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Elyse M Cornett, Matthew B Novitch, Andrew J Brunk, Kelly S Davidson, Bethany L Menard, Richard D Urman, Alan D Kaye
There are currently new drugs being developed that have benzodiazepine properties. This review will examine remimazolam, 3-hydroxyphenazapam, adinazolam, clonazolam, and deschloroetizolam as well as other novel agents. All benzodiazepines are protein bound and only moderately lipid soluble. In addition to their baseline properties, they can be enzymatically broken down into active metabolites. The mechanism of action of these medications is related to polysynaptic pathway inhibition via direct interaction with GABA and modifiable chloride channels...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Shu-Yan Ng, Josette Bettany-Saltikov, Irene Yuen Kwan Cheung, Karen Kar Yin Chan
Several theories have been proposed to explain the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) until present. However, limited data are available regarding the impact of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency on scoliosis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in adolescents, including AIS patients. A series of studies conducted in Hong Kong have shown that as many as 30% of these patients have osteopenia. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level has been found to positively correlate with bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy adolescents and negatively with Cobb angle in AIS patients; therefore, vitamin D deficiency is believed to play a role in AIS pathogenesis...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Martha Wium, Juliano D Paccez, Luiz F Zerbini
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate cellular processes by converting signals from the extracellular environment to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors form an RTK family that plays an intricate role in tissue maintenance, phagocytosis, and inflammation as well as cell proliferation, survival, migration, and development. Defects in TAM signaling are associated with numerous autoimmune diseases and different types of cancers. Here, we review the structure of TAM receptors, their ligands, and their biological functions...
October 12, 2018: Cells
Liang Li, Na Liang, Danfeng Wang, Pengfei Yan, Yoshiaki Kawashima, Fude Cui, Shaoping Sun
The present investigation aimed to develop a tumor-targeting drug delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX). The hydrophobic deoxycholic acid (DA) and active targeting ligand folic acid (FA) were used to modify water-soluble chitosan (CS). As an amphiphilic polymer, the conjugate FA-CS-DA was synthesized and characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The degree of substitutions of DA and FA were calculated as 15.8% and 8.0%, respectively...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mingjie Xie, Xi Chen, Amara L Holder, Michael D Hays, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Tadeusz E Kleindienst, Mohammed Jaoui, Michael P Hannigan
Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also referred to as "brown carbon" (BrC), has been intensively investigated in atmospheres impacted by biomass burning. However, other BrC sources (e.g., secondary formation in the atmosphere) are rarely studied in ambient aerosols. In the current work, forty-five PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC, USA from June 1st to July 15th, 2013. The bulk carbonaceous components, including OC, elemental carbon (EC), water soluble OC (WSOC), and an array of organic molecular markers were measured; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer was used to measure the light absorption of methanol extractable OC and WSOC...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kuan Liu, Mingming Sun, Mao Ye, Huizhen Chao, Yuanchao Zhao, Bing Xia, Wentao Jiao, Yanfang Feng, Xiaoxuan Zheng, Manqiang Liu, Jiaguo Jiao, Feng Hu
Coexistence of antibiotics/heavy metals and the overexpression of resistance genes in the vermicompost has become an emerging environmental issue. Little is known about the interaction and correlation between chemical pollutants and biological macromolecular compounds. In this study, three typical vermicompost samples were selected from the Yangtze River Delta region in China to investigate the antibiotic, heavy metal and corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and heavy metal resistance genes (HRGs)...
October 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Katarina D Kovacevic, James C Gilbert, Bernd Jilma
Aptamers are synthetic molecules structured as single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can be designed to mimic the functional properties of monoclonal antibodies. They bind to the target molecules (typically soluble or cell-bound proteins) with high affinity (with picomolar to low nanomolar range) and specificity, and therefore can be an alternative to therapeutic antibodies or peptide ligands. This paper reviews published data regarding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of aptamers from preclinical and clinical studies...
