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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931923/assessing-the-sensitivity-of-european-surveillance-for-detecting-bse-in-cattle-according-to-international-standards
#1
Amie Adkin, Robin Simons, Mark Arnold
European surveillance for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), initiated in 2001, has shown a steady exponential decline in the number of infected cattle, demonstrating that control measures have been effective. In 2016 23 European countries out of 28 demonstrated negligible risk status for the disease. The international standard setting body, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), prescribes that for countries where there is a non-negligible BSE risk, surveillance should allow the detection of one case per 100,000 in the adult cattle population with 95% confidence (Type A surveillance)...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923833/an-essential-role-of-maspin-in-embryogenesis-and-tumor-suppression
#2
Sijana H Dzinic, M Margarida Bernardo, Xiaohua Li, Rodrigo Fernandez-Valdivia, Ye-Shih Ho, Qing-Sheng Mi, Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, Fulvio Lonardo, Semir Vranic, Daniel Oliveira, R Daniel Bonfil, Gregory Dyson, Kang Chen, Almasa Omerovic, Xiujie Sheng, Xiang Han, Dinghong Wu, Xinling Bi, Dzenana Cabaravdic, Una Jakupovic, Marian Wahba, Aaron Pang, Deanna Harajli, Wael Sakr, Shijie Sheng
Maspin (SerpinB5) is an epithelial-specific tumor suppressor gene product that displays context-dependent cellular functions. Maspin-deficient mouse models created to date have not definitively established maspin functions critical for cancer suppression. In this study, we generated a mouse strain in which exon 4 of the Maspin gene was deleted, confirming its essential role in development but also enabling a breeding scheme to bypass embryonic lethality. Phenotypic characterization of this viable strain established that maspin deficiency was associated with a reduction in maximum body weight and a variety of context-dependent epithelial abnormalities...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913367/a-new-method-for-self-estimation-of-the-severity-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-using-easily-available-measurements-and-neural-fuzzy-evaluation-system
#3
Ming-Feng Wu, Wei-Chang Huang, Chia-Feng Juang, Kai-Ming Chang, Chih-Yu Wen, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Ching-Yi Lin, Yi-Chan Chen, Ching-Cheng Lin
This paper proposes a neural fuzzy evaluation system (NFES) with significant variables selected from stepwise regression to predict apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The variables considered are the change statuses of blood pressure (BP) before going to sleep and early in the morning as well as other five easily available measurements (age, body mass index (BMI) etc.) so that users can use the system for self-evaluation of OSA. A total of 150 subjects are reviewed retrospectively and categorized as training (120 subjects) and validation (30 subjects) sets by a five-fold cross validation scheme with stratified sampling based on the OSA severity...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910201/meal-insulin-cycle-a-visual-summary-of-the-biochemical-events-between-meals
#4
Stavros Kalogiannis
In the present article, a scheme that summarizes the biochemical events occurring in the human body after the consumption of a meal is proposed. The scheme illustrates the metabolic sequence as a series of counteracting components occupying opposite positions in a cycle, indicating their opposite actions or physiological states, such as meal versus energy consumption, increase versus decrease of blood glucose levels, and excretion of insulin versus excretion of glucagon. Furthermore, the cycle is complemented by a table indicating the acceleration or inhibition of selected metabolic pathways and actions...
December 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906643/sports-and-recreation-related-injury-episodes-in-the-united-states-2011-2014
#5
Yahtyng Sheu, Li-Hui Chen, Holly Hedegaard
Objective-Much of the research on sports- and recreation-related injuries focuses on a specific population, activity, or type of injury, and national estimates of the total burden of sports- and recreation-related injuries are limited. This study provides national estimates of the injury burden and examines the distribution of sports- and recreation-related injuries across demographic groups, activities, and injury circumstances. Methods-Information on medically attended injury episodes for persons aged 5 years and over were obtained from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey...
November 2016: National Health Statistics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900165/evaluation-of-cardiovascular-risk-lowering-health-benefits-accruing-from-laboratory-based-community-based-and-exercise-referral-exercise-programmes
#6
R Webb, J E S Thompson, J-S Ruffino, N A Davies, L Watkeys, S Hooper, P M Jones, G Walters, D Clayton, A W Thomas, K Morris, D H Llewellyn, M Ward, J Wyatt-Williams, B J McDonnell
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the ability of community-based exercise programmes to facilitate public participation in exercise and hence improved cardiovascular health, we assessed the respective impacts of: a continuously monitored exercise programme based within our university (study 1); a Valleys Regional Park-facilitated community-based outdoor exercise programme (study 2); a Wales National Exercise Referral Scheme-delivered exercise-referral programme (study 3). METHODS: Biomolecular (monocytic PPARγ target gene expression), vascular haemodynamic (central/peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness), clinical (insulin sensitivity, blood lipids) and anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference, heart rate) parameters were investigated using RT-PCR, applanation tonometry, chemical analysis and standard anthropometric techniques...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878804/assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-undergoing-total-joint-alloplasty-the-crash-joint-study
#7
Pawel Legosz, Marcin Kotkowski, Anna E Platek, Pawel Maldyk, Bartosz Krzowski, Anna Rys, Karolina Semczuk, Filip M Szymanski, Krzysztof J Filipiak
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment is of particular importance for patients undergoing surgical interventions. Orthopedic procedures, especially total joint alloplasty are major procedure associated with high perioperative risk, as well as one of the highest rates of complications. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing total hip or knee alloplasty. METHODS: The CRASH-JOINT (Cardiovascular Risk Assessment ScHeme in JOINT alloplasty) was a prospective, epidemiological study performed in consecutive patients scheduled for total joint (hip or knee) replacement surgery...
