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Insecticidal protein

Alejandra Bravo, Jazmin A López-Diaz, Takashi Yamamoto, Kathleen Harding, Jian-Zhou Zhao, Gretel Mendoza, Janette Onofre, Mary-Carmen Torres-Quintero, Mark E Nelson, Gusui Wu, Amit Sethi, Mario Soberón
The western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera causes substantial damage in corn. Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing some Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry proteins efficiently controlled this pest. However, changes in WCR susceptibility to these Bt traits have evolved and identification of insecticidal proteins with different modes of action against WCR is necessary. We show here for the first time that Cyt1Aa from Bt exhibits toxicity against WCR besides to the dipteran Aedes aegypti larvae...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rim Timoumi, Ines Amara, Fadwa Neffati, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Emna El Golli-Bennour, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi
Triflumuron (TFM) is one of the most widely used insecticides over the world. It is a benzoylphenyl urea that belongs to the class of insect growth regulators. This insecticide acts by inhibiting insect's chitin synthesis and by consequences, making insect more susceptible to pathogens and malformations. TFM effects have been reported in mammalians and crops. However, studies that reveal its toxicity mechanisms are limited. In this line, the current study aimed to determine the implication of oxidative stress in the toxicity induced by TFM and particularly in the perturbation of biochemical parameters in male Balb/C mice...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Miguel Ricardo Leung, Laura S van Bezouwen, Lawrence M Schopfer, Joel L Sussman, Israel Silman, Oksana Lockridge, Tzviya Zeev-Ben-Mordehai
The quaternary structures of the cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), are essential for their localization and function. Of practical importance, BChE is a promising therapeutic candidate for intoxication by organophosphate nerve agents and insecticides, and for detoxification of addictive substances. Efficacy of the recombinant enzyme hinges on its having a long circulatory half-life; this, in turn, depends strongly on its ability to tetramerize. Here, we used cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine the structure of the highly glycosylated native BChE tetramer purified from human plasma at 5...
December 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jay D Evans, Duane McKenna, Erin Scully, Steven C Cook, Benjamin Dainat, Noble Egekwu, Nathaniel Grubbs, Dawn Lopez, Marcé D Lorenzen, Steven M Reyna, Frank D Rinkevich, Peter Neumann, Qiang Huang
Background: The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, ATUMI) is an invasive parasite of bee colonies. ATUMI feeds on both fruits and bee nest products, facilitating its spread and increasing its impact on honey bees and other pollinators. We have sequenced and annotated the ATUMI genome, providing the first genomic resources for this species and for the Nitidulidae, a beetle family that is closely related to the extraordinarily species-rich clade of beetles known as the Phytophaga. ATUMI thus provides a contrasting view as a neighbor for one of the most successful known animal groups...
December 7, 2018: GigaScience
Stephen F Garczynski, Alberto M Cattaneo, William B Walker
Incorporation of semiochemicals into codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this orchard pest. Odorant receptors are key sensors in the detection of semiochemicals and trigger downstream signaling events leading to behavioral responses. For codling moth, 58 odorant receptors have been identified in antennal transcriptomes, a few of which have been characterized for ligand activation. From the codling moth antennal transcriptome, a single transcript encoding CpomOR53 was annotated but re-evaluation suggests two or more variants of this receptor may be present and it is hypothesized that they are produced by alternative splicing...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Daniel R Swale, Aaron D Gross, Quentin R R Coquerel, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
The majority of the currently available insecticides target the nervous system and genetic mutations of invertebrate neural proteins oftentimes yield deleterious consequences, yet the current methods for recording nervous system activity of an individual animal is costly and laborious. This suction electrode preparation of the third-instar larval central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, is a tractable system for testing the physiological effects of neuroactive agents, determining the physiological role of various neural pathways to CNS activity, as well as the influence of genetic mutations to neural function...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Senji Laxme R R, Vivek Suranse, Kartik Sunagar
Comprising of over a million described species of highly diverse invertebrates, Arthropoda is amongst the most successful animal lineages to have colonized aerial, terrestrial, and aquatic domains. Venom, one of the many fascinating traits to have evolved in various members of this phylum, has underpinned their adaptation to diverse habitats. Over millions of years of evolution, arthropods have evolved ingenious ways of delivering venom in their targets for self-defence and predation. The morphological diversity of venom delivery apparatus in arthropods is astounding, and includes extensively modified pedipalps, tail (telson), mouth parts (hypostome), fangs, appendages (maxillulae), proboscis, ovipositor (stinger), and hair (urticating bristles)...
