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small GTPase Ras

Francesc Tebar, Carlos Enrich, Carles Rentero, Thomas Grewal
The endocytic compartment is not only the functional continuity of the plasma membrane but consists of a diverse collection of intracellular heterogeneous complex structures that transport, amplify, sustain, and/or sort signaling molecules. Over the years, it has become evident that early, late, and recycling endosomes represent an interconnected vesicular-tubular network able to form signaling platforms that dynamically and efficiently translate extracellular signals into biological outcome. Cell activation, differentiation, migration, death, and survival are some of the endpoints of endosomal signaling...
2018: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Julian David Baur, Reinhild Rösler, Sebastian Wiese, Nils Johnsson, Thomas Gronemeyer
Septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins that assemble into an ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. They are present in all higher eukaryotes except plants. Septins belong structurally to the P-Loop NTPases like Rab and Ras. However, unlike other small GTPases septins are supposed to act as scaffolds rather than signalling mediators. This is why they are considered as the fourth class of cytoskeletal proteins. It is assumed that septins fulfil their functions independently of the bound nucleotide...
August 9, 2018: Cytoskeleton
B Eleazar Cohen
The cell membrane provides a functional link between the external environment and the replicating DNA genome by using ligand-gated receptors and chemical signals to activate signaling transduction pathways. However, increasing evidence has also indicated that the phospholipid bilayer itself by altering various physical parameters serves as a sensor that regulate membrane proteins in a specific manner. Changes in thickness and/or curvature of the membrane have been shown to be induced by mechanical forces and transmitted through the transmembrane helices of several types of mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels underlying functions such as osmoregulation in bacteria and sensory processing in mammalian cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Hiroyuki Nakamura, Sanae Shimamura, Shinsuke Yasuda, Michihito Kono, Michihiro Kono, Yuichiro Fujieda, Masaru Kato, Kenji Oku, Toshiyuki Bohgaki, Tomohiro Shimizu, Norimasa Iwasaki, Tatsuya Atsumi
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune polyarthritis, in which fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a key role in cartilage and bone destruction through tumour-like proliferation and invasiveness. Considering still unsatisfactory remission rate in RA even under treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, novel therapeutic strategy for treatment-resistant RA is still awaited. In this study, we analysed the expression and function of Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing proteins (RASGRPs), guanine exchange factors for small GTPase Ras, in FLS as a potential therapeutic target for RA...
August 3, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Khalid Bashir Dar, Aashiq Hussain Bhat, Shajrul Amin, Syed Anjum, Bilal Ahmad Reshi, Mohammad Afzal Zargar, Akbar Masood, Showkat Ahmad Ganie
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) drive major signalling cascades and play critical role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and trafficking. Deregulated PPIs are implicated in multiple malignancies and represent the critical targets for treating cancer. Herein we discuss the key protein-protein interacting domains implicated in cancer notably PDZ, SH2, SH3, LIM, PTB, SAM and PH. These domains are present in numerous enzymes/kinases, growth factors, transcription factors, adaptor proteins, receptors and scaffolding proteins and thus represent essential sites for targeting cancer...
August 2, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Ming Huang, Tianyu F Qi, Lin Li, Gao Zhang, Yinsheng Wang
Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily are master regulators of intracellular trafficking and constitute essential signaling components in all eukaryotes. Aberrant small GTPase signaling is associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases including cancer. Here we developed a high-throughput, multiple-reaction monitoring-based workflow coupled with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, for targeted quantification of approximately 100 small GTPases in cultured human cells. Using this method, we investigated the differential expression of small GTPases in three pairs of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines...
