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Insecticidal protein

Isabel Gómez, Josue Ocelotl, Jorge Sánchez, Christina Lima, Erica Martins, Anayeli Rosales-Juárez, Sotero Aguilar-Medel, André Abad, Hua Dong, Rose Monnerat, Guadalupe Peña, Jie Zhang, Mark Nelson, Gusui Wu, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa toxins are environmentally safe insecticides that control important insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda is an important maize pest that shows low susceptibility to Cry1A toxins in contrast to Cry1Fa that is highly active against this pest and is used in transgenic maize for S. frugiperda control. The region of β16 from domain III of Cry1Ab has been shown to be involved in interaction with receptors such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or aminopeptidase (APN) in different lepidopteran insects...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Karine Kappaun, Angela Regina Piovesan, Celia Regina Carlini, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun
Urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC is a nickel-containing enzyme produced by plants, fungi, and bacteria that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbamate. Urease is of historical importance in Biochemistry as it was the first enzyme ever to be crystallized (1926). Finding nickel in urease's active site (1975) was the first indication of a biological role for this metal. In this review, historical and structural features, kinetics aspects, activation of the metallocenter and inhibitors of the urea hydrolyzing activity of ureases are discussed...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Kang Wang, Yanna Huang, Xinyu Li, Maohua Chen
Carboxylesterase (CarE) is an important class of detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance. However, the molecular mechanism of CarE-mediated insecticide resistance in Rhopalosiphum padi , a problematic agricultural pest, remains largely unknown. In the present study, an isoprocarb-resistant (IS-R) strain and a cyhalothrin-resistant (CY-R) strain were successively selected from a susceptible (SS) strain of R. padi . The enzyme activity indicated that enhanced carboxylesterase activity contributes to isoprocarb and cyhalothrin resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nadia Amanzougaghene, Florence Fenollar, Claude Nappez, Amira Ben-Amara, Philippe Decloquement, Said Azza, Yassina Bechah, Eric Chabrière, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
Ivermectin has emerged as very promising pediculicide, particularly in cases of resistance to commonly used pediculicides. Recently, however, the first field-evolved ivermectin-resistance in lice was reported. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying ivermectin-resistance, we both looked for mutations in the ivermectin-target site (GluCl) and searched the entire proteome for potential new loci involved in resistance from laboratory susceptible and ivermectin-selected resistant body lice. Polymorphism analysis of cDNA GluCl showed no non-silent mutations...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Genetics
María G Murúa, Martín A Vera, María I Herrero, Sofia V Fogliata, Andrew Michel
Lepidoptera, stink bugs, and weevils are important pests in soybean. For lepidopteran control, insecticides and seed treatments are used. As an alternative, Bt soybean was developed to control primary pests of Lepidoptera such as Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) (Noctuidae), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Noctuidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Erebidae), Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar) (Noctuidae), and Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) (Tortricidae). However, the use of transgenic plants, and the resulting reduction of insecticide against target pests, may allow other pest species to become more prevalent in agricultural environments...
August 1, 2018: Insects
Xiangxiang Hao, Xiaoqing Zhang, Bihua Duan, Shanshan Huo, Wanzhong Lin, Xinxin Xia, Kuai Liu
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide with high insecticidal activity and a wide range of applications. However, with the increased amount and scope of its application, the accumulated toxicity of deltamethrin has gradually raised concerns. In this study, a bacterium strain, which used deltamethrin as its sole carbon source and was named ZJ6 (Lysinibacillus sp.-ZJ6), was isolated from soil samples collected from the sewage outlet of a pesticide plant in Tianjin. Based on morphological observations of ZJ6, as well as its physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence (Gen Bank Accession No...
