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Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
Daiane Anzilaggo, André O'Reilly Beringhs, Bianca Ramos Pezzini, Diva Sonaglio, Hellen Karine Stulzer
The drug in a solid dosage form must undergo dissolution before it is available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Liquisolid system (LS) is a technology used for increasing aqueous solubility of the drugs, which has an important role in the dissolution and absorption phenomena. However, many factors can influence the performance and success of LS. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate through a factorial design, the factors such as drug state (solution or dispersion), nonvolatile solvent and coating material that influence the increase simvastatin (BSC II drug) apparent aqueous solubility and LS flow properties...
November 22, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Srijeeb Karmakar, Laipubam Gayatri Sharma, Abhishek Roy, Anjali Patel, Lalit Mohan Pandey
SNARE (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Receptor) complex is a trimeric supramolecular organization of SNAP25, syntaxin, and VAMP which mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. The functioning of this entire protein assembly is dependent on its tetrahelical coiled coil structure alongside its interaction with a large spectrum of regulatory proteins like synaptotagmin, complexin, intersectin, etc. Defects arising in SNARE complex assembly due to mutations or faulty post-translational modifications are associated to severe synaptopathies like Schizophrenia and also proteopathies like Alzheimer's disease...
December 2, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Daniela Rojas-Azofeifa, Mahmood Sasa, Bruno Lomonte, Elia Diego-García, Natalia Ortiz, Fabián Bonilla, Renato Murillo, Jan Tytgat, Cecilia Díaz
Venoms of medically important scorpions from Buthidae family have been intensively studied, in contrast to non-buthid venoms, for which knowledge is scarce. In this work, we characterized the venom of a Diplocentridae species, Didymocentrus krausi, a small fossorial scorpion that inhabits the Tropical Dry Forest of Central America. D. krausi venom soluble fraction contains proteases with enzymatic activity on gelatin and casein. Mass spectrometry and venomic analysis confirmed the presence of elastase-like, cathepsin-O-like proteases and a neprilysin-like metalloproteinase...
December 2, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Timo Domisch, Françoise Martz, Tapani Repo, Pasi Rautio
Air temperatures and precipitation are predicted to increase in the future, especially at high latitudes and particularly so during winter. In contrast to air temperatures, changes in soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, as the fate of the insulating snow cover is crucial in this respect. Soil conditions can also be affected by rain-on-snow events and warm spells during winter, resulting in freeze-thaw cycles, compacted snow, ice encasement and local flooding. These adverse conditions during winter could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climate change on forest growth and productivity...
December 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
C Jean, F Haghighirad, Y Zhu, M Chalbi, A Ziyyat, E Rubinstein, C Gourier, P Yip, J P Wolf, J E Lee, C Boucheix, V Barraud-Lange
STUDY QUESTION: Is JUNO protein present at the surface membrane of human oocytes and involved in the fertilisation process? SUMMARY ANSWER: JUNO protein is expressed on the plasma membrane of human oocytes and its inhibition by a monoclonal antibody completely blocks gamete fusion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fusion of gamete membranes is the culminating event of the fertilisation process, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Until now, three molecules have been shown to be essential: CD9 tetraspanin in the oocyte, Izumo1 protein on the sperm and Juno, its corresponding receptor on the oocyte...
