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Regina M B O Duarte, Maria Piñeiro-Iglesias, Purificación López-Mahía, Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo, Jorge Moreda-Piñeiro, Artur M S Silva, Armando C Duarte
This study investigates the structural composition and major sources of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) from PM2.5 collected, in parallel, during summer and winter, in two contrasting suburban sites at Iberian Peninsula Coast: Aveiro (Portugal) and Coruña (Spain). PM10 samples were also collected at Coruña for comparison. Ambient concentrations of PM2.5 , total nitrogen (TN), and WSOM were higher in Aveiro than in Coruña, with the highest levels found in winter at both locations. In Coruña, concentrations of PM10 , TN, and WSOM were higher than those from PM2...
August 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Delfina P González, Helen V Lamb, Diana Partida, Zachary T Wilson, Marie-Claire Harrison, Julián A Prieto, James J Moresco, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Sara K Olson
Metazoan eggs have a specialized coat of extracellular matrix that aids in sperm-egg recognition. The coat is rapidly remodeled after fertilization to prevent polyspermy and establish a more permanent barrier to protect the developing embryo. In nematodes, this coat is called the vitelline layer, which is remodeled into the outermost layer of a rigid and impermeable eggshell. We have identified three key components of the vitelline layer structural scaffold - PERM-2, PERM-4 and CBD-1, the first such proteins to be described in the nematode C...
August 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Günter A Müller
Starting with the first description of anchorage of a subset of cell surface proteins in eukaryotic cells from yeast to mammals by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety covalently attached to the carboxy-terminus of the protein, experimental evidence for the potential of GPI-anchored proteins of being released into the extracellular environment has been accumulating. GPI-AP are released as soluble monomers having lost their anchor or within hetero-/multimeric assemblies with their complete anchor attached...
August 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ichiro Tamaki, Koichiro Hata, Yusuke Okamura, Yermek Nigmet, Hirofumi Hirao, Toyonari Kubota, Osamu Inamoto, Jiro Kusakabe, Toru Goto, Tetsuya Tajima, Junichi Yoshikawa, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Rene H Tolba, Shinji Uemoto
Cold storage (CS) remains the gold standard for organ preservation worldwide, though it is inevitably associated with cold-ischemia/warm-reperfusion injury (IRI). Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) is well-known to have anti-oxidative properties, however, its unfavorable features, i.e. inflammability, low solubility, and high tissue/substance permeability, have hampered its clinical application. To overcome such obstacles, we developed a novel reconditioning method for donor organs, named HyFACS (hydrogen flush after cold storage), just an end-ischemic H2 -flush directly to donor organs ex vivo, and herein report its therapeutic impact against hepatic IRI...
August 18, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Shambhavi Shubham, Jan Hoinka, Soma Banerjee, Emma Swanson, Jacob A Dillard, Nicholas J Lennemann, Teresa M Przytycka, Wendy Maury, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton
With properties such as stability to long-term storage and amenability to repetitive use, nucleic acid aptamers are compatible with many sensing/transducing platforms intended for use in remote locations. Sensors with these properties are important for quickly identifying ebolavirus outbreaks, which frequently start in locations that lack sophisticated equipment. Soluble glycoprotein (sGP), an excellent biomarker for ebolaviruses, is produced from the same gene as the ebolavirus glycoprotein GP1,2 that decorates the surface of the viral particle and is secreted in abundance into the blood stream even during the early stages of infection...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Friederike Hans, Marita Eckert, Felix von Zweydorf, Christian Johannes Gloeckner, Philipp J Kahle
TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in certain forms of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Pathological modifications of TDP-43 include proteolytic fragmentation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitinylation. A pathognomonic TDP-43 C-terminal fragment (CTF) spanning amino acids 193-414 contains only four lysine residues that could be potentially ubiquitinylated. Here, serial mutagenesis of these four lysines to arginine revealed that not a single residue is responsible for the ubiquitinylation of mCherry-tagged CTF...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Katherine Walwyn-Brown, Karolin Guldevall, Mezida Saeed, Daniela Pende, Björn Önfelt, Andrew S MacDonald, Daniel M Davis
