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Insecticidal protein

Gongqing Wu, Yunhong Yi
In this study, we describe RNA-seq expression profiling of larval Bombyx mori response to hemocoel injection of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Two transcriptomes were generated from the hemocytes of the PBS- and Bt-injected B. mori larvae. More than 49 million 100-bp paired-end reads, encompassing over 7.3 Gb of sequence data, were generated for each library. After filtering the raw reads and removing the rRNA mapped reads, more than 89% of the reads in each library could be mapped to the silkworm genome reference sequence...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Pumo Cai, Chuandong Yi, Qiwen Zhang, Hehe Zhang, Jia Lin, Xuesen Song, Jianquan Yang, Bo Wang, Qinge Ji, Jiahua Chen
We evaluated a protein bait based on an enzymatically hydrolyzed beer yeast and two widely used baits including a sugar + vinegar + wine mixture and apple cider vinegar for their ability to trap Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) in the laboratory and outdoors. The protein bait was a more attractive lure than the other tested baits, with the protein bait capturing significantly more female and male adults at different developmental stages than the other baits. Furthermore, the protein bait with 20% vinegar attracted significantly more adult flies than the other baits, and the protein bait without dilution attracted the most adults...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Lidiane Pereira de Albuquerque, Nataly Diniz de Lima Santos, Isabella Coimbra Vila Nova, Thâmarah de Albuquerque Lima, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Emmanuel Viana Pontual
The midgut of insects is involved in digestion, osmoregulation, and immunity. Although several defensive strategies are present in this organ, its organization and function may be disturbed by some insecticidal agents, including bioactive proteins like lectins and protease inhibitors from plants. Protease inhibitors interfere with digestion processes, leading to poor nutrient absorption and decreasing amino acid bioavailability. Their intake can delay development, cause deformities, and reduce fertility. The ingestion of protease inhibitors may lead the insects to change the set of proteases secreted in their gut, but often this response is insufficient and results in the aggravation of the malnutrition status...
October 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sumarin Soonsanga, Amporn Rungrod, Mongkon Audtho, Boonhiang Promdonkoy
Vip3Aa (vegetative insecticidal protein) secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is highly toxic to lepidopteran insects. The Bt isolate M190 produces Vip3Aa35 at high concentrations, and Vip3Aa35 was found to be very effective against Spodoptera exigua. Unfortunately, the use of Vip3Aa35 in pest control is limited by its short shelf life when stored at high temperatures, retaining activity for only 1 month at 37 °C. To find a more stable alternative, we screened 500 isolates of Bt collected from various locations in Thailand and discovered Bt isolate 294 which produced large amounts of Vip3Aa64 that exhibited high toxicity against S...
October 9, 2018: Current Microbiology
Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Jordan Beasley, Stephen Kissane, Luisa Orsini
Species extinction rates are many times greater than the direst predictions made two decades ago by environmentalists, largely because of human impact. Major concerns are associated with the predicted higher recurrence and severity of extreme events, such as heat waves. Although tolerance to these extreme events is instrumental to species survival, little is known whether and how it evolves in natural populations, and to what extent it is affected by other environmental stressors. Here, we study physiological and molecular mechanisms of thermal tolerance over evolutionary times in multifarious environments...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Guiying Wang, Yan Dong, Xiaojie Liu, Guosheng Yao, Xiaoyue Yu, Minsheng Yang
Poplar is one of the main afforestation tree species in China, and the use of a single, or only a few, clones with low genetic diversity in poplar plantations has led to increasing problems with insect pests. The use of genetic engineering to cultivate insect-resistant poplar varieties has become a hot topic. Over the past 20 years, there have been remarkable achievements in this area. To date, nearly 22 insect-resistant poplar varieties have been created and approved for small-scale field testing, environmental release, or pilot-scale production...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ehsan H Abu Zeid, Rasha T M Alam, Sozan A Ali, Mohamed Y Hendawi
Available data regarding Imidacloprid (IMI) insecticide hazards to birds are still being scare. Our study aimed to investigate toxic impacts of IMI oral gavage by different dose levels on the brain and liver of Rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Forty mature male birds were divided equally into four groups. A control group (C) was orally dosed Mazola corn oil and other three groups; the low dose (LD), the medium dose (MD), and the high dose (HD) groups were orally dosed IMI in Mazola corn oil by three dose levels corresponding to 1/15th , 1/10th , 1/5th IMI oral LD50 respectively...
