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(Muscle) AND (Atrophy or wasting or degradation or breakdown or disuse or immobilization or loss)

María Gabriela Blanco, María Soledad Vela Gurovic, Gustavo Fabián Silbestri, Andrés Garelli, Sebastián Giunti, Diego Rayes, María José De Rosa
Nematode parasites cause substantial morbidity to billions of people and considerable losses in livestock and food crops. The repertoire of effective anthelmintic compounds for treating these parasitoses is very limited, as drug development has been delayed for decades. Moreover, resistance has become a global concern in livestock parasites and is an emerging issue for human helminthiasis. Therefore, anthelmintics with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Taking advantage of Caenorhabditis elegans as an established model system, we here screened the nematicidal potential of novel imidazolium and imidazole derivatives...
December 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emily Jayne Milodowski, Pablo Amengual-Batle, Elsa Beltran, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Steven De Decker
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the spectrum of underlying disorders in dogs with unilateral masticatory muscle (MM) atrophy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and outcome of dogs with unilateral MM atrophy. ANIMALS: Sixty-three client-owned dogs. METHODS: The medical database was retrospectively reviewed for dogs that underwent MRI for evaluation of unilateral MM atrophy...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jessica N Hartley, Louise R Simard, Valentina Ly, Marc R Del Bigio, Patrick Frosk
Autosomal recessive PRUNE1 mutations are reported to cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and brain malformations. We describe clinical and neuropathological features in a cohort of nine individuals of Cree descent who, because of a founder effect, are homozygous for the same PRUNE1 mutation. They follow the course of a combined neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disease, rather than a pure failure of normal development. This cohort presented in infancy with features of lower motor neuron disease, such as hypotonia, contractures, tongue fasciculations, and feeding difficulties in the absence of congenital brain anomalies and microcephaly...
December 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Matthias Rath, Stefanie Spiegler, Tim M Strom, Johannes Trenkler, Peter Michael Kroisel, Ute Felbor
Grange syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by arterial occlusions and hypertension. Syndactyly, brachydactyly, bone fragility, heart defects, and learning disabilities have also been reported. Loss-of-function variants in YY1AP1 have only recently been associated with Grange syndrome. YY1AP1 encodes for the transcription coactivator yin yang 1-associated protein 1 which regulates smooth muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. We here report on three siblings with steno-occlusive arterial disorder and syndactyly in two of them...
December 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Akira Saito, Masahiko Wakasa, Minoru Kimoto, Takashi Ishikawa, Megumi Tsugaruya, Yu Kume, Kyoji Okada
AIM: To clarify the age-related changes in muscle elasticity or thickness of the lower extremities in older women, and to analyze their relationship with physical functions. METHODS: The muscle elasticity and thickness of the rectus femoris and medial head of the gastrocnemius of 102 young women (young group) and 221 elderly women (elderly group) were measured using ultrasonography. In the elderly group, physical functions, including knee extension strength, Timed Up and Go test, single-leg standing, maximum gait speed and Four Square Step Test were also measured...
December 16, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Michael D Tarpey, Ana P Valencia, Kathryn C Jackson, Adam J Amorese, Nicholas P Balestrieri, Randall H Renegar, Stephen J P Pratt, Terence E Ryan, Joseph M McClung, Richard M Lovering, Espen E Spangenburg
KEY POINTS: Breast cancer 1 early onset gene codes for the DNA repair enzyme, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1). The gene is prone to mutations that cause a loss of protein function. BRCA1/Brca1 has recently been found to regulate several cellular pathways beyond DNA repair and is expressed in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle specific knockout of Brca1 in mice caused a loss of muscle quality, identifiable by reductions in muscle force production and mitochondrial respiratory capacity...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
In Yae Cheong, Ji Sung Yoo, Seung Hyun Chung, Sang Yoon Park, Hyun-Ju Song, Jeong-Won Lee, Ji Hye Hwang
PURPOSE: Cancer survivors frequently experience cancer or treatment-related symptoms and functional morbidities that can be addressed through rehabilitation services, but these symptoms often go unnoticed and seldom managed. This study seeks to investigate the undetected patient symptoms and functional loss related to the activities of daily living (ADLs) in ovarian cancer patients during chemotherapy and to identify the influence of chemotherapy on such loss. METHODS: Ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were identified from June to August 2016, who were treated at the department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of two tertiary hospitals...
