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Nahla Issa, Gabriel Lachance, Kerstin Bellmann, Mathieu Laplante, Krisztian Stadler, Andre Marette
NADPH oxidase enzymes (NOX) are one of the major superoxide-generating systems in cells. NOX-generated superoxide has been suggested to promote insulin resistance in liver. However, the role of NOX enzymes in mediating metabolic dysfunction in other insulin target tissues remains unclear. Here we show that NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3) expression is induced in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes upon treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Superoxide production increased concurrently with NOX3 protein expression in cytokine-treated adipocytes, which was inhibited by the NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Md Manik Mian, Guijian Liu
Novel TiO2 /Fe/Fe3 C-biochar composite, as a heterogeneous catalyst, has been synthesized by a single-step route, where sewage sludge (SS) and different ratios of nanoparticles (NPs: Fe and Ti) impregnated with chitosan using coagulation and flocculation techniques for subsequent thermal decomposition at 800 °C. The physiochemical properties of samples have been characterized thoroughly and employed in methylene blue (MB) degradation tests. It was found that NPs ratio and chitosan support have significant influences on the properties and catalytic activity of catalysts...
October 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Ambart E Covarrubias, Edouard Lecarpentier, Agnes Lo, Saira Salahuddin, Kathryn J Gray, S Ananth Karumanchi, Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér
Although the etiology of preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity, has not been fully characterized, placental ischemia due to impaired spiral artery remodeling and abnormal secretion of anti-angiogenic factors are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. Placental ischemia could impair trophoblast mitochondrial function and energy production leading to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS has been shown to stabilize hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), which in turn may induce transcription of anti-angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) and soluble endoglin in trophoblasts...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Eleanor M Simonsick, Jennifer A Schrack, Adam J Santanasto, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Nancy W Glynn
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS) as a predictor of performance and functional decline in mobility-intact older adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data. SETTING: National Institute on Aging, Clinical Research Unit, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Mobility-intact men (46.8%) and women aged 60 to 89 with concurrent PFS administration and performance and functional assessment and follow-up assessment within 1 to 4 years (N=579)...
October 13, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
C Briani, A Visentin, A Salvalaggio, M Cacciavillani, L Trentin
BACKGROUND: Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), has been used in polyneuropathy associated with anti-MAG antibody polyneuropathy with controversial results. Herein, we report on two patients with anti-MAG antibody neuropathy and concurrent chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who dramatically responded to obinutuzumab, a novel glycoengineered humanized anti-CD20 mAb. METHODS: Patient 1 was a 82-year-old man with severe demyelinating sensory-motor neuropathy...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
S Emtenani, H Yuan, C Lin, M Pan, J E Hundt, E Schmidt, L Komorowski, J R Stanley, C M Hammers
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disease. Two antigens were identified as targets of circulating autoantibodies (abs), BP180 and BP230, with BP180 being a critical transmembrane adhesion protein of basal keratinocytes of the epidermis. The non-collagenous domain 16A (NC16A) of BP180 is the immunodominant epitope in BP patients, and anti-BP180-NC16A immunoglobulin G (IgG) abs correlate to disease activity. Routine serologic testing and follow-up of BP relies on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) of serum abs, commonly performed on monkey esophagus (ME), and/or ELISA testing on recombinantly produced fragments of BP180 and BP230 (BP180-NC16A, BP230-C/N)...
October 13, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Oeystein R Brekk, Alyssa Moskites, Ole Isacson, Penelope J Hallett
This report demonstrates insoluble alpha-synuclein (aSYN)+ aggregates in human sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) midbrain that are linearly correlated with loss of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity. To identify early protein-lipid interactions that coincide with loss of lipid homeostasis, an aging study was carried out in mice with age-dependent reductions in GCase function. The analysis identified aberrant lipid-association by aSYN and hyperphosphorylated Tau (pTau) in a specific subset of neurotransmitter-containing, Secretogranin II (SgII)+ large, dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) responsible for neurotransmission of dopamine and other monoamines...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sam C Wang, Ibrahim Nassour, Shu Xiao, Shuyuan Zhang, Xin Luo, Jeon Lee, Lin Li, Xuxu Sun, Liem H Nguyen, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Lan Peng, Scott Daigle, Jeanne Shen, Hao Zhu
OBJECTIVE: ARID1A is commonly mutated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but the functional effects of ARID1A mutations in the pancreas are unclear. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive PDAC formation may lead to novel therapies. DESIGN: Concurrent conditional Arid1a deletion and Kras activation mutations were modelled in mice. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and CRISPR/Cas9 were used to abrogate ARID1A in human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells...
October 12, 2018: Gut
Tomonori Hirashima, Yoshitaka Tamura, Yuki Han, Shoji Hashimoto, Ayako Tanaka, Takayuki Shiroyama, Naoko Morishita, Hidekazu Suzuki, Norio Okamoto, Shinobu Akada, Makoto Fujishima, Yoshihisa Kadota, Kazuya Sakata, Akiko Nishitani, Satoru Miyazaki, Takayuki Nagai
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) tolerated concurrent anti-cancer chemotherapy (anti-CCT) and anti-MTB chemotherapy. In this study, we retrospectively confirmed the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemotherapy in a greater number of patients with different types of malignancies. METHODS: We enrolled 30 patients who were treated concurrently with anti-CCT and anti-MTB regimens between January 2006 and February 2016...