November 23, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878803/tissue-doppler-echocardiography-detects-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-colon-cancer-insights-from-oncoecho-multicenter-study
#8
Edyta Płońska-Gościniak, Monika Różewicz, Jarosław Kasprzak, Andrzej Wojtarowicz, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec, Tomasz Hryniewiecki, Piotr Pysz, Andrzej Kułach, Artur Bodys, Violetta Sulżyc, Wojciech Braksator, Andrzej Szyszka, Beata Zaborska, Adrianna Gościńska-Szmagała, Maciej Siński, Dariusz Kosior, Ilona Kowalik, Zbigniew Gąsior
I BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in women and the third in men in Poland. The role of chemotherapy (CTX) depends on stage of CRC: adjuvant CTX is a standard treatment in stage III and should also be considered in stage II with risk factors. AIM: The aim of the paper was to assess the cardiovascular consequences of CTX in CRC enrolled to the ONCOECHO multicenter study (2012 - 2014). To identify potential cardiotoxicity we focused on myocardial function, heart rhythm and conduction disorders and adverse cardiovascular events...
November 23, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873151/a-stereotactic-probabilistic-atlas-for-the-major-cerebral-arteries
#9
Tora Dunås, Anders Wåhlin, Khalid Ambarki, Laleh Zarrinkoob, Jan Malm, Anders Eklund
Improved whole brain angiographic and velocity-sensitive MRI is pushing the boundaries of noninvasively obtained cerebral vascular flow information. The complexity of the information contained in such datasets calls for automated algorithms and pipelines, thus reducing the need of manual analyses by trained radiologists. The objective of this work was to lay the foundation for such automated pipelining by constructing and evaluating a probabilistic atlas describing the shape and location of the major cerebral arteries...
November 21, 2016: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869190/embodied-neurofeedback-with-an-anthropomorphic-robotic-hand
#10
Niclas Braun, Reiner Emkes, Jeremy D Thorne, Stefan Debener
Neurofeedback-guided motor imagery training (NF-MIT) has been suggested as a promising therapy for stroke-induced motor impairment. Whereas much NF-MIT research has aimed at signal processing optimization, the type of sensory feedback given to the participant has received less attention. Often the feedback signal is highly abstract and not inherently coupled to the mental act performed. In this study, we asked whether an embodied feedback signal is more efficient for neurofeedback operation than a non-embodiable feedback signal...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858905/the-feasibility-of-two-new-anthropometric-indices-to-identify-hypertension-in-rural-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Ye Chang, Xiaofan Guo, Liang Guo, Zhao Li, Yuan Li, Yingxian Sun
Recently, 2 new anthropometric indices, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI), have been developed. Our study was to compare the associations between different anthropometric indices, including ABSI, BRI, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and hypertension in a rural population of northeast China.This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013 using a multistage, stratified random cluster-sampling scheme...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856985/assessing-and-enhancing-quality-through-outcomes-based-continuing-professional-development-cpd-a-review-of-current-practice
#12
S Wallace, S A May
Numerous professional bodies have questioned whether traditional input-based continuing professional development (CPD) schemes are effective at measuring genuine learning and improving practice performance and patient health. The most commonly used type of long-established CPD activities, such as conferences, lectures and symposia, have been found to have a limited effect on improving practitioner competence and performance, and no significant effect on patient health outcomes. Additionally, it is thought that the impact of many CPD activities is reduced when they are undertaken in isolation outside of a defined structure of directed learning...