October 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Long Bai, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yi-Min Zhu, Peter C K Leung
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent enzyme that maintains and stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) by catalyzing the cross-linking of elastin and collagen. ECM within the ovarian follicle plays a crucial role in regulating follicular development and oocyte maturation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the BMP subfamily that has been shown to be involved in the process of ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation. To date, whether BMP2 regulates the activity of LOX during human follicular development remains to be elucidated...
October 12, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Sakshi Gera, Rajan R Dighe
The transduction of signal by the Notch receptors to the intracellular domain is highly regulated and relies on binding of the ligands to the Epidermal growth factor like repeats (ELRs) of the receptor's extracellular domain. Both canonical and non-canonical ligands are known to interact with different ELRs and activate Notch receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of a soluble non-canonical ligand, Y box-1 (Yb-1) with Notch3 receptor ELRs. Polyclonal antibodies were employed as the novel tools to identify the binding site of this ligand...
October 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
S O Osho, O O Babatunde, O Adeola
An experiment was conducted to investigate which method, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID), more accurately predicts the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in mixed diets fed to broiler chickens. Male Ross 308 broiler chickens received a standard starter diet from d 0 to 16 post hatching, thereafter grouped into 8 blocks, based on body weight (BW), of 10 birds/cage, and randomly allotted to 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. The 6 diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet, 3 semi-purified diets, and 2 mixed diets to test the additivity of AID and SID in mixed diets...
October 12, 2018: Poultry Science
S P Ndou, E Kiarie, C M Nyachoti
A combination of in vivo (ileal cannulated pigs) and in vitro (fecal inoculum-based incubation) methodologies were used to predict the effects of dietary supplementation with soluble or insoluble dietary fiber on hindgut VFA production and absorption. Energy contribution from hindgut VFA and apparent ileal (AID) and total tract (ATTD) digestibility of energy and DM was also investigated. Twelve ileal cannulated Genesus barrows (initial BW: 35.1 ± 0.44 kg) were allocated to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets without (control), or with flaxseed meal (FM) or oat hulls (OH) in a 2-period cross-over design...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Mehdi Elsayed Moussa, Martin Piesch, Martin Fleischmann, Andrea Schreiner, Michael Seidl, Manfred Scheer
The synthesis of the air-stable and highly soluble Cu(i)-acetonitrile salts [Cu(CH3CN)3.5][FAl] (1) ([FAl] = FAl{OC(C6F10)(C6F5)}3) and [Cu(CH3CN)4][TEF] (2) ([TEF] = Al{OC(CF3)3}4) is presented. Compound 1 reacts with the organometallic polyphosphorus complexes [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(η2-P2)] (A) and [(Cp*Fe(η5-P5)] (B) and salt 2 reacts with B to form one new (3) and three unprecedented (4-6) phosphorus-rich Cu(i) dimers with the general formulas [Cu2(μ,η1:η1-A)2(η2-A)2][FAl]2 (3), [Cu2(μ,η1:η1-A)2(η1-CH3CN)4][FAl]2 (4), [Cu2(μ,η1:η1-B)2(η1-CH3CN)4][FAl]2 (5) and [Cu2(μ,η1:η1-B)2(η1-CH3CN)4][TEF]2 (6)...
October 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Julienne E Bower, Joshua Wiley, Laura Petersen, Michael R Irwin, Steve W Cole, Patricia A Ganz
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a common side effect of cancer treatment, but there is considerable variability in fatigue severity and persistence among survivors. This study aimed to characterize longitudinal trajectories of fatigue after breast cancer treatment and to identify predictors of varying fatigue trajectories. METHODS: Women (N = 191) from the Mind-Body Study completed assessments after primary treatment for early stage breast cancer and at regular follow-ups that occurred up to 6 years after treatment (M = 4...
November 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Alessio Bricca, André Struglics, Staffan Larsson, Martijn Steultjens, Carsten B Juhl, Ewa M Roos
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of exercise therapy on molecular biomarkers related to cartilage and inflammation in people at risk of, or with established, knee osteoarthritis by conducting a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Literature search up to September 2017 in five major databases with no restriction on publication year or language. Data were extracted from the first available follow-up time point and we performed a narrative synthesis for the effect of exercise therapy on molecular biomarkers related to cartilage and inflammation...
