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(Muscle) AND (Atrophy or wasting or degradation or breakdown or disuse or immobilization or loss)

Quinn A Bonafiglia, Sandra R Lourenssen, David J Hurlbut, Michael G Blennerhassett
Inflammation causes proliferation of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), which contributes to a thickened intestinal wall, and also to stricture formation in Crohn's disease. Proliferation of ISMC both in vitro and in vivo caused decreased expression of marker proteins, but the underlying cause is unclear. Since epigenetic change is important in other systems, we examined this in cell lines from rat colon at either low passage or after extended growth, using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and qPCR to evaluate phenotype...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Jyotirmaya Behera, Nicholas T Theilen, Akash K George, Neetu Tyagi, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) occurs due to the deficiency in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) causing skeletal muscle dysfunction, it is still unclear whether this effect is mediated through oxidative/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress or both. Nevertheless, there is no treatment option available to improve HHcy-mediated muscle injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an anti-oxidant compound and patients with CBS mutation do not produce H2 S. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 S mitigates HHcy-induced redox imbalance/ER-stress during skeletal muscle atrophy via JNK-phosphorylation...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Jennifer R Vranish, Benjamin E Young, Brandi Y Stephens, Jasdeep Kaur, Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We aimed to examine leg vascular responses to brief periods of inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that a mere 10 min of sitting is sufficient to impair leg microvascular function (reactive hyperaemia). However, conduit artery vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilatation) was unaffected, indicating maintained macrovascular function. Interestingly, immobile supine rest also resulted in a reduction in microvascular function alone that was prevented when calf muscle contractions were performed...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Daniel J Owens, Craig Twist, James N Cobley, Glyn Howatson, Graeme L Close
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterized by symptoms that present both immediately and for up to 14 days after the initial exercise bout. The main consequence of EIMD for the athlete is the loss of skeletal muscle function and soreness. As such, numerous nutrients and functional foods have been examined for their potential to ameliorate the effects of EIMD and accelerate recovery, which is the purpose of many nutritional strategies for the athlete. However, the trade-off between recovery and adaptation is rarely considered...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Nathaniel Marchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Carly M Knuth, Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Paula M Miotto, Anders Gudiksen, David C Wright
KEY POINTS: Mammals defend against cold-induced reductions in body temperature through both shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The activation of non-shivering thermogenesis is primarily driven by uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and to a lesser degree by the browning of white adipose tissue. Endurance exercise has also been shown to increase markers of white adipose tissue browning. This study aimed to determine whether prior exercise training would alter the response to a cold challenge and if this would be associated with differences in indices of non-shivering thermogenesis...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Mark Edward Packer
Movement disorders encompass a wide range of medical conditions that demonstrate changes to muscle function and tone which present with orofacial dyskinesia and dystonia. The most common conditions exhibiting these features are Parkinson's disease, Down syndrome, chorea and epilepsy. AIM: To establish whether implant success in patients suffering from movement disorders is similar to the general population, identifying risk factors and noting recommendations that may aid maintenance programmes...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Zhenji Gan, Tingting Fu, Daniel P Kelly, Rick B Vega
Skeletal muscle fitness and plasticity is an important determinant of human health and disease. Mitochondria are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle energy homeostasis by adaptive re-programming to meet the demands imposed by a myriad of physiologic or pathophysiological stresses. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including muscular dystrophy, atrophy, type 2 diabetes, and aging-related sarcopenia. Notably, exercise counteracts the effects of many chronic diseases on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function...
August 14, 2018: Cell Research
Imre W K Kouw, Bart B L Groen, Joey S J Smeets, Irene Fleur Kramer, Janneau M X van Kranenburg, Rachél Nilwik, Jan A P Geurts, René H M Ten Broeke, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
OBJECTIVES: Short successive periods of skeletal muscle disuse have been suggested to substantially contribute to the observed loss of skeletal muscle mass over the life span. Hospitalization of older individuals due to acute illness, injury, or major surgery generally results in a mean hospital stay of 5 to 7 days, during which the level of physical activity is strongly reduced. We hypothesized that hospitalization following elective total hip arthroplasty is accompanied by substantial leg muscle atrophy in older men and women...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Devyani Misra, Roger A Fielding, David T Felson, Jingbo Niu, Carrie Brown, Michael Nevitt, Cora E Lewis, James Torner, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity, defined by anthropometric measures, is a well-known risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA) but there is a relative paucity of data regarding the association of body composition (fat and muscle mass) on knee OA risk. We examined the longitudinal association of body composition categories based on fat and muscle mass with incident knee OA risk. METHODS: We included participants from The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study, a longitudinal cohort of individuals with or at risk for knee OA...
