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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817332/individual-versus-community-level-risk-compensation-following-preexposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv
#1
Martin Holt, Dean A Murphy
We analyzed the concept of risk compensation and how it has been applied in HIV prevention, paying particular attention to the strategy of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In risk compensation, reduced perceptions of risk after the introduction of a preventative intervention lead to more frequent risk-taking behavior. Such a change may undermine the intervention's protective benefits. We found that many studies purporting to investigate risk compensation do not assess or report changes in perceptions of risk, instead relying on behavioral measures...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817325/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-and-condomless-sex-disentangling-personal-values-from-public-health-priorities
#2
Sarah K Calabrese, Kristen Underhill, Kenneth H Mayer
Daily HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective form of HIV protection that remains unknown and inaccessible for many people in the United States despite receiving federal approval over five years ago. PrEP is supported by the public health community, but forgoing condoms while taking PrEP has proven controversial; this controversy may be contributing to the lag in PrEP uptake. We argue that limiting PrEP access based on anticipated or actual sexual behavior contradicts the goals of public health research and practice and is not scientifically justified...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815459/a-roadmap-for-reducing-cardiac-device-infections-a-review-of-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-actionable-risk-factors-to-guide-the-development-of-an-infection-prevention-program-for-the-electrophysiology-laboratory
#3
REVIEW
Westyn Branch-Elliman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are highly morbid, common, and costly, and rates are increasing (Sohail et al. Arch Intern Med 171(20):1821-8 2011; Voigt et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(3):590-1 2006). Factors that contribute to the development of CIED infections include patient factors (comorbid conditions, self-care, microbiome), procedural details (repeat procedure, contamination during procedure, appropriate pre-procedural prep, and antimicrobial use), environmental and organizational factors (patient safety culture, facility barriers, such as lack of space to store essential supplies, quality of environmental cleaning), and microbial factors (type of organism, virulence of organism)...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815361/factors-associated-with-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-a-highly-insured-population-of-urban-men-who-have-sex-with-men-2014
#4
R Monina Klevens, Brett M Martin, Rose Doherty, H Dawn Fukuda, Kevin Cranston, Alfred DeMaria
In the United States, an estimated 25% of men who have sex with men (MSM) have indications for receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection (PrEP), but <4% reported PrEP use in the past 12 months. We evaluate factors associated with having heard of, willingness to use, and use of PrEP in a venue-based, time-spaced sample of 316 urban, highly insured Boston MSM in the 2014 NHBS. We found that 53.7% of respondents reported receiving usual medical care from a doctor's office or health maintenance organization, 57...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805952/constituents-from-scutellaria-barbata-inhibiting-nitric-oxide-production-in-lps-stimulated-microglial-cells
#6
So Ra Lee, Min-Suk Kim, Sunggun Kim, Kwang Woo Hwang, So-Young Park
The arial parts of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) efficiently inhibited NO production in BV2 microglial cells, and the active constituents were further isolated based on activity-guided isolation using silica-gel column chromatography, RP-C18 MPLC and prep-HPLC. As the results, 2 flavonoids including 6-methoxynaringenin (1) and 6-O-methylscutellarein (5), and 6 neo-clerodane diterpenes such as scutebarbatine W (2), scutebatas B (3), scutebarbatine B (4), scutebarbatine A (6), 6-O-nicotinolylscutebarbatine G (7) and scutebarbatine X (8) were isolated...
August 14, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796749/response-to-letter-from-clement-et-al-commenting-on-the-right-people-right-places-and-right-practices-disparities-in-prep-access-among-african-american-men-women-and-msm-in-the-deep-south
#7
Latesha Elopre, Kachina Kudroff, Andrew O Westfall, Edgar T Overton, Michael J Mugavero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791876/limited-awareness-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-new%C3%A2-york-city
#8
Matthew Garnett, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Julie Franks, Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Sharon Mannheimer
Awareness of Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was assessed among a cohort of substance-using black men who have sex with men and transgender women (MSM/TGW) participating in the STAR Study, which recruited black MSM/TGW in New York City for HIV testing and linked HIV-infected individuals into care from July 2012 to April 2015. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, known HIV risk factors, and PrEP awareness were assessed among participants. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess factors associated with PrEP awareness...
