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Induced pluripotent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454439/oct4-induces-emt-through-lef1-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Lu Sun, Tianhua Liu, Shu Zhang, Kun Guo, Yinkun Liu
Octamer 4 (Oct4), a member of the Pit-Oct-Unc transcription factor family required to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, has been previously identified to be associated with tumorigenesis and malignant transformation of numerous types of cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present data shows that Oct4 enhances cancer stem cell properties and increases invasion ability in the Huh7 cell line. To increase understanding of the role of Oct4 in HCC, the present study used a functional genomics approach and analyzed the resulting transcriptional profiles to identify Oct4-dependent genes in Huh7...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453742/blinded-contractility-analysis-in-hipsc-cardiomyocytes-in-engineered-heart-tissue-format-comparison-with-human-atrial-trabeculae
#2
Ingra Mannhardt, Alexandra Eder, Berengere Dumotier, Maksymilian Prondzynski, Elisabeth Krämer, Martin Traebert, Klaus-Dieter Söhren, Frederik Flenner, Konstantina Stathopoulou, Marc D Lemoine, Lucie Carrier, Torsten Christ, Thomas Eschenhagen, Arne Hansen
Objective: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) may serve as a new assay for drug testing in a human context, but their validity particularly for the evaluation of inotropic drug effects remains unclear. In this blinded analysis, we compared the effects of 10 indicator compounds with known inotropic effects in electrically stimulated (1.5 Hz) hiPSC-CM-derived 3 dimensional engineered heart tissue (EHT) and human atrial trabeculae (hAT). Methods and results: Human EHTs were prepared from iCell® hiPSC-CM, hAT obtained at routine heart surgery...
April 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453617/clonal-variation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-induction-into-the-germ-cell-fate
#3
Shihori Yokobayashi, Keisuke Okita, Masato Nakagawa, Tomonori Nakamura, Yukihiro Yabuta, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
The mechanisms for human germ cell development have remained largely unknown, due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable experimental materials. The establishment of an in vitro system to reconstitute human germ cell development will thus provide a critical opportunity to understand its mechanisms at a molecular level. It has previously been shown that human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) [1] are first induced into incipient mesoderm-like cells (iMeLCs), which are in turn induced into primordial-germ cell like cells (PGCLCs) with gene expression properties similar to early migratory PGCs [2, 3]...
April 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453285/pharmacological-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-for-regenerative-medicine
#4
Min Xie, Shibing Tang, Ke Li, Sheng Ding
Lost or damaged cells in tissues and organs can be replaced by transplanting therapeutically competent cells. This approach requires methods that effectively manipulate cellular identities and properties to generate sufficient numbers of desired cell types for transplantation. These cells can be generated by reprogramming readily available somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can replicate indefinitely and give rise to any somatic cell type. This reprogramming can be achieved with genetic methods, such as forced expression of pluripotency-inducing transcription factors (TFs), which can be further improved, or even avoided, with pharmacological agents...
April 28, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449453/cardiac-regeneration-using-hla-matched-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-no-monkey-business-but-still-a-long-and-winding-road-ahead
#5
EDITORIAL
Daniel Sinnecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449443/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-form-in-vitro-tissue-engineering-to-in-vivo-allogeneic-transplantation
#6
EDITORIAL
Yi-Chen Li, Kai Zhu, Tai-Horng Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448871/immunomodulatory-effects-of-stem-cells-therapeutic-option-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Katarina Gazdikova, Iveta Gasparova, Vanda Valentova, Nadezda Stollarova, Giampiero La Rocca, Nazarii Kobyliak, Jozef Dragasek, Ioana Mozos, Robert Prosecky, Dario Siniscalco, Dietrich Büsselberg, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak
Stem cells have the capability of self-renewal and can differentiate into different cell types that might be used in regenerative medicine. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) currently lack effective treatments. Although stem cell therapy is still on the way from bench to bedside, we consider that it might provide new hope for patients suffering with neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we will give an overview of recent studies on the potential therapeutic use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and perinatal stem cells to neurodegenerative disorders and we will describe their immunomodulatory mechanisms of action in specific therapeutic modalities...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448074/simultaneous-electrical-recording-of-cardiac-electrophysiology-and-contraction-on-chip
#8
Fang Qian, Chao Huang, Yi-Dong Lin, Anna N Ivanovskaya, Thomas J O'Hara, Ross H Booth, Cameron J Creek, Heather A Enright, David A Soscia, Anna M Belle, Ronglih Liao, Felice C Lightstone, Kristen S Kulp, Elizabeth K Wheeler
Prevailing commercialized cardiac platforms for in vitro drug development utilize planar microelectrode arrays to map action potentials, or impedance sensing to record contraction in real time, but cannot record both functions on the same chip with high spatial resolution. Here we report a novel cardiac platform that can record cardiac tissue adhesion, electrophysiology, and contractility on the same chip. The platform integrates two independent yet interpenetrating sensor arrays: a microelectrode array for field potential readouts and an interdigitated electrode array for impedance readouts...
