducing considerable energy losses. However, none of the previous works have fully studied the problem...
September 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882809/the-user-knows-what-to-call-it-incorporating-patient-voice-through-user-contributed-tags-on-a-participatory-platform-about-health-management
#7
Annie T Chen, Rachel M Carriere, Samantha Jan Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Body listening, described as the act of paying attention to the body's signals and cues, can be an important component of long-term health management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate the Body Listening Project, an innovative effort to engage the public in the creation of a public resource-to leverage collective wisdom in the health domain. This project involved a website where people could contribute their experiences of and dialogue with others concerning body listening and self-management...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881936/searching-for-biotic-multipliers-of-climate-change
#8
Mark C Urban, Phoebe L Zarnetske, David K Skelly
As climates change, biologists need to prioritize which species to understand, predict, and protect. One way is to identify key species that are both sensitive to climate change and that disproportionately affect communities and ecosystems. These "biotic multipliers" provide efficient targets for research and conservation. Here, we propose eight mechanistic hypotheses related to impact and sensitivity that suggest that top consumers might often act as biotic multipliers of climate change. For impact, top consumers often affect communities and ecosystems through strong top-down effects...
July 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880372/the-making-of-a-moral-economy-women-s-views-of-monetary-transactions-in-an-egg-sharing-for-research-scheme
#9
Erica Haimes, Robin Williams
There are growing debates about the appropriateness of offering money in exchange for the provision of bodily materials for clinical treatment and research. The bioethics literature and many practice guidelines have generally been opposed to such entanglement, depicting the use of money as contaminating, creating undue inducement, exploitation and commodification of the human body. However, two elements have been missing from these debates: (i) the perspectives of those people providing bodily materials when money is offered; and (ii) systematic empirical engagement with the notion of 'money' itself...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872144/volume-segmentation-and-analysis-of-biological-materials-using-survos-super-region-volume-segmentation-workbench
#10
Michele C Darrow, Imanol Luengo, Mark Basham, Matthew C Spink, Sarah Irvine, Andrew P French, Alun W Ashton, Elizabeth M H Duke
Segmentation is the process of isolating specific regions or objects within an imaged volume, so that further study can be undertaken on these areas of interest. When considering the analysis of complex biological systems, the segmentation of three-dimensional image data is a time consuming and labor intensive step. With the increased availability of many imaging modalities and with automated data collection schemes, this poses an increased challenge for the modern experimental biologist to move from data to knowledge...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870730/mrsa-decolonization-control-comparing-a-single-day-swabbing-regimen-with-an-established-three-day-protocol
#11
Hagen Frickmann, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Andreas Hahn, Alicja Ludyga, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski
OBJECTIVES: Success of MRSA decolonization procedures is usually verified by control swabs of the colonized body region. This prospective controlled study compared a single-day regimen with a well-established 3-day scheme for noninferiority and adherence to the testing scheme. METHODS: Two sampling schemes for screening MRSA patients of a single study cohort at a German tertiary hospital 2 days after decolonization were compared regarding their ability to identify MRSA colonization in throat or nose...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864408/spinal-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-in-the-united-states-a-decade-long-nationwide-analysis-of-patient-demographics-practice-patterns-and-trends-over-time
#12
Shearwood McClelland, Ellen Kim, Peter G Passias, James D Murphy, Albert Attia, Jerry J Jaboin
Nationwide utilization of spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is not known; to address this void, the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) from 2004 to 2013 was used for analysis. Spinal SBRT was defined as 1-5 fractions (14-32Gy) delivered to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar or sacral spine. From 2004 to 2013, 1044 patients received spinal SBRT, most commonly in single-fraction (38%), three-fraction (26%) and five-fractions (25%). Metastatic spinal disease most commonly originated from the lung (34%), kidney (14%), and blood (9%)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863509/the-nature-of-three-body-interactions-in-dft-exchange-and-polarization-effects
#13
Michał Hapka, Łukasz Rajchel, Marcin Modrzejewski, Rainer Schäffer, Grzegorz Chałasiński, Małgorzata M Szczęśniak
We propose a physically motivated decomposition of density functional theory (DFT) 3-body nonadditive interaction energies into the exchange and density-deformation (polarization) components. The exchange component represents the effect of the Pauli exclusion in the wave function of the trimer and is found to be challenging for density functional approximations (DFAs). The remaining density-deformation nonadditivity is less dependent upon the DFAs. Numerical demonstration is carried out for rare gas atom trimers, Ar2-HX (X = F, Cl) complexes, and small hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals molecular systems...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856049/toward-whole-body-quantitative-photoacoustic-tomography-of-small-animals-with-multi-angle-light-sheet-illuminations
