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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107229/is-prep-needed-for-msm-in-west-africa-hiv-incidence-in-a-prospective-multi-country-cohort
#1
Clotilde Couderc, Bintou Dembélé Keita, Camille Anoma, Abdoulaye S Wade, Alou Coulibaly, Sylvain Ehouman, Abdou K Diop, Yves Yomb, Emilie Henry, Bruno Spire, Christian Laurent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101813/a-multi-us-city-assessment-of-awareness-and-uptake-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-prevention-among-black-men-and-transgender-women-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Lisa A Eaton, Derrick D Matthews, Daniel D Driffin, Leigh Bukowski, Patrick A Wilson, Ron D Stall
The HIV epidemic among Black men and transgender women who have sex with men (BMTW) demands an urgent public health response. HIV point prevalence among this population ranges from 25 to 43%-a rate far exceeding any other group. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a very promising prevention tool; however, its full potential to slow the epidemic has yet to be realized. For the current study, random time-location sampling at Black Gay Pride Events was used to collect data from N = 1274 BMTW, from five US cities, reporting HIV-negative/unknown status...
January 18, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095828/improved-genome-sequencing-using-an-engineered-transposase
#3
Amirali Kia, Christian Gloeckner, Trina Osothprarop, Niall Gormley, Erin Bomati, Michelle Stephenson, Igor Goryshin, Molly Min He
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by reducing turnaround time and cost. However, no major breakthrough has been made in the upstream library preparation methods until the transposase-based Nextera method was invented. Nextera combines DNA fragmentation and barcoding in a single tube reaction and therefore enables a very fast workflow to sequencing-ready DNA libraries within a couple of hours. When compared to the traditional ligation-based methods, transposed-based Nextera has a slight insertion bias...
January 17, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095307/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-antiretroviral-treatment-interventions-with-drug-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Komi Afassinou, Faraimunashe Chirove, Keshlan S Govinder
We introduce a model for HIV/AIDS which can be utilized to assess the impact of combining pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) use interventions (incorporating drug resistance). Mathematical and numerical analyses are carried out to investigate the effects of the combined controls in the presence of PrEP drug resistance. Our results predict a significant decrease in the number of new HIV infections when PrEP and ARVs are concurrently implemented at high levels. The results also reveal that PrEP drug resistance has the potential to slow down or reverse the effects of PrEP, especially at low efficacy levels...
January 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078776/performance-of-the-forenseq-tm-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-highly-degraded-samples
#5
Paolo Fattorini, Carlo Previderé, Ilaria Carboni, Giorgio Marrubini, Solange Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Pierangela Grignani, Barbara Bertoglio, Paolo Vatta, Ugo Ricci
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the emerging technology in forensic genomics laboratories. It offers higher resolution to address most problems of human identification, greater efficiency and potential ability to interrogate very challenging forensic casework samples. In the present study, a trial set of DNA samples was artificially degraded, by progressive aqueous hydrolysis, and analyzed together with the corresponding unmodified DNA sample and control sample 2800M, to test the performance and reliability of the ForenSeq(TM) DNA Signature Prep kit using the MiSeq Sequencer (Illumina)...
January 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073964/single-dose-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oral-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-blood-saliva-and-rectal-tissue-a-sub-study-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#6
Julien Fonsart, Sentob Saragosti, Milad Taouk, Gilles Peytavin, Lane Bushman, Isabelle Charreau, Allan Hance, Lauriane Goldwirt, Stéphane Morel, Fabrizio Mammano, Bénédicte Loze, Catherine Capitant, François Clavel, Nadia Mahjoub, Laurence Meyer, Peter L Anderson, Constance Delaugerre, Jean-Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: In the ANRS IPERGAY pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, a single dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine was taken orally 2-24 h before sexual intercourse. A sub-study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir and emtricitabine in blood, saliva and rectal tissue following this initial oral intake. METHODS: Plasma, PBMC, saliva and rectal tissue sampling was performed over 24 h in 12 seronegative men before enrolment in the ANRS IPERGAY trial, following a single dose of 600 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/400 mg emtricitabine...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062644/ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-prolyl-oligopeptidase-a-kinetic-approach
#7
R Van Elzen, E Schoenmakers, I Brandt, P Van Der Veken, A M Lambeir
Most kinetic studies of prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) were performed with the porcine enzyme using modified peptide substrates. Yet recent biophysical studies used the human homolog. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the kinetic behavior of human and porcine PREP, as well as to find a suitable method to study enzyme kinetics with an unmodified biological substrate. It was found that human PREP behaves identically to the porcine homolog, displaying a double bell-shaped pH profile and a pH-dependent solvent kinetic isotope effect of the kcat/Km, features that set it apart from the related exopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV)...