April 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448044/generation-of-ipsc-derived-human-brain-organoids-to-model-early-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
Elke Gabriel, Jay Gopalakrishnan
The restricted availability of suitable in vitro models that can reliably represent complex human brain development is a significant bottleneck that limits the translation of basic brain research into clinical application. While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have replaced the ethically questionable human embryonic stem cells, iPSC-based neuronal differentiation studies remain descriptive at the cellular level but fail to adequately provide the details that could be derived from a complex, 3D human brain tissue...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447755/gene-expression-profile-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-chondrogenic-differentiation-in-vitro-part-a
#10
Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Ewelina Augustyniak, Magdalena Richter, Tomasz Trzeciak
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer promise in regenerative medicine, however more data are required to improve understanding of key aspects of the cell differentiation process, including how specific chondrogenic processes affect the gene expression profile of chondrocyte‑like cells and the relative value of cell differentiation markers. The main aims of the present study were as follows: To determine the gene expression profile of chondrogenic-like cells derived from hiPSCs cultured in mediums conditioned with HC‑402‑05a cells or supplemented with transforming growth factor β3 (TGF‑β3), and to assess the relative utility of the most commonly used chondrogenic markers as indicators of cell differentiation...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447733/gene-expression-profile-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-chondrogenic-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vitro-part-b
#11
Ewelina Augustyniak, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Tomasz Trzeciak, Magdalena Richter
The development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is considered a turning point in tissue engineering. However, more data are required to improve understanding of key aspects of the cell differentiation process, including how specific chondrogenic processes affect the gene expression profile of chondrocyte‑like cells and the relative value of cell differentiation markers. The main aims of the present study were as follows: To determine the gene expression profile of chondrogenic‑like cells derived from hiPSCs cultured in mediums conditioned with HC‑402‑05a cells or supplemented with transforming growth factor β3 (TGF‑β3), and to assess the relative utility of the most commonly‑used chondrogenic markers as indicators of cell differentiation...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447035/novel-therapeutic-approaches-rett-syndrome-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technology
#12
REVIEW
Mohan Gomathi, Vellingiri Balachandar
Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology target screening and discovering of therapeutic agents for the possible cure of human diseases. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are the right kind of platform for testing potency of specific active compounds. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine developed between 2,500 and 500 BC, is a science involving the intelligent formulations of herbs and minerals. It can serve as a "goldmine" for novel neuroprotective agents used for centuries to treat neurological disorders...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446816/sirt2-and-glycolytic-enzyme-acetylation-in-pluripotent-stem-cells
#13
Tong Ming Liu, Ng Shyh-Chang
The metabolic transition from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis is critical for somatic reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). SIRT2 has now been established as a previously unknown regulator of this metabolic transition during somatic reprogramming by controlling the acetylation status of glycolytic enzymes.
April 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446683/what-s-old-is-new-again-autologous-stem-cell-transplant-for-amd
#14
Leah C Byrne
Transplanted RPE cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells maintained vision and were well tolerated in a patient with age-related macular degeneration.