December 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
Daisuke Sugiura, Eriko Betsuyaku, Ichiro Terashima
Background and Aims: Sink-source imbalance could cause an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; soluble sugar and starch) in source leaves. We aimed to clarify interspecific differences in how sink-source imbalance and TNC causes the downregulation of photosynthesis among three legume plants. The TNC in source leaves was altered by short-term manipulative treatments, and its effects on photosynthetic characteristics were evaluated. Methods: Soybean, French bean and azuki bean were grown under high nitrogen availability...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Aline Teixeira Mendes, Paula Barcellos da Silva, Bruna Barcelos Só, Lina Naomi Hashizume, Rodrigo Ricci Vivan, Ricardo Abreu da Rosa, Marco Antonio Húngaro Duarte, Marcus Vinícius Reis Só
This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer (Sealer Plus BC; MK Life, Porto Alegre, Brazil) compared with an epoxy-resin sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany). Initial and final setting time was assessed based on ISO 6876:2012 and ASTM C266:03. Calcium ion release and pH were evaluated by filling polyethylene tubes with sealers and then immersing them in 10 mL of deionized water. Following experimental periods of 1, 24, 72 and 168 hours, the samples were measured regarding pH and calcium ion release with a pH meter and a colorimetric spectrophotometer, respectively...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Bernardo Cesar Costa, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Roberta Bosso-Martelo, Elisandra Márcia Rodrigues, Idomeo Bonetti-Filho, Mário Tanomaru-Filho
This study evaluated physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and bioactivity of MTA Angelus (MTA), calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) and CSC with 30% Ytterbium oxide (CSC/Yb2O3). Setting time was evaluated using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was evaluated in a mechanical machine. Radiopacity was evaluated using radiographs of materials and an aluminum scale. Solubility was evaluated after immersion in water. Cell viability was evaluated by means of MTT assay and neutral red staining, and the mineralization activity by using alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin Red staining...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Ho Yong Son, Bo Ram Chae, Ji Yeh Choi, Dong Jun Shin, Yoon Tae Goo, Eun Seok Lee, Tae Hoon Kang, Chang Hyun Kim, Ho Yub Yoon, Young Wook Choi
To improve the dissolution behavior of telmisartan (TMS), a poorly water-soluble angiotensin II receptor blocker, TMS-phospholipid complex (TPC) was prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry. The crystalline structure of TMS was transited into an amorphous state by TPC formation. The equilibrium solubility of TPC (1.3-6.1 mg/mL) in various vehicles was about 100 times higher than that of TMS (0.009-0.058 mg/mL). TPC-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) formulation was optimized using the D-optimal mixture design with the composition of 14% Capryol 90 (oil; X1), 59...
2018: PloS One
María A Natale, Gonzalo A César, María G Alvarez, Melisa D Castro Eiro, Bruno Lococo, Graciela Bertocchi, María C Albareda, Susana A Laucella
BACKGROUND: The severity of cardiac disease in chronic Chagas disease patients is associated with different features of T-cell exhaustion. Here, we assessed whether the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ in response to T. cruzi was linked to disruption in immune homeostasis and inflammation in patients with chronic Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from chronic Chagas disease patients and uninfected controls were examined for frequencies of T...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael Duss, Jijo J Vallooran, Livia Salvati Manni, Nicole Kieliger, Stephan Handschin, Raffaele Mezzenga, Henning J Jessen, Ehud M Landau
Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) can reduce Pd2+-salts to palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) of ~ 5 nm size in their confined water channels under mild conditions. The resulting PdNP-containing LCPs were used as nanoreactor scaffolds to catalyze Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions in the aqueous channels of the mesophase. To turn on catalysis, PdNP-containing LCPs are activated by swelling the aqueous channels of the lipidic framework, thereby enabling diffusion of the water-soluble substrates to the catalysts...
December 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yoko Sakata, Ryoichi Yamamoto, Daiki Saito, Yuko Tamura, Keisuke Maruyama, Tomoki Ogoshi, Shigehisa Akine
A triptycene-based shape-persistent belt-shaped macrocycle, metallonanobelt, was synthesized by the self-assembly of 2,3,6,7-tetraaminotriptycene L and square planar Pd2+ . The pentamer was selectively formed by the complexation of L with Pd2+ in the presence of the pillar[6]arene derivative P6 having triethylene glycol pendant as a template, whereas a mixture of a trimer, tetramer, and pentamer was obtained in the absence of the template. The pentamer was successfully isolated based on the solubility difference between the metallonanobelt and the template...