October 15, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Lauren E VanGelder, Brittney E Petel, Olaf Nachtigall, Gabriel Martinez, William W Brennessel, Ellen M Matson
The success of nonaqueous redox flow battery technology requires synthetic advances in charge carrier design to increase compatibility with organic solvents. Herein, we build upon our previous discoveries related to the development of multimetallic charge carriers, with the report of high yielding syntheses of ether-functionalized polyoxovanadate-alkoxide clusters, [V6O7(OR)9(OCH2)3CR'], R = CH3, C2H5; R' = CH3, CH2OCH3, CH2OC2H4OCH3. Like their homoleptic congeners, [V6O7(OR)12] (R = CH3, C2H5), these clusters exhibit four redox events, spanning nearly a two-volt window, and demonstrate rapid electron transfer kinetics...
October 15, 2018: ChemSusChem
Michael Leane, Kendal Pitt, Gavin K Reynolds, Neil Dawson, Iris Ziegler, Aniko Szepes, Abina M Crean, Rafaela Dall Agnol
Following the first Manufacturing Classification System (MCS) paper, the team conducted surveys to establish what active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) properties were important when selecting or modifying materials to enable an efficient and robust pharmaceutical manufacturing process. The most commonly identified factors were: API particle size: Small particle sizes are known to increase risk of processing issues 1 . Drug loading in the formulation: High drug loadings allow less opportunity to mitigate poor API properties through the use of excipients...
October 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Pritam Roy, Sudipta Bag, Debanjana Chakraborty, Swagata Dasgupta
Fullerene-protein interaction studies have been a key topic of investigation in recent times, but the lower water solubility of fullerene somewhat limits its application in the biological system. In this work, we have compared the activities of fullerene and its water-soluble hydrated form, that is fullerenol, on ribonuclease A (RNase A) under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The interaction studies of fullerene and fullerenol with protein suggest that the binding depends on the hydrophobic interactions between the protein and the ligand...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Brian K Ward, Robert J Dufault, Richard Hassell, Matthew A Cutulle
This research was conducted to create a plant-available nitrogen nutrient solution utilizing ruminant bacteria for ultimate use as a liquid nitrogen fertilizer for precision fertigation of vegetable crops. Three hyperammonia-producing ruminant bacteria, Clostridium aminophilum , Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Clostridium sticklandii, were cultured anaerobically using five different organic nitrogen substrates to determine their efficiency in producing bioammonium/ammonia (BAA), a term defined here as a biologically produced solution containing both ammonium and ammonia...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Aleksandra A Wróblewska, Sander Stevens, Wessel Garsten, Stefaan M A De Wildeman, Katrien V Bernaerts
This research focuses on the preparation of biobased copolyamides containing biacetalized galactaric acid (GalX), namely, 2,3:4,5-di- O -isopropylidene-galactaric acid (GalXMe) and 2,3:4,5-di- O -methylene-galactaric acid (GalXH), in bulk by melt polycondensation of salt monomers. In order to allow the incorporation of temperature-sensitive sugar-derived building blocks into copolyamides at temperatures below the degradation temperature of the monomers and below their melting temperatures, a clever selection of salt monomers is required, such that the sugar-derived salt monomer dissolves in the other salt monomers...
October 1, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Yuan Liu, Weijia Hou, Lian Xia, Cheng Cui, Shuo Wan, Ying Jiang, Yu Yang, Qiong Wu, Liping Qiu, Weihong Tan
Porphyrinic metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy solve the photosensitizer problems of poor solubility, self-quenching and aggregation. However, their low selectivity towards malignant tissues is an obstacle for bioimaging and a bottle-neck to cellular uptake for highly efficient photodynamic therapy of cancer. Here, ZrMOF nanoparticles as quenchers to conjugate DNA aptamers were developed for target-induced bioimaging and photodynamic therapy. A phosphate-terminal aptamer prepared by solid-phase DNA synthesis was anchored on the surface of ZrMOF nanoparticles through strong coordination between phosphate and zirconium...
October 14, 2018: Chemical Science
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