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(Muscle) AND (disuse or immobilization or loss or breakdown or degradation)

Li-Ying Huang, Ming-Chien Yang, Hui-Ming Tsou, Ting-Yu Liu
To solve the thrombosis and restenosis problem in cardiovascular stent implantation for cardiovascular artery disease, chondroitin 6-sulfate (ChS) with heparin (HEP) have been used as drug carrier layers and alternatively covalently bonded on gold (Au)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-thiolized cardiovascular metallic (SUS316 L stainless steel, SS) stents. Sirolimus, a model drug, was encapsulated in the ChS-HEP alternative layers. The behavior of the drug in releasing and suppressing the growth of smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) was evaluated with 5-layer CHS-HEP coating on the SS stents...
October 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
João Luiz Gomes Carneiro Monteiro, José Alcides Almeida de Arruda, Amanda Regina Silva de Melo, Ricardo Jorge Vasconcelos Barbosa, Suzana Célia de Aguiar Soares Carneiro, Belmiro Cavalcante do Egito Vasconcelos
PURPOSE: Traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa (DMCCF) is a rare event after maxillofacial trauma. Treatment may be performed with closed or open reduction (with or without craniotomy), and arthroplasty procedures might be necessary for long-standing cases. The aims of this study were to perform an integrative review of traumatic DMCCF cases reported in an electronic database and to report a case in which cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred after open treatment...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Nicholas C Oleck, Farrah C Liu, Michael Conway, Eric Kalish, Joseph Belgrade, Peter Santoro, David Zabel
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing complex ventral hernia repair (VHR) often present with significant medical comorbidities, the most prevalent of which is obesity. Although recent advancements in abdominal wall reconstruction techniques have provided the general hernia patient population with markedly improved recurrence and postoperative complication rates, many patients have been precluded from these procedures owing to excessive body mass index (BMI). In this study, we investigate the viability of complex ventral hernia repair with epigastric artery perforator sparing skin incisions, component separation, and wide-spanning retrorectus mesh reinforcement for patients with BMI of greater than or equal to 40 kg/m (class III obesity)...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Myrope Sanjuán Vásquez, María de la Luz Montes-Castillo, Leonor Elia Zapata-Altamirano, Sara Martínez-Torres, Janitzia Vázquez-Mellado, Carlos Omar Lopez López
One of the main causes of falls in older people is muscle strength loss associated with aging. Russian stimulation can improve muscle strength in healthy individuals, but the effect has never been tested in older individuals with falls syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Russian stimulation plus isometric exercise to improve muscular strength, balance, and mobility in older people with falls syndrome. The recruited participants (older than 60 years, at least one fall in the past year) were evaluated by a physiatrist, who collected clinical data and performed baseline and final evaluations (muscle strength, Berg balance scale, Tinetti mobility test, get up and go test, and 6-min walk test)...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
I M Winje, X Sheng, K-A Hansson, A Solbrå, S Tennøe, F Saatcioglu, J C Bruusgaard, K Gundersen
AIM: Cachexia is a severe wasting disorder involving loss of body- and muscle mass reducing survival and quality of life in cancer patients. We aim at determining if cachexia is a mere perturbation of the protein balance or if the condition also involves a degenerative loss myonuclei within the fiber syncytia or loss of whole muscle fibers. METHODS: We induced cachexia by xenografting PC3 prostate cancer cells in nu/nu mice. Six weeks later, we counted myonuclei by in vivo microscopic imaging of single live fibers in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL), and the EDL, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were also harvested for ex vivo histology...
October 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Sergio J Sanabria, Katharina Martini, Gregor Freystätter, Lisa Ruby, Orcun Goksel, Thomas Frauenfelder, Marga B Rominger
OBJECTIVES: To measure speed of sound (SoS) with a novel hand-held ultrasound technique as a quantitative indicator for muscle loss and fatty muscular degeneration. METHODS: Both calf muscles of 11 healthy, young females (mean age 29 years), and 10 elderly females (mean age 82 years) were prospectively examined with a standard ultrasound machine. A flat Plexiglas® reflector, on the opposite side of the probe with the calf in between, was used as timing reference for SoS (m/s) and ΔSoS (variation of SoS, m/s)...
