Read by QxMD icon Read


T Yoshino, D C Portnoy, R Obermannová, G Bodoky, J Prausová, R Garcia-Carbonero, T Ciuleanu, P García-Alfonso, A L Cohn, E Van Cutsem, K Yamazaki, S Lonardi, K Muro, T W Kim, K Yamaguchi, A Grothey, J O'Connor, J Taieb, S R Wijayawardana, R R Hozak, F Nasroulah, J Tabernero
Background: Second-line treatment with ramucirumab+FOLFIRI improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo+FOLFIRI for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95%CI=0.73-0.98, P=0.022). Post-hoc analyses of RAISE patient data examined the association of RAS/RAF mutation status and the anatomical location of the primary CRC tumour (left versus right) with efficacy parameters. Patients and methods: Patient tumour tissue was classified as BRAF mutant, KRAS/NRAS ("RAS") mutant, or RAS/BRAF wild-type...
October 18, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Dayson Moreira, Tomasz Adamus, Xingli Zhao, Yu-Lin Su, Zhuoran Zhang, Seok Voon White, Piotr Swiderski, Xin Lu, Ronald A DePinho, Sumanta K Pal, Marcin Kortylewski
Purpose: Prostate cancers show remarkable resistance to emerging immunotherapies, partly due to tolerogenic STAT3 signaling in tumor-associated myeloid cells. Here, we describe a novel strategy combining STAT3 inhibition with Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) stimulation to unleash immune response against prostate cancers regardless of the genetic background. Experimental Design: We developed and validated a conjugate of the STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) tethered to immunostimulatory TLR9 agonist (CpG oligonucleotide) to improve targeting of human and mouse prostate cancer and myeloid immune cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Lok Hei Chan, Lei Zhou, Kai Yu Ng, Tin Lok Wong, Terence K Lee, Rakesh Sharma, Jane H Loong, Yick Pang Ching, Yun-Fei Yuan, Dan Xie, Chung Mau Lo, Kwan Man, Benedetta Artegiani, Hans Clevers, Helen H Yan, Suet Yi Leung, Stéphane Richard, Xin-Yuan Guan, Michael S Y Huen, Stephanie Ma
Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification that plays pivotal roles in signal transduction and gene transcription during cell fate determination. We found protein methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) to be frequently downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its expression to negatively correlate with aggressive cancer features in HCC patients. Silencing of PRMT6 promoted the tumor-initiating, metastasis, and therapy resistance potential of HCC cell lines and patient-derived organoids. Consistently, loss of PRMT6 expression aggravated liver tumorigenesis in a chemical-induced HCC PRMT6 knockout (PRMT6-/- ) mouse model...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Pingyuan Wang, Jia Zhou
Great success has been achieved in small molecule drug discovery programs, making extraordinary contributions for human health, especially in targeted therapy. Taking anticancer drug discovery as an example, small molecules traditionally inhibit the target protein enzyme activities and induce cancer cell apoptosis through the target binding. However, the target protein within tumor cells often recovers its activities, leading to acquired drug-resistance through the overexpression of the target protein or the generation of new mutations in the target protein [1]...
October 9, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Yongqing Liu, Laura Siles, Antonio Postigo, Douglas C Dean
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are thought to be an important source of cancer cells in tumors of different origins. Mounting evidence suggests they are generated reversibly from existing cancer cells, and supply new cancer cells during tumor progression and following therapy. Elegant lineage mapping studies are identifying progenitors, and in some cases differentiated cells, as targets of transformation in a variety of tumors. Recent evidence suggests resulting tumor initiating cells (TIC) might be distinct from CSC...
October 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
Annelore Sacreas, Joshua Y C Yang, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Tara K Sigdel, Juliane M Liberto, Izabella Damm, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Stijn E Verleden, Minnie M Sarwal
RATIONALE: Recent studies suggest that similar injury mechanisms are in place across different solid organ transplants, resulting in the identification of a common rejection module (CRM), consisting of 11 genes that are overexpressed during acute and, to a lesser extent, chronic allograft rejection. OBJECTIVES: We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of the CRM module in identifying acute rejection (AR) and different phenotypes of chronic lung transplant rejection (CLAD), i...