Cross-talk between NK cells and dendritic cells (DCs) is important in Th1 immune responses, including antitumor immunity and responses to infections. DCs also play a crucial role in polarizing Th2 immunity, but the impact of NK cell-DC interactions in this context remains unknown. In this study, we stimulated human monocyte-derived DCs in vitro with different pathogen-associated molecules: LPS or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, which polarize a Th1 response, or soluble egg Ag from the helminth worm Schistosoma mansoni , a potent Th2-inducing Ag...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Gene L Bowman, Loïc Dayon, Richard Kirkland, Jérôme Wojcik, Gwendoline Peyratout, India C Severin, Hugues Henry, Aikaterini Oikonomidi, Eugenia Migliavacca, Michael Bacher, Julius Popp
INTRODUCTION: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is observed in older versus younger adults and in late-onset Alzheimer's disease versus age-matched controls, but its causes and consequences in aging are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that BBB breakdown is associated with cognitive decline and inflammation in nondemented elders. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum inflammatory markers were measured using sandwich immunoassays in 120 subjects. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator-logistic regression selected cerebrospinal fluid and serum signatures that best classified BBB impairment defined by the cerebrospinal fluid albumin index ≥9...
August 8, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Paul Joyce, Hanna Gustafsson, Clive A Prestidge
Nanostructured particle-lipid composites have emerged as state-of-the-art carrier systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive molecules due to their ability to control and enhance the lipase-mediated hydrolysis of encapsulated triglycerides, leading to a subsequent improvement in the solubilisation and absorption of encapsulated species. The first generation of particle-lipid composites (i.e. silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles) were designed and fabricated by spray drying a silica nanoparticle-stabilised Pickering emulsion, to create a novel three-dimensional architecture, whereby lipid droplets were encapsulated within a porous matrix support...
August 6, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Shuailing Huang, Yinglong Wu, Fang Zeng, Junjie Chen, Shuizhu Wu
Abnormally-expressed leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is associated with diverse physiological and pathological disorders; hence developing a highly selective and sensitive detection system for LAP is of great significance. Herein, a fluorescent light-up system with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristic, (DPA-TPE-Leu) has been developed for detecting LAP, in which the recognition unit l-leucine amide group also acts as the hydrophilic moiety. Upon LAP-triggered enzymatic reaction, l-leucine amide moiety is cleaved from the probe molecule, resulting in the formation and aggregation of the hydrophobic reaction product (DPE-TPE-OH) with AIE effect and thus giving out the turn-on green fluorescence...
November 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Francesca Gaccioli, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, Martin Hund, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This condition has no gold standard definition, but a widely used proxy is delivery of a small for gestational age infant (<10th percentile) combined with an adverse pregnancy outcome. Effective screening for fetal growth restriction is an area of unmet clinical need. We aimed to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of a combination of ultrasonic fetal biometry and measurement of the ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (sFLT1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with delivery of a small for gestational age infant...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Ruma Baksi, Devendra Pratap Singh, Swapnil P Borse, Rita Rana, Vipin Sharma, Manish Nivsarkar
Quercetin (QCT) is a flavonoid, abundantly present in plants and has gained considerable interest for its antioxidant property and chemo preventive activity. Bioavailability of QCT is very low due to its poor aqueous solubility and instability. Researchers are working on the application of nanotechnology to target chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumour site. The aim of the present study was to develop quercetin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (QCT-CS NPs) with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and sustained release property...
July 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Piyush Mehta, Atmaram Pawar, Kakasaheb Mahadik, C Bothiraja
Fisetin (FIS), a bioactive flavonol found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), vegetables, fruits and nuts. It exhibits various therapeutic activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-invasive, anti-tumorigenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities. In spite of the ever rising support for therapeutic activities, its clinical application is mainly limited because of poor water solubility, high lipophilicity and low oral bioavailability. Till date, numerous efforts have been made to surpass these limitations with the development of new improved delivery platforms...