October 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jingqian Huo, Zhenfeng Li, Debin Wan, Dongyang Li, Meng Qi, Bogdan Barnych, Natalia Vasylieva, Jinlin Zhang, Bruce D Hammock
3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), 1(Figure 1) is a human urinary metabolite of many pyrethroid insecticides and can be used as a biomarker to monitor human exposure to these pesticides. A rapid and sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (dc-FEIA) for detecting of 3-PBA based on a nanobody (Nb)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The anti-3-PBA Nb-AP fusion protein was expressed and purificated. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the linear range of the dc-FEIA were 0...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hongbo Li, Yuxian Xia
Short-chain insecticidal neurotoxin Tx4(6-1) from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer can be prepared by reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) fractionation of PhTx4, but this is difficult and represents an obstacle preventing analyses of its insecticidal activity against agricultural insect pests. Herein, we performed secretory expression of recombinant Tx4(6-1) using Pichia pastoris strain X33 as the host, and screened transformants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In flasks, ∼5 mg/l rTx4(6-1) was expressed as a secreted protein following induction with methanol, and this was increased to 45 mg/l rTx4(6-1) in a fed-batch reactor...
October 4, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Shu-Shong Hsu, Chung-Ren Jan, Wei-Zhe Liang
Exposure to insecticides has been found to have deleterious effects on human health. Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), a mixture of isomers of cyhalothrin, is a pyrethroid insecticide routinely used in pest control programs. LCT was reported to cause neurotoxic effects in various models. However, the mechanism of underlying effect of LCT on cytotoxicity in normal human brain cells is still elusive. This study examined whether LCT affected Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ -related physiology in Gibco® Human Astrocytes (GHA cells), and explored whether BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid), a selective Ca2+ chelator, has protective effects on LCT-treated GHA cells...
October 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Kun Jiang, Xiao-Yue Hou, Tong-Tong Tan, Zhang-Lei Cao, Si-Qi Mei, Bing Yan, Jin Chang, Lu Han, Dan Zhao, Jun Cai
The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip), secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage, are genetically distinct from known insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) and represent the second-generation insecticidal toxins. Compared with ICPs, the insecticidal mechanisms of Vip toxins are poorly understood. In particular, there has been no report of a definite receptor of Vip toxins to date. In the present study, we identified the scavenger receptor class C like protein (Sf-SR-C) from the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells membrane proteins that bind to the biotin labeled Vip3Aa, via the affinity magnetic bead method coupled with HPLC-MS/MS...
October 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Qiong Yao, Shu Xu, Yizhi Dong, Yinli Que, Linfa Quan, Bingxu Chen
Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley is the dominant borer pest of Litchi chinesis and Euphoria longan . Current management of C. sinensis relies upon insecticide application to adult moths. In addition to the direct mortality induced by insecticides, a sublethal dose of insecticides also affects growth, survival, and reproduction in the exposed insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) are normally identified as essential reproduction-related proteins in insects. In this study, we characterized these two genes from C...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shaohua Wang, Wendy Kain, Ping Wang
Adoption of biotech crops engineered to express insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has revolutionized insect pest control in agriculture. For continuing effective application and development of the environmentally friendly Bt biotechnology, it is fundamental to understand pathways of toxicity of Bt toxins in insects. In this study, mutations were introduced in the midgut cadherin gene in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. T. ni strains with mutations in the genes of two major receptors for Bt toxins, the midgut cadherin and ABCC2, and three Cry1A toxins with shared and differential midgut binding sites were used as an experimental system to dissect the roles of the cadherin and ABCC2 in the pathways of toxicity of Bt toxins...