August 2, 2018: Cancer Research
Lina Wauters, Susanne Terheyden, Bernd K Gilsbach, Margaux Leemans, Panagiotis S Athanasopoulos, Giambattista Guaitoli, Alfred Wittinghofer, Christian Johannes Gloeckner, Wim Versées, Arjan Kortholt
Roco proteins have come into focus after mutations in the gene coding for the human Roco protein Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) were discovered to be one of the most common genetic causes of late onset Parkinson's disease. Roco proteins are characterized by a Roc domain responsible for GTP binding and hydrolysis, followed by a COR dimerization device. The regulation and function of this RocCOR domain tandem is still not completely understood. To fully biochemically characterize Roco proteins, we performed a systematic survey of the kinetic properties of several Roco protein family members, including LRRK2...
July 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Liguo Liu, Xuebing Yan, Dapeng Wu, Yi Yang, Mengcheng Li, Yang Su, Wenchao Yang, Zezhi Shan, Yuping Gao, Zhiming Jin
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly diagnosed digestive malignancy worldwide. Ras-related protein 1A (RAP1A) is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases and has been recently identified as a novel oncoprotein in several human malignancies. However, its specific role in CRC remains unclear. METHOD: In this study, we firstly analyzed its expression and clinical significance in a retrospective cohort of 144 CRC patients. Then, cellular assays in vitro and in vivo were performed to clarify its biological role in CRC cells...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Wang Liu, Yan Zhou, Tao Peng, Ping Zhou, Xiaojun Ding, Zilin Li, Haoyu Zhong, Yue Xu, She Chen, Howard C Hang, Feng Shao
Shigella flexneri, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium causative for shigellosis, employs a type III secretion system to deliver virulence effectors into host cells. One such effector, IcsB, is critical for S. flexneri intracellular survival and pathogenesis, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we discover that IcsB is an 18-carbon fatty acyltransferase catalysing lysine Nε -fatty acylation. IcsB disrupted the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotes, resulting from Nε -fatty acylation of RhoGTPases on lysine residues in their polybasic region...
July 30, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Enrica Saponara, Michele Visentin, Francesco Baschieri, Gitta Seleznik, Paola Martinelli, Irene Esposito, Johanna Buschmann, Rong Chen, Rossella Parrotta, Nathalie Borgeaud, Marta Bombardo, Ermanno Malagola, Amedeo Caflisch, Hesso Farhan, Rolf Graf, Sabrina Sonda
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the primary cause of pancreatic cancer mortality, is poorly responsive to currently available interventions. Identifying new targets that drive PDAC formation and progression is critical to develop alternative therapeutic strategies to treat this lethal malignancy. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we investigated in vivo and in vitro whether uptake of the monoamine serotonin is required for PDAC development. We demonstrated that pancreatic acinar cells have the ability to readily take up serotonin in a transport-mediated manner...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Samantha Messina
RAS signaling is involved in the development of autoimmunity in general. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It is widely recognized that a reduction of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells is an immunological hallmark of MS, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In experimental autoimmune models, N-Ras and K-Ras inhibition triggers an anti-inflammatory effect up-regulating, via foxp3 elevation, the numbers and the functional suppressive properties of Tregs...
July 25, 2018: Small GTPases
Yue Lu, Flora Hsiang, Jia-Hui Chang, Xiao-Quan Yao, Hui Zhao, Hai-Yan Zou, Lei Wang, Qiu-Xia Zhang
Houshiheisan, a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, contains Flos Chrysanthemi, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix et Rhizoma Asari, Radix Platycodonis, Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae, Poria, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng, Radix Scutellariae and Concha Ostreae. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, Flos Chrysanthemi, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Radix Platycodonis are wind-dispelling drugs; Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae, Poria, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Radix Angelicae sinensis and Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng are deficiency-nourishing drugs...
