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(Muscle) AND (disuse or immobilization or loss or breakdown or degradation)

Devyani Misra, Roger A Fielding, David T Felson, Jingbo Niu, Carrie Brown, Michael Nevitt, Cora E Lewis, James Torner, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity, defined by anthropometric measures, is a well-known risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA) but there is a relative paucity of data regarding the association of body composition (fat and muscle mass) on knee OA risk. We examined the longitudinal association of body composition categories based on fat and muscle mass with incident knee OA risk. METHODS: We included participants from The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study, a longitudinal cohort of individuals with or at risk for knee OA...
August 14, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Emmanuel Weyne, Karel Dewulf, Yves Deruyer, Roma Rietjens, Wouter Everaerts, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Maarten Albersen
OBJECTIVES: To create an animal model for neurogenic underactive bladder disease (UAB) and identify markers to describe secondary myogenic changes in the bladder wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats underwent either bilateral pelvic nerve injury or sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery functional evaluation was performed and tissue was harvested. Functional evaluation consisted of analysis of voiding pattern, 24-h urine collection in a metabolic cage, in vivo cystometry and in-vitro contractile function assessment...
June 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Whitney A Ratliff, Jessica N Saykally, Michael J Kane, Bruce A Citron
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset neuromuscular disease for which there is currently no effective treatment. The progression of ALS includes loss of motor neurons controlling the voluntary muscles, with much of this loss occurring at the neuromuscular junction. In an effort to better understand changes at the neuromuscular junction, we utilized the wobbler mouse model of motor neuron loss. We examined biceps and end plate morphologies and monitored selected factors involved in end plate function...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Daniel T Hogarty, Nicholas G Dewhurst, Benjamin Burt
Purpose: Orbital invasion of periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a potentially life-threatening condition with high levels of ocular morbidity. Exenteration results in significant disfigurement and permanent loss of vision. We report our experience with a patient who presented with medial orbit invasion of a BCC following 2 previous microscopically adequate local excisions of medial canthal BCC, an adequate Moh's micrographic surgical excision of the tumor, and radiotherapy. The patient underwent an orbital excision where the tumor was found to have perineural involvement and extend beyond the posterior margin...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Junnan Ma, Seok Yong Kang, Xianglong Meng, An Na Kang, Jong Hun Park, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
With the aging process, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and dysfunction related to metabolic syndrome is observed in older people. Yams are commonly use in functional foods and medications with various effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and allantoin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tomoyo Ujisawa, Akane Ohta, Tatsuya Ii, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Miki Ii, Atsushi Kuhara
Environmental temperature acclimation is essential to animal survival, yet thermoregulation mechanisms remain poorly understood. We demonstrate cold tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans as regulated by paired ADL chemosensory neurons via Ca2+ -dependent endoribonuclease (EndoU) ENDU-2. Loss of ENDU-2 function results in life span, brood size, and synaptic remodeling abnormalities in addition to enhanced cold tolerance. Enzymatic ENDU-2 defects localized in the ADL and certain muscle cells led to increased cold tolerance in endu-2 mutants...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lee C Mangum, Nathan A Franklin, Gerardo R Garcia, Kevin S Akers, Joseph C Wenke
BACKGROUND: Dakin's solution (buffered sodium hypochlorite) has been used as a topical adjunct for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in trauma patients. Prudent use of Dakin's solution (DS) for complex musculoskeletal wound management implies balancing antimicrobial efficacy and human tissue toxicity, but little empirical evidence exists to inform clinical practice. To identify potentially efficacious DS concentrations and application methods, we conducted two animal studies to evaluate the ability of DS to reduce bacterial burden in small and large animal models of contaminated musculoskeletal wounds...
August 6, 2018: Injury
Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul LaBounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean L Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B Kreider
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65...
August 11, 2018: Nutrients
Yilin Shu, Jinquan Xia, Qiang Yu, Gang Wang, Jihui Zhang, Jun He, Huan Wang, Ling Zhang, Hailong Wu
The Chinese concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota) is the first known non-mammalian vertebrate that can communicate using ultrasound. In this species, females are approximately four times as large as males, in which the female growth rate is obviously higher than that of male. Until now, the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle growth development differences between male and female frogs have not been reported. Here, we integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiles to reveal growth differences in the hindlimb muscles of 2-year-old frogs...
August 10, 2018: Gene
Ryan N Montalvo, Brittany R Counts, James A Carson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We highlight evidence for sexual dimorphism in preclinical and clinical studies investigating the cause and treatment of cancer cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer cachexia is unintended bodyweight loss occurring with cancer, and skeletal muscle wasting is a critical predictor of negative outcomes in the cancer patient. Skeletal muscle exhibits sexual dimorphism in fiber type, function, and regeneration capacity. Sex differences have been implicated in skeletal muscle metabolism, mitochondrial function, immune response to injury, and myogenic stem cell regulation...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Xin-Guo Li, Yi-Bao Wang
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a life threatening cerebrovascular disease characterized by phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and loss of vessel cells. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors have been proposed to be a critical factor in the onset and progression of IA. The present study investigates the effects of serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro, as well as its role in vascular remodeling in vivo through PI3 K/Akt signaling in IA...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Erick O Hernández-Ochoa, Zephan Melville, Camilo Vanegas, Kristen M Varney, Paul T Wilder, Werner Melzer, David J Weber, Martin F Schneider
Calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1 fine-tune skeletal muscle Ca2+ release via opposite modulation of the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). Binding to and modulation of RyR1 by CaM and S100A1 occurs predominantly at the region ranging from amino acid residue 3614-3640 of RyR1 (here referred to as CaMBD2). Using synthetic peptides, it has been shown that CaM binds to two additional regions within the RyR1, specifically residues 1975-1999 and 4295-4325 (CaMBD1 and CaMBD3, respectively). Because S100A1 typically binds to similar motifs as CaM, we hypothesized that S100A1 could also bind to CaMBD1 and CaMBD3...