July 31, 2018: Current Microbiology
Michal Hubert Wrobel
Aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT are chlorinated insecticides that are unintentionally widespread in the environment. It was previously shown that all of the aforementioned compounds increased secretion of ovarian oxytocin (OT), which is a potent uterotonic agent. However, only DDT and its metabolite (DDE) promoted, while aldrin and dieldrin inhibited basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions in cows. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of these treatments on the reception and further transmission of the OT-signal for myometrial contractions and on the levels of contractile-associated integral proteins (caveolin; CAV) and gap junction proteins (GAPs)...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Research
Antonio Monroy-Noyola, Miguel Angel Sogorb, Eugenio Vilanova
O-hexyl O-2,5-dichlorophenyl phosphoramidate (HDCP) is a chiral analogous compound of the methamidophos insecticide that induces delayed neuropathy, and the R-(+)-HDCP enantiomer is an inhibitor of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). This enantiomer is not hydrolized by Ca2+ -dependent phosphotriesterases in mammal tissues. Our group had reported R-(+)-HDCP hydrolysis in chicken serum enhanced by 30-250 μM copper in ex vivo assays, which we call "antagonistic stereoselectivity". We checked the hypothesis of the role of cupper binding proteins...
July 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kang He, Huamei Xiao, Yang Sun, Simin Ding, Gongming Situ, Fei Li
Rice stem borer (RSB, Chilo suppressalis) is an insect pest that causes huge economic losses every year. Control efforts rely heavily on chemical insecticides, which leads to serious problems such as insecticide resistance, environment pollution, and food safety issues. Therefore, developing alternative pest control methods is an important task. Here, we identified an insect-specific microRNA, miR-14, in RSB, which was predicted to target Spook (Spo) and Ecdysone receptor (EcR) in the ecdysone signaling network...
July 25, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yong Huang, Min Liao, Qianqian Yang, Jinjing Xiao, Zhaoyin Hu, Haiqun Cao
BACKGROUND: Terpinen-4-ol has high insecticidal activity to stored-grain pest Sitophilus zeamais, which is a key pest of cereals worldwide. Comparative proteomic analysis can identify related proteins in response to terpinen-4-ol fumigation in S. zeamais, improving understandings of the mechanisms of the insecticidal activity and detoxification processes for terpinen-4-ol in insects. RESULTS: By using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)-based strategy, 2761 proteins were obtained from S...
July 23, 2018: Pest Management Science
Chihang Cheng, Jialing Qin, Choufei Wu, Mengying Lei, Yongjun Wang, Liqin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pine wilt disease, caused by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN), is an important destructive disease of pine forests worldwide. In addition to behaving as a plant-parasitic nematode that feeds on epithelial cells of pines, this pest relies on fungal associates for completing its life cycle inside pine trees. Manipulating microbial symbionts to block pest transmission has exhibited an exciting prospect in recent years; however, transforming the fungal mutualists to toxin delivery agents for suppressing PWN growth has received little attention...
July 23, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Fangfang Wang, Bo Zhou
The ecdysone receptor is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a pivotal role in insect metamorphosis and development. To address the molecular mechanisms of binding and selectivity, the interactions of two typical agonists Ponasterone A and 20-Hydroxyecdysone with Drosophila melanogaster (DME) and Leptinotarsa decemlineata ecdysone (LDE) receptors were investigated by homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic analysis. We discover that: 1) the L5-loop, L11-loop and H12 helix for DME, L7-loop and L11-loop for LDE are more flexible, which affect the global dynamics of the ligand binding pocket, thus facilitating the ligand recognition of ecdysone receptor; 2) several key residues (Thr55/Thr37, Phe109/Phe91, Arg95/Arg77, Arg99/Arg81, Phe108/Leu90 and Ala110/Val92) are responsible for the binding of the proteins; 3) the binding free energy is mainly contributed by the van der Waals forces compared with the electrostatic interactions of ligand and receptor; 4) the computed binding free energy difference between DME-C1 and LDE-C1 is -1...
