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(Muscle) AND (disuse or immobilization or loss or breakdown or degradation)

Ying Wang, Shukui Zhou, Ranxing Yang, Qingsong Zou, Kaile Zhang, Qinghua Tian, Weixin Zhao, Lijuan Zong, Qiang Fu
Cell-seeded scaffolds are a common route of cell transplantation for bladder repair and reconstruction. However, when cell suspensions are harvested, proteolytic enzymes often cause extracellular matrix damage and loss of intercellular junctions. To overcome this problem, we developed a bioengineered three-dimensional bladder patch comprising porous scaffolds and multilayered adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) sheets, and evaluated its feasibility for bladder regeneration in a rat model. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were labeled with ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles...
December 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Paul G McMenamin, Daniel Saban, Samantha J Dando
In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
December 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Yukihiro Minegishi, Sumito Inoue, Kento Sato, Koya Abe, Hiroaki Murano, Kodai Furuyama, Sujeong Yang, Hiroyoshi Machida, Hiroshi Nakano, Masamichi Sato, Takako Nemoto, Chisa Sato, Michiko Nishiwaki, Tomomi Kimura, Keiko Yamauchi, Akira Igarashi, Yoshikane Tokairin, Yoko Shibata, Masafumi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients who are hospitalized due to pneumonia experience deterioration of their activities of daily living (ADL) during this period; in some cases, this loss of ADL is not recovered at the end of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined whether erector spinae muscle cross-sectional area (ESMCSA) measured by computed tomography (CT) could predict a low level of ADL at the end of antibiotic treatment for pneumonia. METHODS: Eighty patients (mean age 74...
December 11, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Giuseppe Colloca, Beatrice Di Capua, Andrea Bellieni, Matteocenzo Cesari, Vincenzo Valentini, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani
In the context of the management of the elderly patient with cancer, currently, a key topic may be expressed by sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in its various definitions and ambiguities in the older adult is always related to negative outcomes. A close correlation between sarcopenia and adverse outcomes such as treatment response or toxicity has also been shown in the patient with cancer. For these reasons, it becomes increasingly important to try to understand and therefore differentiate conditions such as the loss of muscle mass linked to normal aging, an independent pathological condition such as sarcopenia and finally a sometimes confusing pathologic condition called cachexia...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Jiong Ning, Rui Li, Jie Ren, Dongting Zhangsun, Xiaopeng Zhu, Yong Wu, Sulan Luo
Recently, the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued as a potential target of several diseases, including myogenic disorders, muscle dystrophies and myasthenia gravis, etc. α-conotoxin GI isolated from Conus geographus selectively and potently inhibited the muscle-type nAChRs which can be developed as a tool to study them. Herein, alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to reveal the structure⁻activity relationship (SAR) between GI and mouse α1β1δε nAChRs. The Pro⁵, Gly⁸, Arg⁸, and Tyr11 were proved to be the critical residues for receptor inhibiting as the alanine (Ala) replacement led to a significant potency loss on mouse α1β1δε nAChR...
December 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Barry Wolf
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a disorder of the central and peripheral nervous system of young and old adults that is characterized by muscle, coordination and vision abnormalities. Multiple sclerosis is likely due to numerous causes. METHODS: Recently, adolescents and adults with ophthalmological and or neurological findings have been diagnosed with biotinidase deficiency. These individuals have exhibited myelopathy, paresis and/or spastic diplegia/tetraplegia with or without optic neuropathy/vision loss...