August 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782336/willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-malaysia-findings-from-a-qualitative-study
#9
Adam Bourne, Matteo Cassolato, Clayton Koh Thuan Wei, Bangyuan Wang, Joselyn Pang, Sin How Lim, Iskandar Azwa, Ilias Yee, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Malaysia. Recent success has been observed within demonstration projects examining the efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an antiretroviral -based medication taken by HIV-negative men to prevent sero-conversion. In order for such promising findings to be translated in real-world settings, it is important to understand the acceptability of PrEP, including perceived barriers to access or uptake...
August 2, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780885/perspectives-on-biomedical-hiv-prevention-options-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-kenya
#10
Angela Robertson Bazzi, Kelly A Yotebieng, Kawango Agot, Grace Rota, Jennifer L Syvertsen
Due to heightened vulnerability to HIV from frequent engagement in sex work and overlapping drug-using and sexual networks, women who inject drugs should be a high priority population for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical HIV prevention tools. Kenya is one of the first African countries to approve oral PrEP for HIV prevention among "key populations," including people who inject drugs and sex workers. The objective of this study was to explore preferences and perceived challenges to PrEP adoption among women who inject drugs in Kisumu, Kenya...
August 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778090/trastuzumab-distribution-in-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-model-of-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer
#11
Tori B Terrell-Hall, Mohamed Ismail Nounou, Fatema El-Amrawy, Jessica I G Griffith, Paul R Lockman
BACKGROUND: Drug and antibody delivery to brain metastases has been highly debated in the literature. The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is more permeable than the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and has shown to have highly functioning efflux transporters and barrier properties, which limits delivery of targeted therapies. METHODS: We characterized the permeability of 125I-trastuzumab in an in-vivo, and fluorescent trastuzumab-Rhodamine123 (t-Rho123) in a novel microfluidic in-vitro, BBB and BTB brain metastases of breast cancer model...
July 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777265/-i-did-not-want-to-give-birth-to-a-child-who-has-hiv-experiences-using-prep-during-pregnancy-among-hiv-uninfected-kenyan-women-in-hiv-serodiscordant-couples
#12
Jillian Pintye, Kristin M Beima-Sofie, Grace Kimemia, Kenneth Ngure, Susan Brown Trinidad, Renee Heffron, Jared Baeten, Josephine Odoyo, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Maureen C Kelley, Grace C John-Stewart
OBJECTIVES: The perceptions, motivations, and beliefs of HIV-uninfected women about PrEP use during pregnancy can influence its uptake and adherence. This study elicited the views of HIV-uninfected women with personal experience taking PrEP during pregnancy. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-uninfected women who had personal experience taking PrEP while pregnant. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 HIV-uninfected Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open-label PrEP demonstration project who became pregnant while using PrEP and continued PrEP through their pregnancy...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777264/feasibility-acceptability-and-adherence-with-short-term-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-female-sexual-partners-of-migrant-miners-in-mozambique
#13
Maria Lahuerta, Allison Zerbe, Rachel Baggaley, Joana Falcao, Laurence Ahoua, Pietro DiMattei, Fernando Morales, Isaias Ramiro, Wafaa M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers protection from HIV acquisition if taken as prescribed. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and adherence with short-term PrEP among female sexual partners of migrant miners in Mozambique. METHODS: HIV-negative female sexual partners of migrant miners were offered daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for 6 weeks concurrent with miners' return home. Study visits occurred at baseline, Week 4, 6 and 8. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected at Week 4 and 6...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771856/does-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-prevention-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-change-risk-behavior-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Kellie Freeborn, Carmen J Portillo
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV has been available since 2012. Even so, PrEP has not been widely accepted among healthcare providers and MSM some of whom are convinced that PrEP decreases condom use, and increases sexually transmitted infections (STIs). DESIGN: A systematic review of the state of the evidence regarding the association of PrEP with condom use, STI incidence and change in sexual risk behaviors in MSM. A structured search of databases resulted in 142 potential citations, but only ten publications met inclusion criteria and underwent data abstraction and critical appraisal...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771076/demand-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-and-the-impact-on-clinical-services-scottish-men-who-have-sex-with-men-perspectives
#15
R I Gilson, D J Clutterbuck, Z E Chen