October 15, 2018: European Radiology
Tatsuya Osaki, Sebastien G M Uzel, Roger D Kamm
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving loss of motor neurons (MNs) and muscle atrophy, still has no effective treatment, despite much research effort. To provide a platform for testing drug candidates and investigating the pathogenesis of ALS, we developed an ALS-on-a-chip technology (i.e., an ALS motor unit) using three-dimensional skeletal muscle bundles along with induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived and light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2-induced MN spheroids from a patient with sporadic ALS...
October 2018: Science Advances
Yew L Loo, Sajjad Haider
Background: There have been many reported benefits of the usage of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction. ADM reduces the need for rectus abdominis muscle and serratus anterior coverage by providing an inferolateral coverage of the implant/tissue expander. ADM can provide patients with a 1-staged reconstruction. This study was designed to look at the complication rates of 2 major hospitals in the United Kingdom. Methods: A large, 2-center retrospective cohort review of patients, who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction using Strattice (LifeCell Corp...
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Marco Quarta, Melinda J Cromie Lear, Justin Blonigan, Patrick Paine, Robert Chacon, Thomas A Rando
Despite the regenerative capacity of muscle, tissue volume is not restored after volumetric muscle loss (VML), perhaps due to a loss-of-structural extracellular matrix. We recently demonstrated the structural and functional restoration of muscle tissue in a mouse model of VML using an engineered "bioconstruct," comprising an extracellular matrix scaffold (decellularized muscle), muscle stem cells (MuSCs), and muscle-resident cells (MRCs). To test the ability of the cell-based bioconstruct to restore whole-muscle biomechanics, we measured biomechanical parameters in uninjured muscles, muscles injured to produce VML lesions, and in muscles that were injured and then treated by implanting either the scaffolds alone or with bioconstructs containing the scaffolds, MuSCs, and MRCs...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Alberto Ferlin, Luca De Toni, Alexander I Agoulnik, Giorgia Lunardon, Andrea Armani, Sergia Bortolanza, Bert Blaauw, Marco Sandri, Carlo Foresta
Androgens are primarily involved in muscle growth, whilst disease-driven muscle wasting is frequently associated with hypogonadism. The Leydig cells of the testes also produce the peptide-hormone Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3). INSL3 displays anabolic activity on bone, a target tissue of androgens, and its plasma concentrations are diminished in male hypogonadism. Here we tested the role of INSL3 on muscle mass regulation, in physiological and pathological conditions. Studies on C2C12 cell line showed that INSL3, acting on his specific receptor RXFP2, promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis through the Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Peter Wallbridge, Selina M Parry, Sourav Das, Candice Law, Gary Hammerschlag, Louis Irving, Mark Hew, Daniel Steinfort
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), loss of computed tomography (CT)-measured intercostal mass correlates with spirometric severity. Intercostal muscle ultrasound offers a repeatable and radiation-free alternative, however requires validation. We aimed to determine the reliability of parasternal intercostal muscle ultrasound, and the concurrent validity of parasternal ultrasound with clinicometric parameters. Twenty stable COPD patients underwent ultrasound measurement of thickness and echogenicity of 2nd and 3rd parasternal intercostal muscles, dominant pectoralis major and quadriceps, and diaphragm thickness; spirometry; and chest CT...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rivers Ingersoll, David Lentink
Both hummingbirds and insects flap their wings to hover. Some insects, like fruit flies, improve efficiency by lifting their body weight equally over the upstroke and downstroke, while utilizing elastic recoil during stroke reversal. It is unclear whether hummingbirds converged on a similar elastic storage solution, because of asymmetries in their lift generation and specialized flight muscle apparatus. The muscles are activated a quarter of a stroke earlier than in larger birds, and contract superfast, which cannot be explained by previous stroke-averaged analyses...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ameen Jubber, Mudita Tripathi, James Taylor
We report the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian man with PL-12 antibody positive antisynthetase syndrome. He presented with progressive dyspnoea and weight loss, later developing dysphagia, mild proximal muscle weakness and mild sicca symptoms. Investigations revealed interstitial lung disease, inflammatory myopathy and an immunology profile consistent with PL-12 antisynthetase syndrome. Prednisolone and cyclophosphamide resulted in a significant improvement of all his symptoms.