November 28, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Hyeonwoo Kim, Christiane D Wrann, Mark Jedrychowski, Sara Vidoni, Yukiko Kitase, Kenichi Nagano, Chenhe Zhou, Joshua Chou, Virginia-Jeni A Parkman, Scott J Novick, Timothy S Strutzenberg, Bruce D Pascal, Phuong T Le, Daniel J Brooks, Alexander M Roche, Kaitlyn K Gerber, Laura Mattheis, Wenjing Chen, Hua Tu, Mary L Bouxsein, Patrick R Griffin, Roland Baron, Clifford J Rosen, Lynda F Bonewald, Bruce M Spiegelman
Irisin is secreted by muscle, increases with exercise, and mediates certain favorable effects of physical activity. In particular, irisin has been shown to have beneficial effects in adipose tissues, brain, and bone. However, the skeletal response to exercise is less clear, and the receptor for irisin has not been identified. Here we show that irisin binds to proteins of the αV class of integrins, and biophysical studies identify interacting surfaces between irisin and αV/β5 integrin. Chemical inhibition of the αV integrins blocks signaling and function by irisin in osteocytes and fat cells...
December 13, 2018: Cell
Jun Ma, Hua Lu, Wei Wu, Zheng Li, Xiefeng Wang, Haifeng Zhu, Ning Liu
OBJECTIVE: At present, large cranial function area arteriovenous malformation (fAVM) is mainly treated by craniotomy with a high risk of operation and high disability. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of the neural intervention technology, fractionated transcatheter arterial embolization (fTAE) may be used to treat the fAVM instead of surgical treatment. However, its effectiveness for treating fAVM has never been explored. The authors hypothesized that fTAE can be effective in the treatment of fTAE...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Thomas Harbo, Lars Kjøbsted Markvardsen, Michel Bach Hellfritzsch, Kåre Severinsen, Jørgen Feldbaek Nielsen, Henning Andersen
INTRODUCTION: In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), patients often develop muscle atrophy from denervation and immobilization. We therefore conducted a pilot study of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to evaluate feasibility, safety, and effect on muscle wasting in the early phase of GBS. METHODS: Seventeen patients were randomized to receive 20 minutes of muscle fiber stimulation followed by 40 minutes of MNES of the right or left quadriceps muscle with the untreated side as control...
December 13, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Rudy J Valentine, Matthew A Jefferson, Marian L Kohut, Hyeyoon Eo
The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) contributes to inflammatory cytokine expression and disease pathogenesis in many conditions. Limited data are available on the efficacy of the PKR inhibitor imoxin to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imoxin, a PKR inhibitor, on inflammatory and atrophy signaling in skeletal muscle in response to an acute inflammatory insult with LPS. Six-week old C57BL/6J mice received vehicle (saline) or 0...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Sandra Palus, Jochen Springer
Patients suffering from chronic heart failure (CHF) show an increased prevalence (~20% in elderly CHF patients) of loss of muscle mass and muscle function (i.e. sarcopenia) compared with healthy elderly people. Sarcopenia, which can also occur in obese patients, is considered a strong predictor of frailty, disability, and mortality in older persons and is present in 5-13% of elderly persons aged 60-70 years and up to 50% of all octogenarians. In a CHF study, sarcopenia was associated with lower strength, reduced peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 , 1173 ± 433 vs...
December 7, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Philippe Valenti, Jean-David Werthel
Background: Lower trapezius transfer can restore external rotation in brachial plexus palsies. In some cuff tear arthropathies, there is lack of active external rotation with a preservation of forward elevation. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of a lower trapezius transfer extended with a semitendinosus tendon and fixed to the insertion of the infraspinatus via arthroscopy. Methods: Between 2013 and 2016, we operated on 14 patients (8 men, 6 women; mean age of 62 years, range: 50-70) to reconstruct irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tear...
2018: Obere Extremität
Antje Beling, Meike Kespohl
Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle triggered by direct virus-induced cytolysis and immune response mechanisms with most severe consequences during early childhood. Acute and long-term manifestation of damaged heart tissue and disturbances of cardiac performance involve virus-triggered adverse activation of the immune response and both immunopathology, as well as, autoimmunity account for such immune-destructive processes. It is a matter of ongoing debate to what extent subclinical virus infection contributes to the debilitating sequela of the acute disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arsheed Hussain Hakeem, Imtiyaz Hussain Hakeem, Fozia Jeelani Wani
Large defect of the lip and buccal mucosa created due to wide resection of the cancer is difficult to reconstruct and always a challenge. Such defects are complex as there is loss of outer skin, muscle, soft tissue, and inner mucosal lining. We report the use of submental artery island flap (SAIF) in the reconstruction of a large defect of oral commissure and buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female with the diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma. The final outcome was optimal in terms of cosmetic and functional results...
