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(Muscle) AND (Hypertrophy or growth or gain or accumulation)

Li-Ying Huang, Ming-Chien Yang, Hui-Ming Tsou, Ting-Yu Liu
To solve the thrombosis and restenosis problem in cardiovascular stent implantation for cardiovascular artery disease, chondroitin 6-sulfate (ChS) with heparin (HEP) have been used as drug carrier layers and alternatively covalently bonded on gold (Au)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-thiolized cardiovascular metallic (SUS316 L stainless steel, SS) stents. Sirolimus, a model drug, was encapsulated in the ChS-HEP alternative layers. The behavior of the drug in releasing and suppressing the growth of smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) was evaluated with 5-layer CHS-HEP coating on the SS stents...
October 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Dong-Ho Bak, Mi Ji Choi, Esther Lee, Tae-Rin Kwon, Jong Hwan Kim, Sang-Hyun Nam, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Seung Won Ahn, Seog-Kyun Mun, Jungtae Na, Beom Joon Kim
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is used clinically for various muscle disorders and acts by preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into the synapse space. Here, we compared the efficacy of prabotulinumtoxinA (PRA) and onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) for the reduction of hypertrophy in myostatin-deficiency (Mstn-/- ) mice. Two different BoNT-A products (2.5, 10, and 25 U/kg) were injected to paralyze the hind limb for 2 months, after which sciatic nerve conduction study (NCS), 3D micro-CT, Haematoxylin &Eosin (H&E) and dystrophin staining were conducted...
October 16, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yoon Gi Hong, Sung Chan Kim, Kyung S Koh
BACKGROUND: Improving flap survival is essential for successful soft-tissue reconstruction. Although many methods have been attempted to increase the survival of the distal flap portion, there has been no widely adopted procedure. We evaluated the effect of flap preconditioning with two different modes (continuous and cyclic) of external volume expansion (pressure-controlled cupping) in a rat dorsal flap model. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to the control group and two experimental groups (n=10/group)...
October 10, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Michael T Caton, Nityanand Miskin, Hyewon Hyun
A 62-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on long-standing highly active antiretroviral therapy presented for F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of a pulmonary nodule. The examination showed unusual radiotracer distribution accumulating in the subcutaneous and visceral fat with low cerebral and skeletal muscle uptake. Imaging features were consistent with HIV-associated lipodystrophy, an unsuspected diagnosis that was later confirmed on physical examination. Recognition of HIV-associated lipodystrophy by the nuclear medicine physician is critical as altered biodistribution may affect diagnostic yield or be mistaken for infectious pathology...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Erdem Mengi, Funda Tümkaya, Ergin Sağtaş, Fazıl Necdet Ardıç
Luc's abscess is an extremely rare complication of otitis media, caused by the spread of the middle ear infection to the subperiosteal area and its accumulation beneath the temporal muscle. Unlike other subperiosteal abscesses relating to otitis media, infection may not be associated with mastoid bone involvement. Therefore, it is defined as a benign complication of otitis media. However, its rare occurrence may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Here we report a case of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with Luc's abscess with mastoid involvement...