December 6, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Wei Wang, Shi-Ming Luo, Jun-Yu Ma, Wei Shen, Shen Yin
Organophosphorus insecticide diazinon (DZN) is diffusely used in agriculture, home gardening and crop peats. Much work so far has focused on the link between DZN exposure and the occurrence of neurological diseases, while, it is little-known that reproductive toxicological assessment on DZN exposure. This research aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of toxic hazard for DZN exposure on the cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cells. We analyzed the oxidative stress, energy metabolism, DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy by using high-throughput RNA-seq, immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time PCR...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ke Wu, Paul D Shirk, Caitlin E Taylor, Richard B Furlong, Bryce D Shirk, Daniele H Pinheiro, Blair D Siegfried
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is an important pest of maize in the Americas and has recently been introduced into Africa. Fall armyworm populations have developed resistance to control strategies that depend on insecticides and transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. The study of various resistance mechanisms at the molecular level and the development novel control strategies have been hampered by a lack of functional genomic tools such as gene editing in this pest...
2018: PloS One
Sudarat Tharad, Öykü Üzülmez, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, José L Toca-Herrera
Cytolytic protein (Cyt) is a member of insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis . Cyt protein has activity against insect cells and mammalian cells, which differ in lipid and cholesterol composition. This study presents the lipid binding behavior of Cyt2Aa2 protein on model membranes containing different levels of cholesterol content by combining Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). QCM-D results revealed that cholesterol enhances the binding rate of Cyt2Aa2 protein onto lipid bilayers...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mohammad Asaduzzaman Miah, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki, Asmaul Husna, Zhaojun Han
Deltamethrin resistance in Laodelphax striatellus had been associated with its oxidative detoxification by overexpression of four cytochrome P450 monooxygenases like CYP353D1v2, CYP6FU1, CYP6AY3v2, and CYP439A1v3. The first three P450s have been validated for insecticide-metabolizing capability and only CYP6FU1 was found to degrade deltamethrin. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm the capability of CYP439A1v3 to degrade deltamethrin. The CYP439A1v3 was first expressed in Sf9 cell line and its recombinant enzyme was tested for metabolic activity against different insecticides using substrate depletion assay combined with metabolite identification...
December 4, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Xuping Jing, Yihui Yuan, Yan Wu, Dandan Wu, Peng Gong, Meiying Gao
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as environmentally friendly insecticides. As the only known Cry protein with insecticidal activity against Locusta migratoria manilensis, a locust subspecies that causes extensive destruction of crops, the Cry7Ca1 protein from Bt strain BTH-13 identified in our previous study is of particular interest to locust prevention and control. However, the three-dimensional structure of Cry7Ca1 toxin (the active form of the Cry7Ca1 protein) and the mechanisms of the Cry7Cal insecticidal specificity remain largely elusive...
December 2, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Steven X Hu, Charles P Benner, Julie A White, Roger A Martin, Kenneth L Feenstra
Amitraz is an acaricide and insecticide widely used in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Although central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is one of major toxicities following oral ingestion of amitraz, the understanding of the cause of the toxicity is limited. This study evaluated the systemic and brain exposure of amitraz and its major metabolites, BTS27271, 2',4'-formoxylidide, and 2,4-dimethylaniline following administration of amitraz in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Significant metabolism of amitraz was observed following the intravenous and oral administration...