December 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
O Hasan, S Fahad, S Sattar, M Umer, H Rashid
Introduction: Ankle arthrodesis using the Ilizarov technique provides high union rate with the added benefits of early weight-bearing, and the unique advantage of its ability to promote regeneration of soft tissue around the bone, including skin, muscle and neuro-vascular structures, and its versatility to allow correction of the position of the foot by adjusting the frame post-operatively as needed. We describe our experience with this technique and the functional outcomes in our patients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in 20 ankle fusion cases using the Ilizarov method between the years 2007 and 2017...
November 2018: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
Canan Schumann, Duc X Nguyen, Mason Norgard, Yulia Bortnyak, Tetiana Korzun, Stephanie Chan, Anna St Lorenz, Abraham S Moses, Hassan A Albarqi, Leon Wong, Katherine Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Adam W G Alani, Olena R Taratula, Stephanie Krasnow, Daniel L Marks, Oleh Taratula
Muscle atrophy occurs during chronic diseases, resulting in diminished quality of life and compromised treatment outcomes. There is a high demand for therapeutics that increase muscle mass while abrogating the need for special dietary and exercise requirements. Therefore, we developed an efficient nanomedicine approach capable of increasing muscle mass. Methods: The therapy is based on nanoparticle-mediated delivery of follistatin messenger RNA (mRNA) to the liver after subcutaneous administration. The delivered mRNA directs hepatic cellular machinery to produce follistatin, a glycoprotein that increases lean mass through inhibition of negative regulators of muscle mass (myostatin and activin A)...
2018: Theranostics
Masahiro Ohsawa, Junya Maruoka, Chihiro Inami, Anna Iwaki, Tomoyasu Murakami, Kei-Ichiro Ishikura
Ninjin'yoeito (NYT), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine formula, is used as a remedy for conditions, and physical weakness. Cancer cachexia is seen in advanced cancer patients and is defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal-muscle mass that leads to progressive functional impairment. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis whether NYT improves the functional loss of skeletal muscle cancer cachexia. Male C57/BL 6J mice with B16BF6 melanoma tumor showed decreased expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the gastrocnemius muscle...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wei Zhang, Shi-Yin Wang, Shuang-Yi Deng, Li Gao, Li-Wei Yang, Xiao-Na Liu, Guo-Qing Shi
To investigate the role of miR-27b in sheep skeletal muscle development, here we first cloned the sequence of sheep pre-miR-27b, then further investigated its expression pattern in sheep skeletal muscle in vivo , the relationship of miR-27b expression and sheep skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro , and then finally confirmed its target gene during this development process. MiR-27b sequence, especially its mature sequence, was conservative among different species. MiR-27b highly expressed in sheep skeletal muscle than other tissues...
December 2018: Journal of Genetics
Benjamin E Garfield, Alexi Crosby, Dongmin Shao, Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Steven Sawiak, Stephen Moore, Lisa Parfitt, Carl Harries, Martin Rice, Richard Paul, Mark L Ormiston, Nicholas W Morrell, Michael I Polkey, Stephen John Wort, Paul R Kemp
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a clinically important complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a prognostic marker in PAH, has been associated with muscle loss in other conditions. We aimed to define the associations of GDF-15 and muscle wasting in PAH, to assess its utility as a biomarker of muscle loss and to investigate its downstream signalling pathway as a therapeutic target. METHODS: GDF-15 levels and measures of muscle size and strength were analysed in the monocrotaline (MCT) rat, Sugen/hypoxia mouse and in 30 patients with PAH...
