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(Muscle Protein) AND (Degradation or breakdown or atrophy or loss)

Adeela Syed, Tamás Lukacsovich, Miles Pomeroy, A Jane Bardwell, Gentry Thomas Decker, Katrina G Waymire, Judith Purcell, Weijian Huang, James Gui, Emily M Padilla, Cindy Park, Antor Paul, Thai Bin T Pham, Yanete Rodriguez, Stephen Wei, Shane Worthge, Ronak Zebarjedi, Bing Zhang, Lee Bardwell, J Lawrence Marsh, Grant R MacGregor
Analysis of mutants that affect formation and function of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has provided valuable insight into genes required for neuronal branching and synaptic growth. We report that NMJ development in Drosophila requires both the Drosophila ortholog of FNDC3 genes; CG42389 (herein referred to as miles to go; mtgo), and CCT3, which encodes a chaperonin complex subunit. Loss of mtgo function causes late pupal lethality with most animals unable to escape the pupal case, while rare escapers exhibit an ataxic gait and reduced lifespan...
January 1, 2019: Developmental Biology
Wei Zhang, Ling-Ling Xing, Lu Xu, Xiaoxue Jin, Yunxia Du, Xiaojuan Feng, Shu-Xia Liu, Qingjuan Liu
Nudel is a newly discovered factor related to cell migration. The tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) includes four steps: the loss of the adhesive properties of epithelial cells, the acquisition of a mesenchymal cell phenotype, the destruction of the tubular basal membrane and the migration into the renal interstitium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nudel in the high glucose-induced EMT of tubular epithelial cells. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HKCs) were treated with Nudel shRNA to clarify the role and mechanism of Nudel in tubular EMT induced by high glucose...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ashraf S Gorgey, Oksana Witt, Laura O'Brien, Christopher Cardozo, Qun Chen, Edward J Lesnefsky, Zachary A Graham
Mitochondria are responsible for aerobic respiration and large-scale ATP production in almost all cells of the body. Their function is decreased in many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease states, in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity, and as a normal component of aging. Disuse of skeletal muscle from immobilization or unloading triggers alterations of mitochondrial density and activity. Resultant mitochondrial dysfunction after paralysis, which precedes muscle atrophy, may augment subsequent release of reactive oxygen species leading to protein ubiquitination and degradation...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kaho Takigawa, Rintaro Matsuda, Ran Uchitomi, Takumi Onishi, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei
We examined the effect of long-term exercise on the prevention of sarcopenia using a senescence-accelerated-prone mice (SAMP8) model. Mice were housed in a wheel cage for 25 weeks to increase voluntary exercise. At week 23, endurance running capacity was examined using a treadmill. In a treadmill running test, the wheel cage group had increased endurance running capacity, which suggests that aging-related loss of muscle function was recovered by long-term exercise. Mice were sacrificed and microarray analysis revealed that genes involved in protein synthesis and degradation were upregulated in the skeletal muscles of the wheel cage group, suggesting accelerated protein turnover...
December 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Thilo Hotfiel, Jürgen Freiwald, Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christoph Lutter, Raimund Forst, Casper Grim, Wilhelm Bloch, Moritz Hüttel, Rafael Heiss
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a type of ultrastructural muscle injury. The manifestation of DOMS is caused by eccentric or unfamiliar forms of exercise. Clinical signs include reduced force capacities, increased painful restriction of movement, stiffness, swelling, and dysfunction of adjacent joints. Although DOMS is considered a mild type of injury, it is one of the most common reasons for compromised sportive performance. In the past few decades, many hypotheses have been developed to explain the aetiology of DOMS...