October 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Liye Xu, Jin Cheng Song, Xiu Hua Sun, Zi Fen Gao, Li Lv, Jie Zhu
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Richter's syndrome (RS) is rare and only a few cases were discussed. Of these published cases, either they were accompanied with lymph node involvement or with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To our knowledge, this is the first published case of RS of the brain and meninges diagnosed concurrently with CLL in the absence of any evidence of lymphoma outside of the CNS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old female presented with slurred speech, headache, and left-sided hemiparesis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sarah Manns, Fiona Cramp, Rachel Lewis, Emma M Clark, Shea Palmer
BACKGROUND: The Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire is a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure developed for adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). It has previously demonstrated strong concurrent validity with the Short-Form 36 health questionnaire and excellent test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate its appropriateness, validity, acceptability, feasibility and interpretability. DESIGN: A qualitative evaluation using semi-structured telephone interviews, incorporating a 'think aloud' exercise and additional prompts...
October 5, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Mengying Hong, Kejun Tang, Jing Qian, Hongyu Deng, Musheng Zeng, Shu Zheng, Kefeng Ding, Yushen Du, Ren Sun
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, 70% of NPC patients have locally advanced disease at the first diagnosis. Radiotherapy alone and concurrent chemoradiotherapy are important treatment approaches for NPC, but they have a limited effect on patients with locally advanced or distantly metastatic disease. 1-5 Nevertheless, the unique immune environment of the EBV-associated NPC provides rational targets for immunotherapy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Ana María Estrada-Sánchez, Daniel Castro, Kenia Portillo-Ortiz, Katrina Jang, Michael Nedjat-Haiem, Michael S Levine, Carlos Cepeda
AIM: Deficient glutamate reuptake occurs in the cerebral cortex of Huntington's disease (HD) patients and murine models. Here, we examine the effects of partial or complete blockade of glutamate transporters on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPNs). METHODS: Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of CPNs in slices from symptomatic R6/2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were used to examine the effects of selective or concurrent inhibition of glutamate reuptake transporters...
October 11, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Gordon Dodwell, Hermann J Müller, Thomas Töllner
While a substantial body of research has investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance, few have monitored exercise-concurrent cognitive processes via electroencephalography and fewer still using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. As such, little is known regarding how the temporal dynamics of cognitive processing are influenced during aerobic activity. Here, we aimed to elucidate the influence of aerobic exercise on the temporal dynamics of concurrent visual working memory (VWM) performance...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Kunal Bhatia, Madihah Hepburn, Endrit Ziu, Farhan Siddiq, Adnan I Qureshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to discuss the recent advances in surgical management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgical techniques, and the existing evidence supporting their use. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer surgical techniques, collectively referred to as minimally invasive surgery (MIS), have been evaluated and studied in management of ICH. Stereotactic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage using aspiration-irrigation technique has showed significant reductions in the hematoma volume with minimal intra-operative bleeding...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Shengchen Wang, Qiaojian Zhang, Shufang Zheng, Menghao Chen, Fuqing Zhao, Shiwen Xu
Due to the excessive pursuit of crop yields and the abuse of herbicides, water pollution caused by atrazine (ATR) has become one of the most severe environmental issues threatening the health of fish and aquatic animals. However, no detailed report has been conducted on the mechanisms of ATR immunotoxicity in fish neutrophils. To investigate these mechanism, we exposed peripheral blood neutrophils to 25 μg/ml atrazine for 1, 2, and 3 h. The results showed that ATR induced the mRNA expression of CYPs enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP1C and CYP3A138), which increased the ROS levels, and inhibited the SOD and CAT activities, GSH content and spurred the accumulation of MDA...
October 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Samson Limbaso Konongoi, Albert Nyunja, Victor Ofula, Samuel Owaka, Hellen Koka, Edith Koskei, Fredrick Eyase, Daniel Langat, James Mancuso, Joel Lutomiah, Rosemary Sang
Chikungunya is a reemerging vector borne pathogen associated with severe morbidity in affected populations. Lamu, along the Kenyan coast was affected by a major chikungunya outbreak in 2004. Twelve years later, we report on entomologic investigations and laboratory confirmed chikungunya cases in northeastern Kenya. Patient blood samples were received at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) viral hemorrhagic fever laboratory and the immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) was used to test for the presence of IgM antibodies against chikungunya and dengue...
2018: PloS One
Herbell Sarah, Gutermuth Timo, Kai Robert Konrad
Plant reproduction is the basis for economically relevant food production. It relies on pollen tube (PTs) growth into the female flower organs for successful fertilization. The high cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]cyt ) at the PT tip is sensed by Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases (CPKs) that in turn activate R- and S-type anion channels to control polar growth. Lanthanum, a blocker for plant Ca2+ -permeable channels was used here to demonstrate a strict dependency for anion channel activation through high PT tip [Ca2+ ]cyt ...
October 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for LCN2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or ‘beige’ adipocytes. We found LCN2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2 −/− mice...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Songchao Yin, Xie Xiaoyuan, Meirong Li, Xin Zhou, Ling Wei, Zhirui Chen, Jian Chen, Chun Lu, Sybren de Hoog, Wei Lai, Peiying Feng
BACKGROUND: Emergence of highly inflammatory genital dermatophyte infections has been reported from Southeast Asia. In view of this, knowledge of the non-outbreak fungal flora of the genitals is required as a baseline study. OBJECTIVES: We present our 12-year experience in a tertiary clinic with the diagnosis of scrotal fungal infections. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with a diagnosis of scrotal fungal infections proven by direct microscopy and culture...
October 11, 2018: Mycoses
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