January 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060881/individual-hiv-risk-versus-population-impact-of-risk-compensation-after-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-initiation-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Samuel M Jenness, Akshay Sharma, Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Kevin M Weiss, Karen W Hoover, Dawn K Smith, Patrick Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Risk compensation (RC) could reduce or offset the biological prevention benefits of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among those at substantial risk of infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the potential extent and causal mechanisms through which RC could impact HIV transmission at the population and individual levels. METHODS: Using a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated RC as a reduction in the probability of condom use after initiating PrEP, with heterogeneity by PrEP adherence profiles and partnership type in which RC occurred...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060011/topical-tenofovir-protects-against-vaginal-shiv-infection-in-macaques-co-infected-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-trichomonas-vaginalis
#9
Natalia Makarova, Tara Henning, Andrew Taylor, Chuong Dinh, Jonathan Lipscomb, Rachael Aubert, Debra Hanson, Christi Phillips, John Papp, James Mitchell, Janet Mcnicholl, Gerardo J Garcia-Lerma, Walid Heneine, Ellen Kersh, Charles Dobard
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), two prevalent sexual transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether co-infection with CT/TV reduces protection by vaginal TFV gel. METHODS: Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100% or 74% protection when applied either 30 minutes or 3 days before SHIV challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques co-infected with CT/TV and challenged twice-weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (2 menstrual cycles)...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057963/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-of-normal-adrenal-glands
#10
Sara Reis Teixeira, Paula Condé Lamparelli Elias, Andrea Farias de Melo Leite, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves de Oliveira, Valdair Francisco Muglia, Jorge Elias Junior
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050814/what-orthopaedic-operating-room-surfaces-are-contaminated-with-bioburden-a-study-using-the-atp-bioluminescence-assay
#11
Raveesh Daniel Richard, Thomas R Bowen
BACKGROUND: Contaminated operating room surfaces can increase the risk of orthopaedic infections, particularly after procedures in which hardware implantation and instrumentation are used. The question arises as to how surgeons can measure surface cleanliness to detect increased levels of bioburden. This study aims to highlight the utility of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology as a novel technique in detecting the degree of contamination within the sterile operating room environment...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047631/we-fg-206-04-comprehensive-evaluation-of-left-ventricular-lv-filling-and-ejection-using-high-frame-rate-cine-mr-imaging-key-technical-and-methodological-requirements
#12
J Zhang, B Cheong, A Pednekar, C Arena, D Dees, R Muthupillai
PURPOSE: Unlike echocardiography which can quantify both LV filling and ejection, cine steady state free precession sequence (SSFP)-despite its high intrinsic signal and contrast to noise ratio, accuracy and precision of volume measurements-, is mostly relegated to quantifying LV ejection. The steady-state requirement typically constrains SSFP sequence to a breathhold (and limited temporal resolution). We describe: (a) free breathing cine SSFP approach that meets the SS requirement allowing high frame rate acquisition, (b) two MRI indices based on time-LV volume (TV) change during filling and compare against echocardiagraphic diastolic index (E/A ratio), and (c) evaluate the effect of temporal resolution on: LV volumes; ejection and filling rates; and normalized indices of systolic and diastolic function...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046345/su-f-r-26-prognostic-radiomics-of-breast-cancer-on-dce-and-dwi-mr-images
#13
N Maforo, H Li, L Lan, A Edwards, M L Giger
PURPOSE: For this study, we investigated quantitative radiomics of breast tumors on diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRIs in the task of assessing the prognostic status of breast cancers. METHODS: Our IRB-approved, retrospectively-collected dataset included 316 breast cancers with 235 ER+ and 81 ER- cases. All images were acquired during clinical breast MRI incorporating dynamic-contrast MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI. Phenotypic categories extracted quantitatively from DCE-MRI included tumor size, shape, margin sharpness, enhancement texture, kinetics, and variance kinetics, and from DWI-DCE ADC features (average, range, variation) for DWI...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040655/hierarchical-identification-of-bioactive-components-in-a-medicinal-herb-by-preparative-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-selective-knock-out-strategy