November 19, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851817/outage-probability-of-mrc-for-%C3%AE%C2%BA-%C3%AE-shadowed-fading-channels-under-co-channel-interference
#13
Changfang Chen, Minglei Shu, Yinglong Wang, Ming Yang, Chongqing Zhang
In this paper, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the outage probability (OP) of the maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme in the κ-μ shadowed fading channels, in which both the independent and correlated shadowing components are considered. The scenario assumes the received desired signals are corrupted by the independent Rayleigh-faded co-channel interference (CCI) and background white Gaussian noise. To this end, first, the probability density function (PDF) of the κ-μ shadowed fading distribution is obtained in the form of a power series...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849522/a-fim-based-long-term-in-vial-monitoring-system-for-drosophila-larvae
#14
Dimitri Berh, Benjamin Risse, Tim Michels, Nils Otto, Xiaoyi Jiang, Christian Klambt
Drosophila larvae are an insightful model and the automated analysis of their behaviour is an integral readout in behavioural biology. Current tracking systems, however, entail a disturbance of the animals, are labour-intensive, and cannot be easily used for long-term monitoring purposes. Here we present a novel monitoring system for Drosophila larvae which allows us to analyse the animals in cylindrical culture vials. By utilizing frustrated total internal reflection in combination with a multicamera/ microcomputer setup we image the complete housing vial surface and thus the larvae for days...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846694/silicon-wall-interfacial-free-energy-via-thermodynamics-integration
#15
Wan Shou, Heng Pan
We compute the interfacial free energy of a silicon system in contact with flat and structured walls by molecular dynamics simulation. The thermodynamics integration method, previously applied to Lennard-Jones potentials [R. Benjamin and J. Horbach, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044707 (2012)], has been extended and implemented in Tersoff potentials with two-body and three-body interactions taken into consideration. The thermodynamic integration scheme includes two steps. In the first step, the bulk Tersoff system is reversibly transformed to a state where it interacts with a structureless flat wall, and in a second step, the flat structureless wall is reversibly transformed into an atomistic SiO2 wall...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846687/o-nlogn-scaling-method-to-evaluate-the-ion-electron-potential-of-crystalline-solids
#16
Xuecheng Shao, Wenhui Mi, Qiang Xu, Yanchao Wang, Yanming Ma
We propose a simple O(NlogN) scaling expression in reciprocal space for evaluating the ion-electron potential of crystalline solids. The expression replaces the long-range ion-electron potential with an equivalent localized charge distribution and corresponding boundary conditions on the unit cell. Given that no quadratic scaling structure factor is required-as used in traditional methods-the expression shows the inherent O(NlogN) behavior, and is well suited to simulating large-scale systems within orbital-free density functional theory...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834321/undernutrition-tuberculosis-in-india-situation-analysis-the-way-forward
#17
REVIEW
C Padmapriyadarsini, M Shobana, M Lakshmi, T Beena, Soumya Swaminathan
Undernutrition and tuberculosis (TB) are linked and have a bidirectional relationship. Undernutrition increases the risk of TB which in turn, can lead to malnutrition. Undernutrition not only is a risk factor for progression of latent TB infection to active disease, but also increases the risk of drug toxicity, relapse and death once TB develops. The dietary intake of TB patients in the country is inadequate. Nutritional supplementation in patients with TB is associated with faster sputum conversion, higher cure and treatment completion rates, significant gain in body weight and body composition as well as better performance status...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832097/the-desire-for-amputation-or-paralyzation-evidence-for-structural-brain-anomalies-in-body-integrity-identity-disorder-biid
#18
Rianne M Blom, Guido A van Wingen, Sija J van der Wal, Judy Luigjes, Milenna T van Dijk, H Steven Scholte, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a condition in which individuals perceive a mismatch between their internal body scheme and physical body shape, resulting in an absolute desire to be either amputated or paralyzed. The condition is hypothesized to be of congenital nature, but evidence for a neuro-anatomical basis is sparse. METHODS: We collected T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans on a 3T scanner in eight individuals with BIID and 24 matched healthy controls, and analyzed the data using voxel-based morphometry...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812733/specific-toxicity-after-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-to-the-central-chest-a%C3%A2-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Feras Oskan, Gerd Becker, Martin Bleif
The toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy in the central chest remains an unsettled issue. The collected data concerning the observed complications are poorly understood and are limited in their quantity and quality, thus hampering a precise delineation of treatment-specific toxicity. The majority of complications scored as toxicity grade 5, namely respiratory failure and fatal hemoptysis, are most likely related to multiple competing risks and occurred at different dose fractionation schemas, e...
November 3, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809764/cross-phenotype-association-tests-uncover-genes-mediating-nutrient-response-in-drosophila
#20
Christopher S Nelson, Jennifer N Beck, Kenneth A Wilson, Elijah R Pilcher, Pankaj Kapahi, Rachel B Brem
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Molecular diagnostics and targets of therapies to combat nutritional imbalance are urgently needed in the clinic. Invertebrate animals have been a cornerstone of basic research efforts to dissect the genetics of metabolism and nutrient response. We set out to use fruit flies reared on restricted and nutrient-rich diets to identify genes associated with starvation resistance, body mass and composition, in a survey of genetic variation across the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP)...
November 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
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