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Clinical study of hydrocephalus

Jun-Jun Lee, Chia-Yi Lien, Chi-Ren Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Wen-Neng Chang
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratory features and prognostic factors of elderly patients with postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Five hundred and forty patients with adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) were collected from 1986-2015, of whom 167 were ≥ 65 years. Of these 167 elderly patients, 82 had postneurosurgical infections and 85 had spontaneous infections. Clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of these two groups were compared...
December 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Jianfeng Zheng, Rui Xu, Guojing Liu, Zongduo Guo, Xiaochuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is common in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, it is still unclear whether premorbid antihypertensive therapy can help to reduce the risk of severe aneurysmal bleeding. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of premorbid hypertension control on outcome of patients with aneurysmal SAH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients with intracranial aneurysms admitted to our institution from February 2012 to December 2017...
October 12, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Arianna Rustici, Ciro Princiotta, Corrado Zenesini, Carlo Bortolotti, Carmelo Sturiale, Massimo Dall'olio, Marco Leonardi, Luigi Cirillo
BACKGROUND: In many clinical trials endovascular procedures are suggested as the treatment of choice for aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH) whenever possible. However, in clinical practice this management is often controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze factors involved in this decision. METHODS: Our study included 317 consecutive cases of aSAH between 2010 and 2016, assessing clinical and neuroradiological features to evaluate their role in this choice...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Christopher P Kellner, Frank Moore, Marc S Arginteanu, Alfred A Steinberger, Kevin Yao, Jacopo Scaggiante, J Mocco, Yakov Gologorsky
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage (scICH) makes up approximately 10% of all cases of spontaneous ICH and carries a mortality of 20-50%. Suboccipital craniectomy is commonly performed for scICH causing brain stem compression or hydrocephalus but unfortunately has long anesthesia times and a high complication rate. We present a series of minimally invasive scICH evacuation as an alternative to traditional suboccipital craniectomy. METHODS: Operative records were retrospectively reviewed for patients presenting to a single center from 1/1/09 to 3/1/17...
October 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
S Shahrukh Hashmi, Candace Gamble, Julie Hoover-Fong, Adekemi Yewande Alade, Richard M Pauli, Peggy Modaff, Meagan Carney, Cassondra Brown, Michael B Bober, Jacqueline T Hecht
Sudden death and higher mortality are recognized in achondroplasia, with acute brainstem compression, a common cause of mortality in children <4 years and cardiovascular deaths being more prevalent in adults. Although, changes in clinical management have improved survival, mortality is still higher than in the general population. The aim of this multicenter clinic-based study was to assess the rate and causes of mortality in patients seen in clinic since 1986. Information was ascertained for achondroplasia patients clinically assessed in four skeletal dysplasia clinics...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Ali Akhaddar, Ahmet T Turgut, Mehmet Turgut
BACKGROUND: In cranial surgery, different foreign body (FB) materials are used and may be left intentionally or unintentionally in the surgical field after closure, inducing a foreign body granuloma (FBG). This is a rare complication in neurosurgery, but it may be a diagnostic dilemna with sometimes medico-legal implications. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the English-language literature between 1965 and 2018, and found a total of 77 articles concerning 100 cases of FBG caused by retained material located within the cranium or surrounding soft tissues...
September 26, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Samar N El-Beshbishi, Nora L El-Tantawy, Sara M Elzeky, Khalid F Abdalaziz, Raefa A Atia
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a global infection with a crucial role in the development of neurological diseases. Data concerning the association between T. gondii and neurological illnesses in Egyptian children is scarce. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 60 patients divided into children suffering from central nervous system manifestations without apparent chromosomal anomalies (n=30) and children with Down syndrome (n=30) recruited from Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt...
September 28, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jose María Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Lorenzo Mongardi, Maria Rosdolsky, Sewan Strauss, Rodrigo Carrasco, Laura Barrios
OBJECTIVE: This study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychiatric disorders caused by craniopharyngiomas and the hypothalamic alterations underlying these symptoms. METHODS: We investigated a collection of 210 craniopharyngiomas published from 1823 to 2017 providing detailed clinical and pathological information about psychiatric disturbances, including 10 of our own series, and compared the hypothalamic damage in this cohort with the present in a control cohort of 105 cases without psychiatric symptoms...
September 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mun-Chun Yeap, Ching-Chang Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Po-Chuan Hsieh, Cheng-Chi Lee, Yu-Tse Liu, Alvin Yi-Chou Wang, Yin-Cheng Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Po-Hsun Tu
OBJECTIVE: Cranioplasty is a relatively simple and less invasive intervention, but it is associated with a high incidence of postoperative seizures. The incidence of, and the risk factors for, such seizures and the effect of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have not been well studied. The authors' aim was to evaluate the risk factors that predispose patients to postcranioplasty seizures and to examine the role of seizure prophylaxis in cranioplasty. METHODS: The records of patients who had undergone cranioplasty at the authors' medical center between 2009 and 2014 with at last 2 years of follow-up were retrospectively reviewed...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ebru Doruk, Rafet Ozay, Zeki Sekerci, Hasan Ali Durmaz, Serra Ozbal Gunes, Sahin Hanalioglu, Mehmet Sorar
OBJECTIVES: Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) is associated with cough headache, intracranial hypertension, cerebellar and spinal cord symptoms/signs. Herniated cerebellar tonsil length (HCTL) is widely used radiological parameter to determine the severity of CM-1, but with limited utility due to its weak correlation with some clinico-radiological findings. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a novel, practical parameter (cervico-medullary compression ratio; "CMCR") for its relationship with clinico-radiological findings in CM-1...