December 15, 2018: Thorax
Yen-Chun Lai, Steeve Provencher, Elena A Goncharova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2018: Thorax
Nicholas T Theilen, Nevena Jeremic, Gregory J Weber, Suresh C Tyagi
The present study aims to investigate if overexpressing the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) gene in a transgenic mouse model diminishes soleus and gastrocnemius atrophy occurring during hindlimb suspension (HLS). Additionally, we aim to observe if combining exercise training in TFAM transgenic mice prior to HLS has a synergistic effect in preventing skeletal muscle atrophy. Male C57BL/6J-based transgenic mice (12-14 weeks old) overexpressing TFAM were assigned to a control (T-Control), 7-day HLS (T-HLS), and 2-week exercise training prior to 7-day HLS (T-Ex + HLS) groups...
December 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Heidemarie Kletzl, Anne Marquet, Andreas Günther, Wakana Tang, Jules Heuberger, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Willem Birkhoff, Eugenio Mercuri, Hanns Lochmüller, Claire Wood, Dirk Fischer, Irene Gerlach, Katja Heinig, Teodorica Bugawan, Sebastian Dziadek, Russell Kinch, Christian Czech, Omar Khwaja
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare genetic and progressively debilitating neuromuscular disease. It is the leading genetic cause of death among infants. In SMA, low levels of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein lead to motor neuron death and muscle atrophy as the SMN protein is critical to motor neuron survival. SMA is caused by mutations in, or deletion of, the SMN1 gene. A second SMN gene, SMN2, produces only low levels of functional SMN protein due to alternative splicing which excludes exon 7 from most transcripts, generating truncated, rapidly degraded SMN protein...
October 30, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
F Landi, M Camprubi-Robles, D E Bear, T Cederholm, V Malafarina, A A Welch, A J Cruz-Jentoft
Recent definitions of malnutrition include low muscle mass within its diagnostic criteria. In fact, malnutrition is one of the main risk factors of skeletal muscle loss contributing to the onset of sarcopenia. However, differences in the screening and diagnosis of skeletal muscle loss, especially as a result of malnutrition in clinical and community settings, still occur mainly as techniques and thresholds used vary in clinical practice. The objectives of this position paper are firstly to emphasize the link between skeletal muscle loss and malnutrition-related conditions and secondly to raise awareness for the timely identification of loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in high risk populations...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ying Wang, Shukui Zhou, Ranxing Yang, Qingsong Zou, Kaile Zhang, Qinghua Tian, Weixin Zhao, Lijuan Zong, Qiang Fu
Cell-seeded scaffolds are a common route of cell transplantation for bladder repair and reconstruction. However, when cell suspensions are harvested, proteolytic enzymes often cause extracellular matrix damage and loss of intercellular junctions. To overcome this problem, we developed a bioengineered three-dimensional bladder patch comprising porous scaffolds and multilayered adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) sheets, and evaluated its feasibility for bladder regeneration in a rat model. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were labeled with ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles...
December 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Paul G McMenamin, Daniel Saban, Samantha J Dando
In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
December 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Gian Marco Moneta, Denise Pires Marafon, Emiliano Marasco, Silvia Rosina, Margherita Verardo, Chiara Fiorillo, Carlo Minetti, Luisa Bracci-Laudiero, Angelo Ravelli, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Rebecca Nicolai
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β)- and type II IFN (IFNγ)-inducible genes in muscle biopsies of JDM patients and to correlate their expression levels with histological and clinical features. METHODS: Expression levels of IFN-inducible genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed by quantitative PCR in muscle biopsies of JDM patients (n = 39), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 4)...
December 15, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Yukihiro Minegishi, Sumito Inoue, Kento Sato, Koya Abe, Hiroaki Murano, Kodai Furuyama, Sujeong Yang, Hiroyoshi Machida, Hiroshi Nakano, Masamichi Sato, Takako Nemoto, Chisa Sato, Michiko Nishiwaki, Tomomi Kimura, Keiko Yamauchi, Akira Igarashi, Yoshikane Tokairin, Yoko Shibata, Masafumi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients who are hospitalized due to pneumonia experience deterioration of their activities of daily living (ADL) during this period; in some cases, this loss of ADL is not recovered at the end of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined whether erector spinae muscle cross-sectional area (ESMCSA) measured by computed tomography (CT) could predict a low level of ADL at the end of antibiotic treatment for pneumonia. METHODS: Eighty patients (mean age 74...
December 11, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
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