There is a lack of data on ability and willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM) to self-fund HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We aimed to explore how many eligible (PROUD study criteria) men may want PrEP and how many lower-risk MSM would be willing and able to self-fund this intervention. A self-completed anonymous questionnaire was distributed to MSM populations attending services. Of 377 participants, 81.5% were aware of PrEP. Fifty-three (15.5 %) were eligible, of whom 43 (81%) were very/extremely likely to want it...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758348/preparative-isolation-of-flavonoid-glycosides-from-sphaerophysa-salsula-using-hydrophilic-interaction-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-two-dimensional-preparative-liquid-chromatography
#16
Lijin Jiao, Yanduo Tao, Weidong Wang, Yun Shao, Lijuan Mei, Qilan Wang, Jun Dang
An off-line preparative two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction method was developed for the preparative isolation of flavonoid glycosides from a crude sample of Sphaerophysa salsula. First, the non-flavonoids were removed using an XAmide solid-phase extraction cartridge. Based on the separation results of three different chromatographic stationary phases, the first-dimensional preparation was performed on an XAqua C18 prep column, and 15 fractions were obtained from the 5...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758027/australasian-society-for-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-sexual-health-medicine-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-clinical-guidelines
#17
EDITORIAL
Edwina Wright, Andrew Grulich, Katy Roy, Mark Boyd, Vincent Cornelisse, Darren Russell, Darryl O'Donnell, Bill Whittaker, Levinia Crooks, Iryna Zablotska
Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM) PrEP Guidelines are an updated adaptation of the 2014 US Centers for Disease Control's PrEP guidelines and are designed to: •Support the prescription of PrEP using forms of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine that have been registered in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and other bioequivalent generic drugs that are available in Australia through self-importation, private prescription or Australian PrEP clinical trials•Assist clinicians in the evaluation of patients who are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women, and people who inject drugs (PWID) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756409/female-and-younger-subjects-have-lower-adherence-in-prep-trials-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-the-uptake-of-prep-service-to-prevent-hiv
#18
REVIEW
Ke Yun, Jun-Jie Xu, Jing Zhang, Jia-Ming Li, Qing-Hai Hu, Zhen-Xing Chu, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang, Ning Wang
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medicine-taking compliance (MTC) level, explore its facilitators and barriers, and quantify the association between MTC level and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protective efficacy in individuals at risk of acquiring HIV being administered oral PrEP. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) pertaining to MTC of oral PrEP for HIV prevention up to 16 January 2017...
July 29, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752354/acceptability-of-daily-use-of-free-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-transgender-women-sex-workers-in-shenyang-china
#19
Zixin Wang, Joseph T F Lau, Xueying Yang, Yong Cai, Danielle L Gross, Tiecheng Ma, Yan Liu
This study investigated the acceptability of daily use of free oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China, following a briefing on PrEP. A total of 183 HIV negative or sero-status unknown participants completed the cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP was 61.2%. Adjusting for education level and monthly income, variables on negative attitudes toward PrEP (i.e., having concerns about the side-effects of PrEP) [Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0...
July 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750059/high-levels-of-adherence-to-a-rectal-microbicide-gel-and-to-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-achieved-in-mtn-017-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-and-transgender-women
#20
Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Ivan C Balán, William Brown, Rebecca Giguere, Curtis Dolezal, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Jeanna M Piper, Barbra A Richardson, Cynthia Grossman, Sherri Johnson, Kailazarid Gomez, Stephanie Horn, Ratiya Pamela Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Karen Patterson, Cindy Jacobson, Linda-Gail Bekker, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Pedro Gonzales, Timothy H Holtz, Albert Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Carmen Zorrilla, Javier Lama, Ian McGowan, Ross D Cranston
Trials to assess microbicide safety require strict adherence to prescribed regimens. If adherence is suboptimal, safety cannot be adequately assessed. MTN-017 was a phase 2, randomized sequence, open-label, expanded safety and acceptability crossover study comparing 1) daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), 2) daily use of reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir (RG-TFV) gel applied rectally, and 3) RG-TFV gel applied before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI)-if participants had no RAI in a week, they were asked to use two doses of gel within 24 hours...
2017: PloS One
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