July 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ji-Sook Yun, Sung Chul Ha, Shinae Kim, Yeon-Gil Kim, Hyeran Kim, Jeong Ho Chang
RabGTPase is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which share a GTP-binding pocket containing highly conserved motifs that promote GTP hydrolysis. In Arabidopsis, the RabA group, which corresponds to the Rab11 group in animals, functions in the recycling of endosomes that control docking and fusion during vesicle transport. However, their molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of the GDP-bound inactive form and both GppNHp- and GTP-bound active forms of RabA1a, at resolutions of 2...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Hann Ling Wong, Akira Akamatsu, Qiong Wang, Masayuki Higuchi, Tomonori Matsuda, Jun Okuda, Ken-Ichi Kosami, Noriko Inada, Tsutomu Kawasaki, Takako Kaneko-Kawano, Shingo Nagawa, Li Tan, Yoji Kawano, Ko Shimamoto
Background: Small GTPases act as molecular switches that regulate various plant responses such as disease resistance, pollen tube growth, root hair development, cell wall patterning and hormone responses. Thus, to monitor their activation status within plant cells is believed to be the key step in understanding their roles. Results: We have established a plant version of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe called Ras and interacting protein chimeric unit (Raichu) that can successfully monitor activation of the rice small GTPase OsRac1 during various defence responses in cells...
2018: Plant Methods
Madalene Earp, Jonathan P Tyrer, Stacey J Winham, Hui-Yi Lin, Ganna Chornokur, Joe Dennis, Katja K H Aben, Hoda Anton-Culver, Natalia Antonenkova, Elisa V Bandera, Yukie T Bean, Matthias W Beckmann, Line Bjorge, Natalia Bogdanova, Louise A Brinton, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Fiona Bruinsma, Clareann H Bunker, Ralf Butzow, Ian G Campbell, Karen Carty, Jenny Chang-Claude, Linda S Cook, Daniel W Cramer, Julie M Cunningham, Cezary Cybulski, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Evelyn Despierre, Jennifer A Doherty, Thilo Dörk, Andreas du Bois, Matthias Dürst, Douglas F Easton, Diana M Eccles, Robert P Edwards, Arif B Ekici, Peter A Fasching, Brooke L Fridley, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Graham G Giles, Rosalind Glasspool, Marc T Goodman, Jacek Gronwald, Philipp Harter, Alexander Hein, Florian Heitz, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Peter Hillemanns, Claus K Hogdall, Estrid Høgdall, Satoyo Hosono, Edwin S Iversen, Anna Jakubowska, Allan Jensen, Bu-Tian Ji, Audrey Y Jung, Beth Y Karlan, Melissa Kellar, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Boon Kiong Lim, Susanne K Kjaer, Camilla Krakstad, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Diether Lambrechts, Sandrina Lambrechts, Nhu D Le, Shashi Lele, Jenny Lester, Douglas A Levine, Zheng Li, Dong Liang, Jolanta Lissowska, Karen Lu, Jan Lubinski, Lene Lundvall, Leon F A G Massuger, Keitaro Matsuo, Valerie McGuire, John R McLaughlin, Iain McNeish, Usha Menon, Roger L Milne, Francesmary Modugno, Kirsten B Moysich, Roberta B Ness, Heli Nevanlinna, Kunle Odunsi, Sara H Olson, Irene Orlow, Sandra Orsulic, James Paul, Tanja Pejovic, Liisa M Pelttari, Jenny B Permuth, Malcolm C Pike, Elizabeth M Poole, Barry Rosen, Mary Anne Rossing, Joseph H Rothstein, Ingo B Runnebaum, Iwona K Rzepecka, Eva Schernhammer, Ira Schwaab, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yurii B Shvetsov, Nadeem Siddiqui, Weiva Sieh, Honglin Song, Melissa C Southey, Beata Spiewankiewicz, Lara Sucheston-Campbell, Ingvild L Tangen, Soo-Hwang Teo, Kathryn L Terry, Pamela J Thompson, Lotte Thomsen, Shelley S Tworoger, Anne M van Altena, Ignace Vergote, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim Thomsen, Robert A Vierkant, Christine S Walsh, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Nicolas Wentzensen, Alice S Whittemore, Kristine G Wicklund, Lynne R Wilkens, Yin-Ling Woo, Anna H Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yong-Bing Xiang, Hannah Yang, Wei Zheng, Argyrios Ziogas, Alice W Lee, Celeste L Pearce, Andrew Berchuck, Joellen M Schildkraut, Susan J Ramus, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Steven A Narod, Thomas A Sellers, Simon A Gayther, Linda E Kelemen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Harvey A Risch, Paul D P Pharoah, Ellen L Goode, Catherine M Phelan
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in American women. Normal ovarian physiology is intricately connected to small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran) which govern processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. We hypothesized that common germline variation in genes encoding small GTPases is associated with EOC risk. We investigated 322 variants in 88 small GTPase genes in germline DNA of 18,736 EOC patients and 26,138 controls of European ancestry using a custom genotype array and logistic regression fitting log-additive models...