September 29, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Chetna Mathur, Jyoti Kushwah, Vishal S Somvanshi, Tushar K Dutta
Photorhabdus luminescens is a gram-negative bacterium that symbiotically associates with insect-parasitic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica. Herein, we have characterized an insecticidal gene, Txp40 (1008 bp) from the indigenous isolates of P. luminescens, and tested its bioefficacy against Galleria mellonella via injectable and oral bioassay. The recombinant protein characterized from P. luminescens strain H3 exhibited comparatively greater insect toxicity than strain H1 in terms of LD50 and LT50 values. Txp40 holds great potential to replace Bt toxins in global agriculture...
September 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Brian P Allman, Knut Kielland, Diane Wagner
BACKGROUND: Damage to plants by herbivores potentially affects the quality and quantity of the plant tissue available to other herbivore taxa that utilize the same host plants at a later time. This study addresses the indirect effects of insect herbivores on mammalian browsers, a particularly poorly-understood class of interactions. Working in the Alaskan boreal forest, we investigated the indirect effects of insect damage to Salix interior leaves during the growing season on the consumption of browse by moose during winter, and on quantity and quality of browse production...
September 27, 2018: BMC Ecology
Baoyan Chi, Haitao Li, Jinbo Zhang, Panpan Wei, Jiguo Gao, Rongmei Liu
The vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have a broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against Lepidopteran pests and no cross-resistance with the insecticidal crystal protein Cry protein. So there are great potentials for the control of agricultural pests and the resolution of resistance problems. The structural information of Vip3Aa protein and the predicted key amino acid sites on the C-terminal domain of Vip3Aa were analyzed with the methods of bioinformatics such as homology modeling and molecular docking...
September 25, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Muhammad M Hossain, Ganeshraj Sivaram, Jason R Richardson
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Recently, we reported that repeated exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus of adult mice, which was accompanied by deficits in learning (Hossain et al., 2015). Here, we investigated regional susceptibility to ER stress and the ability of salubrinal, an inhibitor of ER stress, to reduce apoptosis following a single oral administration of deltamethrin (6 mg/kg)...
September 22, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Elane Fishilevich, Andrew J Bowling, Meghan L F Frey, Po-Hao Wang, Wendy Lo, Murugesan Rangasamy, Sarah E Worden, Heather E Pence, Premchand Gandra, Shannon L Whitlock, Greg Schulenberg, Eileen Knorr, Linda Tenbusch, Jamie R Lutz, Stephen Novak, Ronda L Hamm, Karl D Schnelle, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kenneth E Narva
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is the major agronomically important pest of maize in the US Corn Belt. To augment the repertoire of the available dsRNA-based traits that control rootworm, we explored a potentially haplolethal gene target, wings up A (wupA), which encodes Troponin I. Troponin I, a component of the Troponin-Tropomyosin complex, is an inhibitory protein involved in muscle contraction. In situ hybridization showed that feeding on wupA-targeted dsRNAs caused systemic transcript knockdown in D...
September 19, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Di Zhu, Tian T Li, Shan S Zheng, Li C Yan, Yue Wang, Ling Y Fan, Chao Li, Yuan H Zhao
The mode of action (MOA) plays a key role in the risk assessment of pollutants in water. Although fish is a key model organism used in the risk assessment of pollutants in water, the MOAs have not been compared between fish and embryo toxicity for classified compounds. In this paper, regression analysis was carried out for fish and embryo toxicities against the calculated molecular descriptors and MOAs were evaluated from toxicity ratio. The toxicity significantly related with the chemical hydrophobicity for baseline and less inert compounds, respectively, indicates that these two classes of compounds share the same MOAs between fish and embryos...
September 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Rooma Adalat, Faiza Saleem, Aftab Bashir, Munir Ahmad, Soumble Zulfiqar, Abdul Rauf Shakoori
Cry2Ac11, a 65 kDa insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, shows toxicity against dipteran and lepidopteran larvae. It is encoded by cry2Ac11 gene ( orf3), which is part of an operon comprising orf1, orf2, and orf3. Orf2, a helper protein, helps in proper folding and prevents aberrant aggregation of newly produced molecules. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of different mutations in translation initiation region (TIR), particularly the ribosomal binding site and the start codon (RBS-ATG) on cry2Ac11 gene expression without helper protein...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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