July 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sourav Thakur, Bushra Riyaz, Akshay Patil, Amanjot Kaur, Bhupinder Kapoor, Vijay Mishra
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation which ultimately leads to severe disability and premature mortality. It has a global prevalence of around 1% with the incidence among women being 2-3 times more than in men. The pathogenesis of the disease involves preclinical RA, genetic factors, and environmental factors. The RA has no known cure and the primary aim of treatment remains to attain lowest possible disease activity and recovery if possible...
July 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Miao Wang, Juan Jiang, Yi Cai, Min Zhao, Qijuan Wu, Yannan Cui, Chunjie Zhao
Posaconazole (PCZ) is a triazole antifungal agent with an extended spectrum of antifungal activity. It is approved for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with neutropenia or in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergoing high-dose immunosuppressive therapy for graft-versus-host disease, and for the treatment of fungal infections. However, its pharmacological effects are severely limited owing to its poor solubility and low bioavailability. In order to solve these problems, a sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) compound was used to prepare an intramuscular injection to improve the bioavailability of posaconazole...
August 17, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Emmanuelle Rochette, Etienne Merlin, Christophe Hourdé, Bertrand Evrard, Bruno Peraira, Stephane Echaubard, Pascale Duché
The aim of this study was to measure the impact, at 24 h post-exercise, of a single exercise bout on plasma inflammatory markers such as calprotectin, IL-6, sIL-6 R, sgp130 and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).Twelve children with JIA attended the laboratory on three consecutive days (control day, exercise day and 24 h post-exercise), including a 20-min exercise bout on a cycle-ergometer at 70% of max. HR at 8:30 a.m. on day 2. Plasma concentrations of calprotectin, IL-6, sIL-6 R, sgp130, cortisol, ACTH and DHEA were measured on venous blood samples taken every day...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Furkan Özen, Aslıhan Günel, Arif Baran
In this study, two novel phthalocyanine complexes were synthesized using their corresponding metal salts and 4-(4-(3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)phenoxy)phthalo-nitrile as chalcone ligand (4), which was prepared from the reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with 4-hydroxyphenyl-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (3). These metallophthalocyanines showed good solubility in organic solvents such as CDCl3 , DCM, THF, DMF, and DMSO. The novel phthalocyanine compounds 4a (Pc-Zn) and 4b (Pc-Co) were characterized using their UV-vis, FT-IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra and elemental analysis...
August 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Vera Kovacevic, André J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson
Previous studies have shown that contaminant toxicity to target organisms is altered by the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Contaminants can bind to DOM and this may alter the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of the contaminants. However, molecular-level techniques are needed to more closely evaluate the impact of DOM on the sub-lethal biochemical responses to emerging contaminants. To investigate how DOM may alter the metabolic response to organic contaminant exposure, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to investigate how the metabolome of Daphnia magna changes when Suwannee River DOM (5 mg organic carbon/L) is included in the acute exposure of four contaminants with varying hydrophobicity...
August 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yangyang Yang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Xun Wang, Guoxiang You
The presence of abundant extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a vital role in affecting heteroaggregation process and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to Microcystis aeruginosa. Interactions between n-CeO2 and cyanobacteria with/without EPS and the toxicity of n-CeO2 to M. aeruginosa were investigated in this study. Aggregation kinetics of n-CeO2 under both soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) indicated the presence of EPS could induced the formation of EPS-NPs aggregates. Heteroaggregation between cells and n-CeO2 was confirmed through co-settling experiment and SEM-EDS observation...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Deng-Guang Yu, Jiao-Jiao Li, Gareth R Williams, Min Zhao
The development of oral dosage forms for poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a persistent challenge. A range of methods has been explored to address this issue, and amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have received increasing attention. ASDs are typically prepared by starting with a liquid precursor (a solution or melt) and applying energy for solidification. Many techniques can be used, with the emergence of electrospinning as a potent option in recent years. This method uses electrical energy to induce changes from liquid to solid...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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