October 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Susan Lowey, Vera Bretton, Peteranne B Joel, Kathleen M Trybus, James Gulick, Jeffrey Robbins, Albert Kalganov, Anabelle S Cornachione, Dilson E Rassier
In 1990, the Seidmans showed that a single point mutation, R403Q, in the human β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) of heart muscle caused a particularly malignant form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) [Geisterfer-Lowrance AA, et al. (1990) Cell 62:999-1006.]. Since then, more than 300 mutations in the β-MHC have been reported, and yet there remains a poor understanding of how a single missense mutation in the MYH7 gene can lead to heart disease. Previous studies with a transgenic mouse model showed that the myosin phenotype depended on whether the mutation was in an α- or β-MHC backbone...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Deepak Bushan Raina, Irfan Qayoom, David Larsson, Ming Hao Zheng, Ashok Kumar, Hanna Isaksson, Lars Lidgren, Magnus Tägil
A metaphyseal bone defect due to infection, tumor or fracture leads to loss of cancellous and cortical bone. An animal model separating the cancellous and cortical healing was used with a combination of a macroporous gelatin-calcium sulphate-hydroxyapatite (Gel-CaS-HA) biomaterial as a cancellous defect filler, and a thin collagen membrane (CM) guiding cortical bone regeneration. The membrane was immobilized with bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance the osteoinductive properties. The Gel-CaS-HA cancellous defect filler contained both rhBMP-2 and a bisphosphonate, (zoledronate = ZA) to prevent premature callus resorption induced by the pro-osteoclast effect of rhBMP-2 alone...
October 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Kazuya Murata, Weizhe Lu, Misuzu Hashimoto, Natsumi Ono, Masafumi Muratani, Kana Nishikata, Jun-Dal Kim, Shizufumi Ebihara, Junji Ishida, Akiyoshi Fukamizu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues in proteins and methylation of various RNA-binding proteins and is associated with alternative splicing in vitro. Although PRMT1 has essential in vivo roles in embryonic development, CNS development, and skeletal muscle regeneration, the functional importance of PRMT1 in the heart remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that juvenile cardiomyocyte-specific PRMT1-deficient mice develop severe dilated cardiomyopathy and exhibit aberrant cardiac alternative splicing...
October 2, 2018: iScience
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Zydrune Polianskyte-Prause, Tuomas A Tolvanen, Sonja Lindfors, Vincent Dumont, Mervi Van, Hong Wang, Surjya N Dash, Mika Berg, Jette-Britt Naams, Laura C Hautala, Harry Nisen, Tuomas Mirtti, Per-Henrik Groop, Kristiina Wähälä, Jukka Tienari, Sanna Lehtonen
Metformin, the first-line drug to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D), inhibits mitochondrial glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase in the liver to suppress gluconeogenesis. However, the direct target and the underlying mechanisms by which metformin increases glucose uptake in peripheral tissues remain uncharacterized. Lipid phosphatase Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) is upregulated in diabetic rodent models and suppresses insulin signaling by reducing Akt activation, leading to insulin resistance and diminished glucose uptake...
October 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Charlotte Sandersen, Justine Ceusters, Alexia Fourez, Irene Tosi, Helene Graide, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Didier Serteyn
Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) commonly affects horses and is characterized by abnormal respiratory sounds and exercise intolerance. The recurrent laryngeal nerve shows lesions of demyelination. The benefit of applying stem cells to demyelinated nerves has been demonstrated in various animal models. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility and safety of a peri-neuronal injection of autologous muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in healthy horses by using an electrical nerve stimulator...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jennifer G Andrews, Molly Lamb, Kristin Conway, Natalie Street, Christina Westfield, Emma Ciafaloni, Dennis Matthews, Christopher Cunniff, Shree Pandya, Deborah J Fox, M D STARnet
Dystrophinopathies are caused by mutations in DMD resulting in progressive muscle weakness. They are historically divided into the more severe Duchenne (DMD) and milder Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy phenotypes. Classification is important for research and clinical care. The purpose of this study was to describe a multi-variable approach to classifying cases from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet) and to assess the accuracy of the diagnostic classification scheme...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
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