September 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Uthamanthil R Gokul, Kollengode G Ramakrishnan
Objectives: To compare the change in peak cerebrospinal (CSF) flow velocity at the cerebral aqueduct in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) before and after CSF tapping with clinical outcome of the patients, i.e., gait improvement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with NPH were evaluated before and after CSF tapping on 3 consecutive days at our institution. Gait improvement was compared with the average peak velocity at the cerebral aqueduct. The average peak velocity was also compared before and after lumbar CSF tapping using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI)...
September 2018: Neurology India
Beth M Kline-Fath, Monica S Arroyo, Maria A Calvo-Garcia, Paul S Horn, Cameron Thomas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine prenatal MRI and postnatal imaging in fetuses with congenital aqueductal stenosis (CAS) to determine the frequency of association of rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) and how it may affect neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single center IRB-approved retrospective study of children with CAS was performed. Prenatal MRI, postnatal images, and clinical data were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS statistical software package version 9...
September 19, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Ryan M Gallagher, Jodie Marquez, Peter Osmotherly
OBJECTIVES: To determine which cognitive and upper limb assessments can identify change in patients undergoing a Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT) diagnosed with idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study of 74 iNPH patients undergoing a CSF TT for consideration of a ventricular peritoneal shunt. Patients who were offered surgical intervention were classified as responders. Patients were assessed with a battery of cognitive and upper limb assessments prior to and following a CSF TT...
September 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Mengchuan Luo, Weifei Wang, Qiuming Zeng, Yuebei Luo, Huan Yang, Xiaosu Yang
The present study aimed to summarize the clinical features, alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), imaging characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatment regimens and outcomes of adult Chinese patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Clinical data of 189 cases with 4 cases confirmed with definite TBM, 65 cases of probable (diagnostic score, ≥12 with imaging or ≥10 without imaging) and 120 cases of possible (diagnostic score, 6-11 with imaging or 6-9 without imaging) TBM admitted to Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between January 2009 and January 2015 were investigated retrospectively...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Pascal Heye, Ueli Moehrlen, Luca Mazzone, Robert Weil, Stefan Altermatt, David-Alexander Wille, Ianina Scheer, Martin Meuli, Maya Horst
INTRODUCTION: Fetal spina bifida repair (fSBR) has proven effective in the reversibility of hindbrain herniation, lower rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus, and independent ambulation. Besides distinct advantages, there are also concerns related to fSBR. One of these is the postnatal occurrence of inclusion cysts (IC). METHODS: In a prospective study, 48 children who underwent fSBR were followed up. Postnatal assessment included clinical examination, cystometry, and spinal MRI...
September 10, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Peter Kurucz, Laszlo Barany, Michael Buchfelder, Oliver Ganslandt
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a well-accepted treatment option in cases of obstructive hydrocephalus instead of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. A sufficient flow from the ventricles to the basal cisterns requires perforation of the arachnoid membranes in the retroclival region. This is a critical point to achieve an optimal outcome. The complex arachnoid relations were investigated in the retroclival region from the viewpoint of ETV and anatomical landmarks were defined for subarachnoid dissections...
September 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nasser M F El-Ghandour
OBJECT: Intracranial ependymal cysts are rare neuroepithelial cysts that occur less frequently than arachnoid cysts. The cysts are most often intraparenchymal, but they are rarely reported to be intraventricular. This study evaluates the role of endoscopy in the treatment of intraventricular ependymal cysts (IVECs). METHODS: Twelve pediatric patients (mean age 4.3 years) with symptomatic IVECs were the subject of this study. The cyst was located inside the lateral ventricle in all cases (100%), it was present in trigone (10 patients, 83...
September 5, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Gil Coutinho, Sara Júlio, Ricardo Matos, Margarida Santos, Jorge Spratley
OBJECTIVES: Management of otogenic cerebral venous thrombosis (OCVT) is controversial. Despite the modern antibiotic era OCVT still represents a potential life-threatening condition. This study aims to report the clinical presentation and management in a series of children with OCTV. The coexisting intracranial complications (ICC), the extent of the surgical treatment and the role of hypocoagulation were the analysed outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients aged less than 16 years and consecutively treated for OCVT at a tertiary university hospital between January 2007 and March 2015...
October 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jaclyn J Renfrow, Casey D Frey, Madison Arnel, Stacey Q Wolfe, Christopher McLouth, Sudhir Datar
Background: An external ventricular drain (EVD) treats hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This study examines the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate collected from an EVD as a proposed biomarker to predict patient outcome and vasospasm/delayed cerebral ischemia. Methods: Consecutive adults admitted to Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center from 2010 to 2015 with aSAH were identified through the electronic medical record, and clinical variables were collected and analyzed for correlation with incidence of vasospasm and discharge outcome...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Ronald J Benveniste, Samir Sur
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is generally treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS), with improved symptoms in the majority of patients. We performed a retrospective chart review study in order to describe patterns of, and risk factors for, delayed symptom progression after initially successful VPS placement. 69 consecutive patients underwent VPS placement for NPH, and were followed for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. 55 patients (80%) had objective improvement in their NPH symptoms after surgery...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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