August 14, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Zhen-Yu Liu, Zhen-Bing Chen, Jiang-Hai Chen
Current animal models of chronic peripheral nerve compression are mainly silicone tube models. However, the cross section of the rat sciatic nerve is not a perfect circle, and there are differences in the diameter of the sciatic nerve due to individual differences. The use of a silicone tube with a uniform internal diameter may not provide a reliable and consistent model. We have established a chronic sciatic nerve compression model that can induce demyelination of the sciatic nerve and lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Emmanuel Weyne, Karel Dewulf, Yves Deruyer, Roma Rietjens, Wouter Everaerts, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Maarten Albersen
OBJECTIVES: To create an animal model for neurogenic underactive bladder disease (UAB) and identify markers to describe secondary myogenic changes in the bladder wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats underwent either bilateral pelvic nerve injury or sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery functional evaluation was performed and tissue was harvested. Functional evaluation consisted of analysis of voiding pattern, 24-h urine collection in a metabolic cage, in vivo cystometry and in-vitro contractile function assessment...
June 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Whitney A Ratliff, Jessica N Saykally, Michael J Kane, Bruce A Citron
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset neuromuscular disease for which there is currently no effective treatment. The progression of ALS includes loss of motor neurons controlling the voluntary muscles, with much of this loss occurring at the neuromuscular junction. In an effort to better understand changes at the neuromuscular junction, we utilized the wobbler mouse model of motor neuron loss. We examined biceps and end plate morphologies and monitored selected factors involved in end plate function...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Daniel T Hogarty, Nicholas G Dewhurst, Benjamin Burt
Purpose: Orbital invasion of periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a potentially life-threatening condition with high levels of ocular morbidity. Exenteration results in significant disfigurement and permanent loss of vision. We report our experience with a patient who presented with medial orbit invasion of a BCC following 2 previous microscopically adequate local excisions of medial canthal BCC, an adequate Moh's micrographic surgical excision of the tumor, and radiotherapy. The patient underwent an orbital excision where the tumor was found to have perineural involvement and extend beyond the posterior margin...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Junnan Ma, Seok Yong Kang, Xianglong Meng, An Na Kang, Jong Hun Park, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
With the aging process, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and dysfunction related to metabolic syndrome is observed in older people. Yams are commonly use in functional foods and medications with various effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and allantoin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tomoyo Ujisawa, Akane Ohta, Tatsuya Ii, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Miki Ii, Atsushi Kuhara
Environmental temperature acclimation is essential to animal survival, yet thermoregulation mechanisms remain poorly understood. We demonstrate cold tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans as regulated by paired ADL chemosensory neurons via Ca2+ -dependent endoribonuclease (EndoU) ENDU-2. Loss of ENDU-2 function results in life span, brood size, and synaptic remodeling abnormalities in addition to enhanced cold tolerance. Enzymatic ENDU-2 defects localized in the ADL and certain muscle cells led to increased cold tolerance in endu-2 mutants...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lee C Mangum, Nathan A Franklin, Gerardo R Garcia, Kevin S Akers, Joseph C Wenke
BACKGROUND: Dakin's solution (buffered sodium hypochlorite) has been used as a topical adjunct for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in trauma patients. Prudent use of Dakin's solution (DS) for complex musculoskeletal wound management implies balancing antimicrobial efficacy and human tissue toxicity, but little empirical evidence exists to inform clinical practice. To identify potentially efficacious DS concentrations and application methods, we conducted two animal studies to evaluate the ability of DS to reduce bacterial burden in small and large animal models of contaminated musculoskeletal wounds...
August 6, 2018: Injury
Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul LaBounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean L Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B Kreider
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65...
August 11, 2018: Nutrients
Yilin Shu, Jinquan Xia, Qiang Yu, Gang Wang, Jihui Zhang, Jun He, Huan Wang, Ling Zhang, Hailong Wu
The Chinese concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota) is the first known non-mammalian vertebrate that can communicate using ultrasound. In this species, females are approximately four times as large as males, in which the female growth rate is obviously higher than that of male. Until now, the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle growth development differences between male and female frogs have not been reported. Here, we integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiles to reveal growth differences in the hindlimb muscles of 2-year-old frogs...
August 10, 2018: Gene
Ryan N Montalvo, Brittany R Counts, James A Carson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We highlight evidence for sexual dimorphism in preclinical and clinical studies investigating the cause and treatment of cancer cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer cachexia is unintended bodyweight loss occurring with cancer, and skeletal muscle wasting is a critical predictor of negative outcomes in the cancer patient. Skeletal muscle exhibits sexual dimorphism in fiber type, function, and regeneration capacity. Sex differences have been implicated in skeletal muscle metabolism, mitochondrial function, immune response to injury, and myogenic stem cell regulation...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
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