December 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Shun Masuda, Shugo Tsuda, Taku Yoshiya
Ring-closing metathesis (RCM) is an attractive reaction for the preparation of artificially designed peptides. Until now, RCM has been used for fully or partially protected peptides. Herein, the first RCM of unprotected peptides in water was achieved using a water-soluble Ru catalyst.
December 5, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Lisa E Pangilinan, Christopher L Turner, Georgiy Akopov, Mackenzie Anderson, Reza Mohammadi, Richard B Kaner
Solid solutions of tungsten diboride (WB2 ) with increasing substitution of tungsten (W) by tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb)-ranging from 0 to 50 at. % on a metals basis-were synthesized through resistive arc melting. Samples were characterized using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) for phase identification, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for elemental composition, Vickers microindentation for hardness measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis for thermal stability...
December 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Vardhman Kumar, Shyni Varghese
The emergence of immunotherapies and recent FDA approval of several of them makes them a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. While these advancements underscore the potential of engaging the immune system to target tumors, this approach has so far been efficient only for certain cancers. Extending immunotherapy as a widely acceptable treatment for various cancers requires a deeper understanding of the interactions of tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). The immune cells are a key component of the TME, which also includes other stromal cells, soluble factors, and extracellular matrix-based cues...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
W J Chang, B H Chen, B S Inbaraj, J T Chien
BACKGROUND: Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a volatile and water-insoluble compound present in several cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to possess several biological activities such as anti-bacteria, anti-fungi and anti-cancer. In this study, water-soluble allyl isothiocyanate nanoparticles (AITC-NPs) were prepared by O/W microemulsion and complex coacervation techniques and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects on human bladder cancer cell HT1376. RESULTS: The AITC-NPs with a particle size of 9...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bingjie Ouyang, Devon J Renock, Moses A Ajemigbitse, Katherine Van Sice, Nathaniel R Warner, Joshua D Landis, Xiahong Feng
High concentrations of barium (Ba), strontium (Sr) and radium (Ra) are present in both the liquid and suspended solid portions of wastewater produced from hydraulic fracturing. These high concentrations often require special treatment in which the solid and liquid portions are separated and then independently treated prior to disposal. The solids are typically disposed in landfills while the liquids are further treated, recycled for future hydraulic fracturing, or disposed via injection wells. Finding optimal treatment methods of both the solid and the liquid fractions requires a thorough understanding of potential Ra mobility from both the raw suspended solids and mineral precipitates formed during treatment...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Petru Niga, Petra M Hansson-Mille, Agne Swerin, Per M Claesson, Joachim Schoelkopf, Patrick A C Gane, Jing Dai, István Furó, Richard A Campbell, C Magnus Johnson
Propofol is an amphiphilic small molecule that strongly influences the function of cell membranes, yet data regarding interfacial properties of propofol remain scarce. Here we consider propofol adsorption at the air/water interface as elucidated by means of vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), neutron reflectometry (NR), and surface tensiometry. VSFS data show that propofol adsorbed at the air/water interface interacts with water strongly in terms of hydrogen bonding and weakly in the proximity of the hydrocarbon parts of the molecule...
December 5, 2018: Soft Matter
Rajesh Manne, Maya Miller, Andrew Duthie, M Fátima C Guedes da Silva, Edit Y Tshuva, Tushar S Basu Baul
Eight Ti(iv) compounds 1-8, of the type [Ti(Ln)2] where Ln is a variously substituted dianionic tridentate acylhydrazone, were synthesized by reacting the appropriate hydrazide with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde or 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and titanium(iv) tetra(isopropoxide) in a 2 : 2 : 1 molar ratio. The solid-state structures of 1-6 and 7·CH2Cl2 were deduced from the single crystal X-ray diffraction data, which indicated that each L2- ligand is fully deprotonated and coordinated to the Ti(iv) cation via the enolic oxygen, the imino nitrogen and the phenolic oxygen atoms (ONO donor set) in an enol tautomeric form, the metal assuming the distorted octahedral geometry...
December 5, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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