April 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444310/arl3-and-rp2-regulate-the-trafficking-of-ciliary-tip-kinesins
#15
Nele Schwarz, Amelia Lane, Katarina Jovanovich, David A Parfitt, Monica Aguila, Clare L Thompson, Lyndon da Cruz, Peter J Coffey, J Paul Chapple, Alison J Hardcastle, Michael E Cheetham
Ciliary trafficking defects are the underlying cause of many ciliopathies, including Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is mediated by kinesin motor proteins; however, the function of the homodimeric Kif17 motor in cilia is poorly understood, whereas Kif7 is known to play an important role in stabilising cilia tips. Here we identified the ciliary tip kinesins Kif7 and Kif17 as novel interaction partners of the small GTPase Arl3 and its regulatory GTPase activating protein (GAP) Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 (RP2)...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444230/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-%C3%AE%C2%B54-diminishes-neurotrophic-function-of-human-ipsc-derived-astrocytes
#16
Jing Zhao, Mary D Davis, Yuka Atagi, Mitsuru Shinohara, Neill R Graff-Radford, Steven G Younkin, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
The ε4 allele of the APOE gene encoding apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a strong genetic risk factor for aging-related cognitive decline as well as late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the common ε3 allele. In the central nervous system, apoE is produced primarily by astrocytes and functions in transporting lipids including cholesterol to support neuronal homeostasis and synaptic integrity. Although mouse models and corresponding primary cells have provided valuable tools for studying apoE isoform-dependent functions, recent studies have shown that human astrocytes have distinct gene expression profile compare with rodent astrocytes...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442664/induction-of-neural-crest-cells-from-human-dental-pulp-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Eisuke Kawano, Taku Toriumi, Shinya Iguchi, Daigo Suzuki, Shuichi Sato, Masaki Honda
We previously generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human dental pulp cells of deciduous teeth. Neural crest cells (NCCs) play a vital role in the development of the oral and maxillofacial region. Therefore, NCCs represent a cell source for bone, cartilage, and tooth-related tissue engineering. In this study, we examined whether iPS cells are capable of differentiating into NCCs through modification of the human embryonic stem cell protocol. First, iPS cells were dissociated into single cells and then reaggregated in low-cell-adhesion plates with neural induction medium for 8 days in suspension culture to form neurospheres...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442538/peripheral-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-modulates-amyloid-pathology-by-regulating-blood-derived-immune-cells-and-glial-response-in-the-brain-of-ad-tnf-transgenic-mice
#18
Evi Paouri, Ourania Tzara, Georgia-Ioanna Kartalou, Sofia Zenelak, Spiros Georgopoulos
Increasing evidence has suggested that systemic inflammation along with local brain inflammation can play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Identifying key molecules that regulate the crosstalk between the immune and the central nervous system can provide potential therapeutic targets. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and AD. Recent studies have reported that anti-TNF-α therapy or RA itself can modulate AD pathology, although the underlying mechanism is unclear...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441415/pax7-remodels-the-chromatin-landscape-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#19
Karin C Lilja, Nan Zhang, Alessandro Magli, Volkan Gunduz, Christopher J Bowman, Robert W Arpke, Radbod Darabi, Michael Kyba, Rita Perlingeiro, Brian D Dynlacht
Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) hold great promise for the treatment of human skeletal muscle diseases. However, it remains challenging to convert PSC to skeletal muscle cells, and the mechanisms by which the master regulatory transcription factor, Pax7, promotes muscle stem (satellite) cell identity are not yet understood. We have taken advantage of PSC-derived skeletal muscle precursor cells (iPax7), wherein the induced expression of Pax7 robustly initiates the muscle program and enables the in vitro generation of precursors that seed the satellite cell compartment upon transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441409/a-hypomorphic-piga-gene-mutation-causes-severe-defects-in-neuron-development-and-susceptibility-to-complement-mediated-toxicity-in-a-human-ipsc-model
#20
Xuan Yuan, Zhe Li, Andrea C Baines, Eleni Gavriilaki, Zhaohui Ye, Zhexing Wen, Evan M Braunstein, Leslie G Biesecker, Linzhao Cheng, Xinzhong Dong, Robert A Brodsky
Mutations in genes involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis underlie a group of congenital syndromes characterized by severe neurodevelopmental defects. GPI anchored proteins have diverse roles in cell adhesion, signaling, metabolism and complement regulation. Over 30 enzymes are required for GPI anchor biosynthesis and PIGA is involved in the first step of this process. A hypomorphic mutation in the X-linked PIGA gene (c.1234C>T) causes multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizure syndrome 2 (MCAHS2), indicating that even partial reduction of GPI anchored proteins dramatically impairs central nervous system development, but the mechanism is unclear...
2017: PloS One
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