2018: PloS One
Atahar Husein, Azfar Jamal, Mohammad Zulfazal Ahmed, Mohammad Arish, Rahat Ali, Shams Tabrez, Fayyaz Rasool, Abdur Rub
Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that resides and replicates in macrophages and causes leishmaniasis. The parasite alters the signaling cascade in host macrophages and evades the host machinery. Small G-proteins are GTPases, grouped in 5 different families that play a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell survival, apoptosis, intracellular trafficking, and transport. In particular, the Ras family of small G-proteins has been identified to play a significant role in the cellular functions mentioned before...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Benjamin C Jennings, Alexis J Lawton, Zeinab Rizk, Carol A Fierke
Protein prenylation involves the attachment of a hydrophobic isoprenoid moiety to the C-terminus of proteins. Several small GTPases, including members of the Ras and Rho subfamilies, require prenylation for their normal and pathological functions. Recent work has suggested that SmgGDS proteins regulate the prenylation of small GTPases in vivo. Using RhoA as a representative small GTPase, we directly test this hypothesis using biochemical assays and present a mechanism describing the mode of prenylation regulation...
July 24, 2018: Biochemistry
Marwan I Abdullah, Elizabeth de Wolf, Mohammed J Jawad, Alan Richardson
Statins are widely used to treat hypercholesterolaemia. However, by inhibiting the production of mevalonate, they also reduce the production of several isoprenoids that are necessary for the function of small GTPase oncogenes such as Ras. As such, statins offer an attractive way to inhibit an "undruggable" target, suggesting that they may be usefully repurposed to treat cancer. However, despite numerous studies, there is still no consensus whether statins are useful in the oncology arena. Numerous preclinical studies have provided evidence justifying the evaluation of statins in cancer patients...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Satoshi Sugita, Hideki Enokida, Hirofumi Yoshino, Kazutaka Miyamoto, Masaya Yonemori, Takashi Sakaguchi, Yoichi Osako, Masayuki Nakagawa
The active form of the small GTPase RAS binds to downstream effectors to promote cell growth and proliferation. RAS signal enhancement contributes to tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in various different cancers. HRAS proto-oncogene GTPase (HRAS), one of the RAS isoforms, was the first human oncogene for which mutations were reported in T24 bladder cancer (BC) cells in 1982, and HRAS mutation or upregulation has been reported in several cancers. According to data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, HRAS expression was significantly upregulated in clinical BC samples compared to healthy samples (P=0...
August 2018: International Journal of Oncology
S Janapati, J Wurtzel, C Dangelmaier, B K Manne, D Bhavanasi, J C Kostyak, S Kim, M Holinstat, S P Kunapuli, L E Goldfinger
Essentials RAS proteins are expressed in platelets but their functions are largely uncharacterized. TC21/RRas2 is required for glycoprotein VI-induced platelet responses and for thrombus stability in vivo. TC21 regulates platelet aggregation by control of αIIb β3 integrin activation, via crosstalk with Rap1b. This is the first indication of functional importance of a proto-oncogenic RAS protein in platelets. SUMMARY: Background Many RAS family small GTPases are expressed in platelets, including RAC, RHOA, RAP, and HRAS/NRAS/RRAS1, but most of their signaling and cellular functions remain poorly understood...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
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