2018: PloS One
Gözde Kır, Billur Coşan Sarbay, Burçin Girgin, Filiz Özen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Xinyu Chen, Mitsuru Hirano, Rudolf A Werner, Michael Decker, Takahiro Higuchi
Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and hormonal balance. Using positron emission tomography (PET) technology, it is possible to monitor the physiological and pathological distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1 ), which reflects the functionality of RAS. A new 18 F-labeled PET tracer derived from the clinically used AT1 antagonist valsartan showing the least possible chemical alteration from the valsartan structure has been designed and synthesized with several strategies, which can be applied for the syntheses of further derivatives...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Eishu Hirata, Takehiko Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi Horike, Etsuko Kiyokawa
At the invasive front of adenocarcinomas, single cells and multi-cellular structures exist; the latter include the glands and cell clusters, such as tumor buddings and poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs). Recent reports suggest the importance of collective cell migration in metastasis; however, it is technically difficult to observe the movement of multi-cellular structures in vivo. We here utilized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells as a model for epithelial cells, and established a method to quantify their motility in three-dimensional structures in vitro...
October 3, 2018: Cancer Science
Nadia Saadat, Sarah Akhtar, Arvind Goja, Nurul H Razalli, Andreea Geamanu, Doina David, Yimin Shen, Smiti Vaid Gupta
Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients have poor prognosis and survival rate. Gemcitabine, the drug of choice has a dismal 15% response rate. Earlier, we reported that Garcinol alone and in combination with gemcitabine showed a dose-dependent favorable response on PC cell lines. This study probes the in vivo effects of dietary Garcinol on PC progression in transgenic PC mice (KPC; K-ras and p53 conditional mutant). KPC male mice were divided into: KC- Control diet; KGr-0.05% Garcinol diet; KGm-Gemcitabine injected; KGG - Garcinol diet + Gemcitabine injected groups...
October 1, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Liang Sun, Miao He, Ning Xu, Da-Hai Xu, Yaacov Ben-David, Zhao-Ying Yang, You-Jun Li
Breast cancer is one of the main types of cancer affecting the health of females worldwide. Despite improvements in therapeutic approaches, cancer patients succumb to the disease due to metastasis itself, rather than the primary tumor from which metastases arise, emphasizing the need for the better understanding of the biological bases that contribute to disease progression. RAB22A, a member of the proto-oncogene RAS family, plays an important role in the formation, trafficking and metabolism of exosomes, and is associated with the occurrence and development of multiple human cancers...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Oorvashi Roy Puli, Brian P Danysh, Elena McBeath, Deepankar K Sinha, Nguyet M Hoang, Reid T Powell, Heather E Danysh, Maria E Cabanillas, Gilbert J Cote, Marie-Claude Hofmann
The ETS family of transcription factors is involved in several normal remodeling events and pathological processes including tumor progression. ETS transcription factors are divided into subfamilies based on the sequence and location of the ETS domain. ETV5 (Ets variant gene 5; also known as ERM) is a member of the PEA3 subfamily. Our meta-analysis of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid samples demonstrated that ETV5 expression is upregulated in papillary thyroid cancer and was predominantly associated with BRAF V600E or RAS mutations...
September 25, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Brittany M Berger, June H Kim, Emily R Hildebrandt, Ian C Davis, Michael C Morgan, James L Hougland, Walter K Schmidt
Protein isoprenylation targets a subset of COOH-terminal Cxxx tetrapeptide sequences that has been operationally defined as a CaaX motif. The specificity of the farnesyl transferase toward each of the possible 8000 combinations of Cxxx sequences, however, remains largely unresolved. In part, it has been difficult to consolidate results stemming from in vitro and in silico approaches that yield a wider array of prenylatable sequences relative to those known in vivo We have investigated whether this disconnect results from the multi-step complexity of post-translational modification that occurs in vivo to CaaX proteins...