July 22, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina, Shilpa Sood
Imidacloprid (IMI), a newer neonicotinoid insecticide, induces oxidative insult to hepatocytes due to the formation of reactive metabolites during hepatic metabolism. The present study aimed to determine the potentiating effect of arsenic (As) on IMI-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. Rats, randomly divided into eight groups with six in each, were subjected to daily oral administration for 28 days. Group I served as control; group II received IMI at the dose rate of 16.9 mg/kg body weight; groups III, IV, and V received As at the dose rate of 50, 100, and 150 ppb, respectively, in drinking water; groups VI, VII, and VIII received both IMI (16...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yongqiang Wu, Hongfei Xu, Yiou Pan, Xiwu Gao, Jinghui Xi, Juhong Zhang, Qingli Shang
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases represent a key detoxification mechanism in neonicotinoids resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover. Synergism analysis has indicates that P450s are involved in thiamethoxam resistance. In this study, expression changes in the transcripts of P450 genes were determined in thiamethoxam-susceptible and thiamethoxam-resistant strains. Nine P450 genes in CYP3 clade were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain (especially CYP6CY14, which was increased 17.67-fold) compared with the susceptible strain...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Huitao Li, Yinghui Fang, Chaobo Ni, Xiuxiu Chen, Jiaying Mo, Yao Lv, Yong Chen, Xianwu Chen, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a widely used broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide and is expected to cause deleterious effects on the male reproductive system. However, the effects of LCT on Leydig cell development during puberty are unclear. The current study addressed these effects. Twenty-eight-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats orally received LCT (0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. The levels of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, Leydig cell number, and its specific gene and protein expression were determined...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shibdas Banerjee, Elumalai Gnanamani, Stephen R Lynch, Fernando Zamudio Zuñiga, Juana María Jiménez-Vargas, Lourival Domingos Possani, Richard N Zare
While most scorpion venom components identified in the past are peptidic or proteinic in nature, we report here a new alkaloid isolated from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Megacormus gertschi. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric investigations elucidate the structure of the alkaloid as ( Z)- N-(2-(1 H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methoxyacrylamide (1). A chemical method of synthesizing this alkaloid is also described. Although abundant in venom, the above alkaloid was not found to have insecticidal activity...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Vasileia Balabanidou, Linda Grigoraki, John Vontas
Intense use of insecticides has resulted in the selection of extreme levels of resistance in insect populations. Therefore understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance mechanisms becomes critical. Penetration resistance refers to modifications in the cuticle that will eventually slow down the penetration of insecticide molecules within insects' body. So far, two mechanisms of penetration resistance have been described, the cuticle thickening and the altering of cuticle composition. Cuticular modifications are attributed to the over-expression of diversified genes or proteins, which belong to structural components (cuticular proteins mainly), enzymes that catalyze enzymatic reactions (CYP4G16 and laccase 2) or ABC transporters that promote cuticular translocation...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Yinglong Wang, Yonglei Liu, Jie Zhang, Neil Crickmore, Fuping Song, Jiguo Gao, Changlong Shu
Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have successfully been used to control lepidopteran and coleopteran pests with chewing mouthparts. However, only a handful of Bt proteins have been identified that have bioactivity against sap sucking pests (Hemiptera), including aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and planthoppers. A novel Bt insecticidal protein with significant toxicity against a hemipteran insect pest is described here. The gene encoding the 359 amino acid, 40...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tracey Chapman
Sexual conflict is acknowledged as pervasive, with the potential to generate and maintain genetic variation. Mechanistic studies of conflict have been important in providing direct evidence for the existence of sexual conflict. They have also led to the growing realization that there is a striking phenotypic diversity of adaptations whose evolution can be shaped by sexually antagonistic selection. The mechanisms involved range from the use of genital spines, claspers, songs, and smells to ejaculate molecules...
August 2018: American Naturalist
Jia Guo, Xuan Zhang, Xiaorui Lu, Wenshuai Liu, Zhi Chen, Jilun Li, Linhong Deng, Ying Wen
The bacterial species Streptomyces avermitilis is an important industrial producer of avermectins, which are widely utilized as effective anthelmintic and insecticidal drugs. We used gene deletion, complementation, and overexpression experiments to identify SAV4189, a MarR-family transcriptional regulator (MFR) in this species, as an activator of avermectin biosynthesis. SAV4189 indirectly stimulated avermectin production by altering expression of cluster-situated activator gene aveR , and directly repressed the transcription of its own gene ( sav_4189 ) and adjacent cotranscribed gene sav_4190 (which encodes an unknown transmembrane efflux protein)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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