October 13, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Adam J Rudinsky, Laura M Harjes, Julie Byron, Dennis J Chew, Ramiro E Toribio, Catherine Langston, Valerie J Parker
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with morbidity and mortality in dogs. Plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentration is an independent predictor of CKD progression and survival in cats and people with CKD. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship among FGF-23, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D metabolites, and other clinical variables with survival time in dogs with CKD. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven azotemic CKD dogs...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Sandor Koszegi, Agnes Molnar, Lilla Lenart, Judit Hodrea, Dora Bianka Balogh, Tamas Lakat, Edgar Szkibinszkij, Adam Hosszu, Nadja Sparding, Federica Genovese, Laszlo Wagner, Adam Vannay, Attila J Szabo, Andrea Fekete
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and elevated growth factor production have crucial importance in the development of renal fibrosis leading to diabetic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for the antifibrotic potential of RAAS inhibitor (RAASi) treatment and to explore the exact mechanism of this protective effect. We found that RAASi ameliorate diabetes-induced renal interstitial fibrosis and decrease profibrotic growth factor production...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Satoshi Nakamura, Yuiko Sato, Tami Kobayashi, Takatsugu Oike, Yosuke Kaneko, Kana Miyamoto, Atsushi Funayama, Akihito Oya, Toru Nishiwaki, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Arihiko Kanaji, Takeshi Miyamoto
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a peptide with diverse functions, among them regulation of embryonic development and bone homeostasis. Serum IGF-I levels decline in the elderly; however, IGF-I function in adults has not been clearly defined. Here, we show that IGF-I is required to maintain muscle mass in adults. We crossed Igf-I flox'd and Mx1 Cre mice to yield Mx1 Cre/Igf-Iflox/flox (IGF-I cKO) mice, and deleted Igf-I in adult mice by polyIpolyC injection. We demonstrate that, although serum IGF-I levels significantly decreased after polyIpolyC injection relative to (Igf-Iflox/flox ) controls, serum glucose levels were unchanged...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Marcio S Ferreira, Paulo H R Aride, Adalberto L Val
Background: In the wild, matrinchã ( Brycon amazonicus ) and tambaqui ( Colossoma macropomum ) rely strongly on their swimming capacity to perform feeding, migration and reproductive activities. Sustained swimming speed in fishes is performed almost exclusively by aerobic red muscles. The white muscle has high contraction power, but fatigue quickly, being used mainly in sprints and bursts, with a maximum duration of few seconds. The Ucrit test, an incremental velocity procedure, is mainly a measure of the aerobic capacity of a fish, but with a high participation of anaerobic metabolism close to the velocity of fatigue...
2018: PeerJ
Alberto Ferlin, Luca De Toni, Alexander I Agoulnik, Giorgia Lunardon, Andrea Armani, Sergia Bortolanza, Bert Blaauw, Marco Sandri, Carlo Foresta
Androgens are primarily involved in muscle growth, whilst disease-driven muscle wasting is frequently associated with hypogonadism. The Leydig cells of the testes also produce the peptide-hormone Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3). INSL3 displays anabolic activity on bone, a target tissue of androgens, and its plasma concentrations are diminished in male hypogonadism. Here we tested the role of INSL3 on muscle mass regulation, in physiological and pathological conditions. Studies on C2C12 cell line showed that INSL3, acting on his specific receptor RXFP2, promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis through the Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Rafał Filip, Radosław P Radzki, Marek Bieńko
Excess fat deposition and insulin resistance are considered the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and therefore, not surprisingly, the global prevalence of NAFLD increases in parallel with both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although deterioration of bone homeostasis in patients with NAFLD is commonly observed, its etiology has not been fully elucidated yet. It was shown in several studies that bone tissue seems to be independently associated with NAFLD. A mechanistic perspective puts the liver at the center of mutual interdependencies obviously involving adipose tissue and muscles and also the bone matrix and bone cells, which are relatively novel...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Jiayu Liu, Nannan Song, Yibing Huang, Yuxin Chen
Irisin, a recently identified myokine that is released from skeletal muscle following exercise, regulates body weight and influences various metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, human recombinant nonglycosylated P-irisin (expressed in Escherichia coli prokaryote cell system) or glycosylated E-irisin (expressed in Pichia pastoris eukaryote cell system) were compared to examine the role of recombinant irisin against pancreatic cancer (PC) cells lines, MIA PaCa-2 and Panc03.27. MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide] and cell colony formation assays revealed that irisin significantly inhibited the growth of MIA PaCa-2 and Panc03...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Cai, Naren Qimuge, Meilin Ma, Yingqian Wang, Guorong Tang, Que Zhang, Yunmei Sun, Xiaochang Chen, Taiyong Yu, Wuzi Dong, Gongshe Yang, Weijun Pang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in the regulation of the formation, maintenance, and function of skeletal muscle. Using miRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we previously found that the miRNA miR-664-5p is significantly differentially expressed in longissimus dorsi muscles of Rongchang pigs. However, the molecular mechanism by which miR-664-5p regulates myogenesis remains unclear. In this study, using flow cytometry, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining, and cell count and immunofluorescent assays, we found that cell-transfected miR-664-5p mimics greatly promoted proliferation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts by increasing the proportion of cells in the S- and G2-phases and up-regulating the expression of cell cycle genes...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
A Z Szóstek-Mioduchowska, K Lukasik, D J Skarzynski, K Okuda
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 not only regulates cell growth, development, and tissue remodeling, but it also participates in the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis. In the equine endometrium, the concentration of TGF-β1 is correlated with endometrosis (equine endometrial fibrosis). In other tissues, TGF-β1 induces differentiation of many cell types into myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and an ability to deposit excessive amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) components...