September 26, 2018: Genetics
Baoying Guo, Zurong Tang, Changwen Wu, Kaida Xu, Pengzhi Qi
Sturgeons are euryhaline fish species that have developed specific mechanisms of osmotic and ion regulation to adapt to waters of varying salinity. For the aim to elucidate the osmoregulation strategy behind its high salinity tolerance of sturgeons, the transcriptomes of gills in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baeri under salinity stress (30 ppt) were sequenced using deep-sequencing platform Illumina/HiSeq-2500 and differential expression genes (DEGs) were identified. A total of 167, 501, 278 clean reads were obtained and 280, 238 unigenes were composed of those clean reads with the mean length of 520nt, and the N50 of 630 bp...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Miguelina De la Garza, Amber M Cumpian, Soudabeh Daliri, Susana Castro-Pando, Misha Umer, Lei Gong, Nasim Khosravi, Mauricio S Caetano, Marco Ramos-Castañeda, Alejandra Garza Flores, Evelyn C Beltran, Hai T Tran, Michael J Tuvim, Edwin J Ostrin, Burton F Dickey, Christopher M Evans, Seyed Javad Moghaddam
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an inflammatory disease of the lung, is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. Lung tissues obtained from human smokers with COPD and lung cancer demonstrate hypoxia and up-regulated hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 activation is the central mechanism for controlling the cellular response to hypoxia during inflammation and tumor development. These facts suggest a link between COPD-related airway inflammation, HIF-1, and lung cancer. We have previously established a mouse model of COPD-like airway inflammation that promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR)...
August 31, 2018: Oncotarget
Amani M Harrandah, Rodrigo A Mora, Edward K L Chan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been reported in different stages of cancer development and progression. This dysregulation results in different miRNA profiles between cancer and normal tissues. Many studies have shown a significant correlation between miRNA profile and cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Additionally, since a single miRNA regulates multiple mRNA targets, miRNAs dysregulation can affect several pathways involved in cancer development...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
Byeong Hyeok Choi, Mark R Philips, Yuan Chen, Luo Lu, Wei Dai
Ras proteins participate in multiple signal cascades, regulating crucial cellular processes including cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously reported that Ras proteins are modified by sumoylation and that lysine-42 (K42) plays an important role in mediating the modification.  In the current study, we further investigated the role of K42 in regulating cellular activities of K-Ras. Inducible expression of K-RasV12 led to the activation of downstream components including c-RAF, MEK1, and ERKs whereas expression of K-RasV12/R42 mutant compromised the activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling axis...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack, Pablo Martinez, Beow Y Yeap, Chiara Ambrogio, Lorin A Ferris, Christine Lydon, Tom Nguyen, Nicholas A Jessop, A John Iafrate, Bruce E Johnson, Jochen K Lennerz, Alice T Shaw, Mark M Awad
PURPOSE: BRAF mutations are divided into functional classes based on signaling mechanism and kinase activity: V600-mutant kinase-activating monomers (class I), kinase-activating dimers (class II), and kinase-inactivating heterodimers (class III). The relationship between functional class and disease characteristics in BRAF-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully explored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis of BRAF-mutant NSCLCs treated at two institutions from 2005-2017 to determine clinicopathologic characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS) on chemotherapy, and overall survival (OS)...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
K Heikinheimo, J-M Huhtala, A Thiel, K J Kurppa, H Heikinheimo, M Kovac, C Kragelund, G Warfvinge, H Dawson, K Elenius, A Ristimäki, D Baumhoer, P R Morgan
BRAF V600E is the most common mutation in conventional ameloblastoma (AM) of the mandible. In contrast, maxillary AMs appear to harbor more frequently RAS, FGFR2, or SMO mutations. Unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM) is considered a less aggressive variant of ameloblastoma, amenable to more conservative treatment, and classified as a distinct entity. The aim of this study was to characterize the mutation profile of UAM ( n = 39) and to compare it to conventional AM ( n = 39). The associations between mutation status and recurrence probability were also analyzed...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"