November 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yasmina Abd-Elhakim, Hesham H Mohammed, Wafaa A Mohamed
Currently, imidacloprid (IMI) is the first insecticide and the second agrochemical highly applied all over the world. Here we report on the impacts of IMI on neurobehavioral performance, oxidative stress, and apoptotic changes in the brain in either adult or adolescent rats. Forty male rats (adult and adolescent) were allocated to four groups. IMI groups were orally given 1 mg IMI/kg b.wt. dissolved in corn oil, whereas the controls were orally administered corn oil daily for 60 days. The obtained results demonstrated that IMI exposure resulted in less exploratory activity, deficit sensorimotor functions, and high depression...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ping Lin, Tingcai Cheng, Tieshan Feng, Jiao Gong, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins that are widely used as insecticides in agriculture and forestry. Receptors are important to elucidate the mode of interaction with Cry toxins and toxicity in lepidopteran insects. Here, we purified the Cry toxin from Bt and identified this toxin by flight mass spectrometry as Cry1Ac, and then recombinantly expressed aminopeptidase N (BmAPN6) and repeat domains of cadherin-like protein (CaLP) of B. mori. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), Far-Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we identified the interaction between Cry1Ac and BmAPN6...
November 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Aydın Yesilyurt, Hacer Muratoglu, Zihni Demirbag, Remziye Nalcacioglu
The genome of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) has two open reading frames (ORFs) with matrix metalloprotease (MMP) domains. The protein encoded by ORF 136R contains 178 amino acids with over 40% amino acid sequence identity to hypothetical metalloproteases of other viruses, and the protein 165R contains 264 amino acids with over 40% amino acid sequence identity to metalloproteases of a large group of organisms, primarily including a variety of Drosophila species. These proteins possess conserved zinc-binding motifs in their catalytic domains...
November 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Shuzhong Li, Xiaoxia Xu, Muhammad Shakeel, Jin Xu, Zhihua Zheng, Jinlong Zheng, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qian Zhao, Fengliang Jin
Background: Plutella xylostella has become a notorious pest of cruciferous crops all over the world. Delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are widely used insecticidal proteins for controlling P. xylostella . However, the interaction mechanism of B. thuringiensis with the immune system of P. xylostella , at the genomic level, is still unclear. This study explored the immune response of P. xylostella to B. thuringiensis , at different time intervals, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, and 36 h, by using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) and RT-qPCR...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lattha Souvannaseng, Lewis Vibul Hun, Heather Baker, John M Klyver, Bo Wang, Nazzy Pakpour, Jordan M Bridgewater, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Michael A Riehle, Shirley Luckhart
Malaria is a global health concern caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. With rising insecticide and drug resistance, there is a critical need to develop novel control strategies, including strategies to block parasite sporogony in key mosquito vector species. MAPK signaling pathways regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 MAPKs are highly conserved across eukaryotes, including mosquito vectors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Katharina Springer, Philipp-Albert Sänger, Christian Moritz, Angela Felsl, Thomas Rattei, Thilo M Fuchs
The genus Yersinia comprises 19 species of which three are known as human and animal pathogens. Some species display toxicity toward invertebrates using the so-called toxin complex (TC) and/or determinants that are not yet known. Recent studies showed a remarkable variability of insecticidal activities when representatives of different Yersinia species (spp.) were subcutaneously injected into the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella . Here, we demonstrate that Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii are highly toxic to this insect...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Na Yu, Xin Wang, Haibo Bao, Zewen Liu
Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are not only important neuro-transmitter receptors but also effective insecticide targets. The regulation of nAChRs has been mainly studied in vertebrates especially in mammals. Here, two types of nAChRs were found present in the locust Locusta migratoria mamilensis dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt)-sensitive nAChRs and α-Bgt-resistant nAChRs, responding to acetylcholine (ACh) at different concentrations. The homologues to three mammalian nAChR regulators, ubiquilin-1, CRELD2 (Cysteine-rich with EFG-like domain 2) and PICK1 (protein interacting with PRKCA 1), were characterised in L...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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