August 2018: Physiological Reports
Karin J C Sanders, Karin Klooster, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Dirk-Jan Slebos, Annemie M W J Schols
Muscle wasting frequently occurs in severe emphysema. Improving respiratory mechanics by bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves (EBV) might prevent further loss or even increase in muscle mass. CT-derived skeletal muscle mass gain was observed in 39/49 patients 6 months after EBV. Multiple linear regression showed that gain in muscle (β=2.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 4.6; p=0.036) and intramuscular fat (β=3.1; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.9; p=0.035) is associated with improved 6 min walk distance independent of the change in residual volume...
August 12, 2018: Thorax
Hojun Lee, Kijeong Kim, Boa Kim, Junchul Shin, Sudarsan Rajan, Jingwei Wu, Xiongwen Chen, Michael D Brown, Sukho Lee, Joon-Young Park
KEY POINTS: Referring to the muscle memory theory, previously trained muscles acquire strength and volume much faster than naive muscles. Using extreme experimental models such as synergist ablation or steroid administration, previous studies have demonstrated that the number of nuclei increases when a muscle becomes enlarged, which serves as a cellular muscle memory mechanism for the muscle. In the present study, we found that, when rats were subjected to physiologically relevant resistance training, the number of myonuclei increased and was retained during a long-term detraining period...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jacek Hübner, Ilona Hübner, Sławomir Kroczka
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons, presenting with various manifestations, leading to progressing disability, with poor prognosis, and with no options for successful treatment. In its classic form the central and peripheral motor neurons are simultaneously affected at the beginning; the bulbar-onset ALS successively involving other parts of the nervous system is slightly less common. The aim: To demonstrate a correlation between electrophysiological parameters of peripheral nerves and loss of manual dexterity in the ALS...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jia-Wei Xu, Li Zheng, Li-Juan Li, Yu-Fei Yao, He Hua, Shi-Zhen Yang, Yi-Fan Wen, Cheng-Chuang Song, Xiu-Kai Cao, Kun-Peng Liu, Gui-Min Zhang, Jia-Meng Yang, Dan Hao, Rui-Hua Dang, Xian-Yong Lan, Chu-Zhao Lei, Xing-Lei Qi, Hong Chen, Yong-Zhen Huang
Copy number variation (CNV) related to complex traits, such as disease and quantitative phenotype, is considered an important and wealthy source of genetic and phenotypic diversity. It suggests that the copy number variation of function gene maybe leads to the phenotypic changes. Kupple like factor 3 (KLF3) gene is a vital transcription factor associated with the growth and development of muscle and adipose tissue. It has been mapped in a CNV region by animal genome re-sequencing. In this study, we detected the distribution diversity of KLF3 gene copy numbers in six Chinese cattle breeds (QC, NY, XN, PN, QDM and JX) and associated the phenotypic traits with it...
August 9, 2018: Gene
Alexander Kollau, Bernd Gesslbauer, Michael Russwurm, Doris Koesling, Antonius C F Gorren, Astrid Schrammel, Bernd Mayer
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, EC is a key enzyme in the regulation of vascular tone. In view of the therapeutic interest of the NO/cGMP pathway, drugs were developed that either increase the NO sensitivity of the enzyme or activate heme-free apo-sGC. However, modulation of sGC activity by endogenous agents is poorly understood. In the present study we show that the maximal activity of NO-stimulated purified sGC is significantly increased by cytosolic preparations of porcine coronary arteries. Purification of the active principle by several chromatographic steps resulted in a protein mixture consisting of 100, 70, and 40 kDa bands on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Michael G Watson, Helen M Byrne, Charlie Macaskill, Mary R Myerscough
Atherosclerotic plaque growth is characterised by chronic, non-resolving inflammation that promotes the accumulation of cellular debris and extracellular fat in the inner artery wall. This material is highly thrombogenic, and plaque rupture can lead to the formation of blood clots that occlude major arteries and cause myocardial infarction or stroke. In advanced plaques, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are recruited from deeper in the artery wall to synthesise a cap of fibrous tissue that stabilises the plaque and sequesters the thrombogenic plaque content from the bloodstream...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
D Joe Millward, Ken Smith
The nutritional regulation of protein and amino acid balance in human skeletal muscle carried out by the authors with Mike Rennie is reviewed in the context of a simple physiological model for the regulation of the maintenance and growth of skeletal muscle, the "Bag Theory." Beginning in London in the late 1970s the work has involved the use of stable isotopes to probe muscle protein synthesis and breakdown with two basic experimental models, primed-dose continuous tracer infusions combined with muscle biopsies and arterio-venous (A-V) studies across a limb, most often the leg, allowing both protein synthesis and breakdown as well as net balance to be measured...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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