#14
Cheng Qu, Lin-Yan Wang, Hang Lin, Er-Xin Shang, Yu-Ping Tang, Shi-Jun Yue, Yi Jin, Wei-Wei Tao, Shao-Ping Li, Yong-Qing Hua, Pei Liu, Shu-Lan Su, Huiping Zhou, Da-Wei Qian, Jin-Ao Duan
A novel and generally applicable approach was established to hierarchically identify the bioactive components of a medicinal herb by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and a selective knock-out strategy. In this study, the targeted components of an herbal medicine were separated and knocked out using prep-HPLC. Subsequently, the contributions of the different target components to the overall effect of the medicinal herb were comparatively evaluated and differentiated by a heat map and a 3D score plot...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034412/does-adoption-of-electronic-health-records-improve-organizational-performances-of-hospital-surgical-units-results-from-the-french-e-si-preps-sips-study
#15
Morgane Plantier, Nathalie Havet, Thierry Durand, Nicolas Caquot, Camille Amaz, Irène Philip, Pierre Biron, Lionel Perrier
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHR) are increasingly being adopted by healthcare systems worldwide. In France, the "Hôpital numérique 2012-2017" program was implemented as part of a strategic plan to modernize health information technology (HIT), including promotion of widespread EHR use. With significant upfront investment costs as well as ongoing operational expenses, it is important to assess this system in terms of its ability to result in improvements in hospital performances...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031062/maximizing-the-benefits-of-art-and-prep-in-resource-limited-settings
#16
G Akudibillah, A Pandey, J Medlock
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly being used as an HIV-prevention tool, administered to uninfected people with ongoing HIV exposure as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to infected people to reduce their infectiousness. We used a modelling approach to determine the optimal population-level combination of ART and PrEP allocations required in South Africa to maximize programme effectiveness for four outcome measures: new infections, infection-years, death and cost. We considered two different strategies for allocating treatment, one that selectively allocates drugs to sex workers and one that does not...
December 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025734/reaching-key-populations-prep-uptake-in-an-urban-health-care-system-in-the-bronx-new-york
#17
Cedric H Bien, Viraj V Patel, Oni J Blackstock, Uriel R Felsen
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been established as an effective HIV prevention tool, but real world studies are limited. To inform dissemination efforts, we sought to describe individuals prescribed PrEP in the largest health care system in the Bronx, New York, an urban region with a high burden of HIV. We used a clinical database and chart review to identify individuals prescribed PrEP between 2011 and 2015 (n = 108). A majority were Black and Hispanic, half were men who have sex with men, and nearly a third were cisgender women who have sex with men...
December 26, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013265/decline-in-bone-mass-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-is-associated-with-hormonal-changes-in-the-absence-of-renal-impairment-when-used-by-hiv-uninfected-adolescent-boys-and-young-men-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#18
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Sybil G Hosek, Peter L Anderson, Sharon M Seifert, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the relative importance of renal and endocrine changes in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related bone toxicity. METHODS: In a study of daily TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected young men who have sex with men, we measured changes from baseline in blood and urine markers of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis, creatinine, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007749/intermuscular-technique-for-implantation-of-the-subcutaneous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-long-term-performance-and-complications
#19
Joachim Winter, Markus Siekiera, Dong-In Shin, Christian Meyer, Patric Kröpil, Harald Clahsen, Stephen O'Connor
AIMS: The subcutaneous cardioverter defibrillator was designed to overcome electrode complications of transvenous defibrillation systems. While largely achieved, pocket complications have increased. Subcutaneous implantation of the pulse generator leaves it prone to erosion, extrusion, discomfort, and poor cosmesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We use a demonstration electrode and pulse generator with fluoroscopy, prior to prepping and draping, to maximize the left ventricular mass between them...
December 22, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007341/better-late-than-never-prep-in-england
#20
EDITORIAL
The Lancet Hiv
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Lancet HIV
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