July 2018: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Yun Shen, Chengchen Gu, Junling Tang, Yuqian Bao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have shown that osteocalcin is involved in energy metabolism and is sufficient to prevent age-related muscle loss. The present study investigated the association of serum osteocalcin levels with muscle mass and the influence of metabolic factors on this association in humans. METHODS: A total of 1742 middle-aged and elderly subjects (median age: 61.2 years; interquartile range: 56.9-65.3 years) were enrolled from Shanghai communities, including 775 men and 967 postmenopausal women...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ryan G Paul, Chris D McMahon, Marianne S Elston, John V Conaglen
OBJECTIVE: Traditional weight-based regimens of GH replacement are more effective at reversing the loss of skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults than currently recommended regimens, where the dose of GH is increased to restore serum concentrations of IGF-1. While weight-based regimens increase concentrations of IGF-1 and decrease concentrations of myostatin, it is not known whether the reduced effectiveness of individually titrated GH regimens is due to ongoing hypersecretion of myostatin...
December 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Karolina Dorobisz, Tadeusz Dorobisz, Dariusz Janczak, Tomasz Krecicki
Stenosis of arteries that supplies blood to the brain is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke which is the third most common cause of deaths in Europe. Atherosclerosis of carotid and vertebral arteries is responsible for 20% of the ischemic stroke cases. Stenosis may be either asymptomatic or manifested with typical neurological symptoms including motor and sensory disturbances as well as disturbances in vision and speech. However, discrete non-specific symptoms of ischemia, including headaches and vertigo, tinnitus and hearing loss, are also quite common...
December 12, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Ruijie Liu, Benfa Chen, Jiemin Chen, Jun Lan
Leptin has been reported to be expressed in carotid atherosclerotic plaques, where it can promote lesion instability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are known to contribute to the weakening of atherosclerotic plaques via the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The present study investigated whether leptin promotes plaque rupture by increasing the expression of MMP in SMCs in vivo and in vitro . In vivo , the neointima/media ratio and expression of MMP in the carotid artery of ob/ob mice were measured following carotid ligation and systemic administration of leptin...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hironobu Hamada, Kiyokazu Sekikawa, Isao Murakami, Kouichi Aimoto, Kazuyoshi Kagawa, Tatsuya Sumigawa, Ken Okusaki, Takefumi Dodo, Yoshikazu Awaya, Masatoshi Watanabe, Keiichi Kondo, Takashi Ogawa, Hikaru Yamamoto, Noboru Hattori
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects, such as weight loss, which affects exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival. The traditional herbal medicine, Hochuekkito (TJ-41), improves the nutritional status and decreases systemic inflammation in patients with COPD. However, to date, the additive effect of TJ-41 on pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COPD has not been researched comprehensively. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of adding TJ-41 to PR for patients with COPD...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lucia Ruggiero, Rosa Iodice, Marcello Esposito, Raffaele Dubbioso, Stefano Tozza, Floriana Vitale, Lucio Santoro, Fiore Manganelli
Background: Ataluren was approved for the treatment of nmDMD, both the efficacy and safety have been previously reported only from clinical trials but no report exists about real-life experience. Patient/methods: we describe three Italian children with nmDMD treated with ataluren for 1 year. Measurements were made every 3 months and was evaluated the 6-Minute Walking Distance (6MWD). Results: Case1 involves a patient with a 6MWD at T0 of 360 m, who started ataluren therapy at age 10 years...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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