October 4, 2018: Theriogenology
Vittoria Infantino, Francesco Dituri, Paolo Convertini, Anna Santarsiero, Ferdinando Palmieri, Simona Todisco, Serena Mancarella, Gianluigi Giannelli, Vito Iacobazzi
Metabolic reprogramming is a common hallmark of cancer cells. Although some biochemical features have been clarified, there is still much to learn about cancer cell metabolism and its regulation. Aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1), encoded by SLC25A12 gene, catalyzes an exchange between intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate plus a proton across the mitochondrial membrane, so supplying aspartate to the cytosol. SLC25A12, expressed in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, is silenced in normal liver...
October 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Chaoqi Zhang, Yamin Qiao, Lan Huang, Feng Li, Zhen Zhang, Yu Ping, Zhibo Shen, Jingyao Lian, Feng Li, Lixuan Zhao, Yi Zhang
Skeletal muscle injury is a common symptom in daily life. After injury, a distinct population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) will infiltrate skeletal muscle in acute and chronic injury sites. However, the mechanism by which Tregs rapidly accumulate to the site of acute injury remains unclear. BALB/c mice were used to establish a cryo-injured model. Percentage of Tregs in the normal and cryo-injured tissues was detected on different days by flow cytometry. Then, the major factors that contribute to the repair of skeletal muscle by Tregs and the chemokines associated with the chemotaxis of Tregs in the paired muscle were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 12, 2018: Immunology Letters
Ghassan Bkaily, Yanick Simon, Istok Menkovic, Carl Bkaily, Danielle Jacques
All health organizations agree that, presently, the average daily salt (sodium chloride) consumption per person has attained almost double the recommended amount. A chronic high salt diet contributes to the increase in blood pressure and to the development of cardiovascular disease. Although our knowledge of hypertension, in general, is abundant, little is known about salt-sensitive hypertension. Here we tested the hypothesis that acute and/or chronic high salt mimicking that present in high-salt sensitive hypertensive patients may induce hypertrophy of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) and their nuclei that are associated with damage to the plasma membrane glycocalyx...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Elisabeth Kaiser, Qinghai Tian, Michael Wagner, Monika Barth, Wenying Xian, Laura Schroeder, Sandra Ruppenthal, Lars Kaestner, Ulrich Boehm, Philipp Wartenberg, Huiyan Lu, Sara M McMillin, Derek B Bone, Jürgen Wess, Peter Lipp
Aims: Signaling via Gq-coupled receptors is of profound importance in many cardiac diseases such as hypertrophy and arrhythmia. Nevertheless, owing to their widespread expression and the inability to selectively stimulate such receptors in vivo, their relevance for cardiac function is not well understood. We here use DREADD technology to understand the role of Gq-coupled signaling in vivo in cardiac function. Methods and Results: We generated a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a Gq-coupled DREADD (Dq) in striated muscle under the control of the MCK promotor...
October 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Rachel L Whittaker, Nicholas J La Delfa, Clark R Dickerson
Repetitive workplace tasks are associated with fatigue-induced changes to shoulder muscular strategies, potentially altering kinematics and elevating susceptibility to tissue overexposures. Accessible and reliable methods to detect shoulder muscle fatigue in the workplace are therefore valuable. Detectable changes in joint motion may provide a plausible fatigue identification method. In this investigation, the onset of the first kinematic changes, as identified by a symbolic motion representation (SMSR) algorithm, and the onset of substantial sEMG MPF fatigue were not significantly different, both occurring around 10% of task duration...
October 15, 2018: Ergonomics
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