#14
Yihan Wang, Jie He, Jiao Li, Tong Lu, Yong Li, Wenjuan Ma, Limin Zhang, Zhongxing Zhou, Huijuan Zhao, Feng Gao
Several attempts to achieve the quantitative photoacoustic tomography (q-PAT) have been investigated using point sources or a single-angle wide-field illumination. However, these schemes normally suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or poor quantification in imaging applications on large-size domains, due to the limitation of ANSI-safety incidence and incompleteness in the data acquisition. We herein present a q-PAT implementation that uses multi-angle light-sheet illuminations and calibrated recovering-and-averaging iterations...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855743/asteroid-surface-impact-sampling-dependence-of-the-cavity-morphology-and-collected-mass-on-projectile-shape
#15
Bin Cheng, Yang Yu, Hexi Baoyin
In-situ exploration and remote thermal infrared observation revealed that a large fraction of Solar System small bodies should be covered with granular regolith. The complex and varied geology of the regolith layer may preserve the historical records of the surface modification and topographic evolution experienced by asteroids, especially cratering processes, in which the projectile shape plays a crucial role. Regarding the impact sampling scheme, the projectile-shape dependence of both the cavity morphology and the collected mass remains to be explored...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837109/comparative-degradation-of-a-thiazole-pollutant-by-an-advanced-oxidation-process-and-an-enzymatic-approach
#16
Khadega A Al-Maqdi, Soleiman M Hisaindee, Muhammad A Rauf, Syed Salman Ashraf
Organic pollutants, especially those found in water bodies, pose a direct threat to various aquatic organisms as well as humans. A variety of different remediation approaches, including chemical and biological methods, have been developed for the degradation of various organic pollutants. However, comparative mechanistic studies of pollutant degradation by these different systems are almost non-existent. In this study, the degradation of a model thiazole pollutant, thioflavin T (ThT), was carried out in the presence of either an advanced oxidation process (ultraviolet (UV) + H₂O₂) or a chloroperoxidase enzyme system (CPO + H₂O₂)...
August 24, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835642/maximum-entropy-models-capture-melodic-styles
#17
Jason Sakellariou, Francesca Tria, Vittorio Loreto, Francois Pachet
We introduce a Maximum Entropy model able to capture the statistics of melodies in music. The model can be used to generate new melodies that emulate the style of a given musical corpus. Instead of using the n-body interactions of (n-1)-order Markov models, traditionally used in automatic music generation, we use a k-nearest neighbour model with pairwise interactions only. In that way, we keep the number of parameters low and avoid over-fitting problems typical of Markov models. We show that long-range musical phrases don't need to be explicitly enforced using high-order Markov interactions, but can instead emerge from multiple, competing, pairwise interactions...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832495/a-fair-contention-access-scheme-for-low-priority-traffic-in-wireless-body-area-networks
#18
Shagufta Henna, Muhammad Sajeel, Faisal Bashir, Muhammad Asfand-E-Yar, Muhammad Tauqir
Recently, wireless body area networks (WBANs) have attracted significant consideration in ubiquitous healthcare. A number of medium access control (MAC) protocols, primarily derived from the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4, have been proposed in literature. These MAC protocols aim to provide quality of service (QoS) by prioritizing different traffic types in WBANs. A contention access period (CAP)with high contention in priority-based MAC protocols can result in higher number of collisions and retransmissions...
August 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832110/sequence-specific-detection-of-micrornas-related-to-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-at-fm-concentration-by-an-electroosmotically-driven-nanopore-based-device
#19
Yuqian Zhang, Ankit Rana, Yiwen Stratton, Maria F Czyzyk-Krzeska, Leyla Esfandiari
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a critical role in gene regulation. Recently, traces of cancer-related miRs have been identified in body fluids, which make them remarkable noninvasive biomarkers. In this study, a new nanopore-based detection scheme utilizing a borosilicate micropipette and an assay of complementary γ-peptide nucleic acid (γ-PNA) probes conjugated to polystyrene beads have been reported for the detection of miR-204 and miR-210 related to the clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829323/channel-deviation-based-power-control-in-body-area-networks
#20
Son Dinh Van, Simon L Cotton, David B Smith
Internet enabled body area networks (BANs) will form a core part of future remote health monitoring and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technology. In BAN applications, due to the dynamic nature of human activity, the off-body BAN channel can be prone to deep fading caused by body shadowing and multipath fading. Using this knowledge, we present some novel practical adaptive power control protocols based on the channel deviation to simultaneously prolong the lifetime of wearable devices and reduce outage probability...
August 18, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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