December 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Jie Li, Xinyi Kong, Shanshan Jiang, Wenjian Liao, Zhihui Zhang, Junfu Song, Ying Liang, Wei Zhang
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a fibroproliferative disease that can eventually lead to fatal lung failure. It is characterized by abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts, dysregulated fibroblast differentiation to myofibroblast, and disorganized collagen and extracellular matrix production, deposition and degradation. There is still a lack of effective treatment strategies for PF. Extracellular high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) induces PF through NF-κB-mediated TGF-β1 release. Herein, we first validate the suppressive effect of HMGB1 knockdown on TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I protein expression...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Agata Sebastian, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Maria Misterska-Skóra, Agnieszka Hałoń, Marta Skoczyńska, Maciej Sebastian, Piotr Wiland, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) is a progressive, skeletal muscle disease with poor prognosis. However, establishing the final diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of clear biomarkers in the blood serum and very slow development of clinical symptoms. Moreover, most other organs function normally without any disturbance. Here, in patients with this untreatable disease, we have underlined the importance of immunohistochemical and ultrastructural assessment of skeletal muscle in patients diagnosed with s-IBM...
December 8, 2018: Rheumatology International
Joseph Zhou, Anil Poudel, Prashanth Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Biao Xu, Ryan Welchko, Lixin Li
PURPOSE: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced to induce postprandial insulin secretion. Liraglutide, a full agonist of the GLP-1 receptor, has a protective effect on weight gain in obese subjects. Brown adipose tissue plays a major role in the control of energy balance and is known to be involved in the weight loss regulated by liraglutide. The putative anti-obesity properties of liraglutide and the cell signaling pathways involved were examined. METHODS: Four groups of C57/BL6 mice fed with chow or HFHS diet were injected with either liraglutide or vehicle for four weeks...
December 9, 2018: Endocrine
Xiao-Ya Sun, Yan-Hui Wang, Zhuo-Er Dong, Hao-Yang Wu, Ping-Ping Chen, Qiang Xie
Wing polymorphism is common in a wide variety of insect species. However, few studies have reported on adaptations in the wing polymorphism of insects at molecular level, in particular for males. Thus, the adaptive mechanisms need to be explored. The remarkable variability in wing morphs of insects is well represented in the water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Within this family, Gigantometra gigas (China, 1925), the largest water strider known worldwide, displays macropterous and apterous males. In the present study, we used de novo transcriptome assembly to obtain gene expression information and compared body and leg-component lengths of adult males in different wing morphs...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Daniel Guldager Kring Rasmussen, Per Mose Nielsen, Özlem Yashar Kasab-Oglo, Signe Holm Nielsen, Casper Kierulf-Lassen, Morten Asser Karsdal, Federica Genovese, Rikke Nørregaard
Background: Maintenance of kidney function in kidney allografts remains a challenge, as the allograft often progressively develops fibrosis after kidney transplantation. Fibrosis is caused by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins like type I and III collagen (COL I and III) that replace the functional tissue. We assessed the concentrations of a neo-epitope fragment of COL III generated by matrix metalloproteinase-9 cleavage (C3M) in two rat models resembling the ischaemic injury taking place following kidney transplantation...
December 7, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Z A Kovács, Mónika G Kovács, Renáta Gáspár, Gergő Szűcs, László Dux
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem and a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD could amplify the progression of chronic heart failure leading to the development of type 4 cardio-renal syndrome (T4CRS). The severity and persistence of heart failure are strongly associated with mortality risk in T4CRS. CKD is also a catabolic state leading to renal sarcopenia which is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle strength and physical function. Renal sarcopenia also promotes the development of CVD and increases the mortality in CKD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hailey A Parry, Wesley C Kephart, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, C Brooks Mobley, Yufeng Zhang, Michael D Roberts, Andreas N Kavazis
Ketogenic diets (KD) consist of high fat, moderate protein and low carbohydrates. Studies have suggested that KD may influence oxidative stress by affecting mitochondrial quantity and/or quality, and perhaps lengthen lifespan. Therefore, we determined the effects of KD on multi-organ mitochondria volume and oxidative stress markers in rats. Ten month-old male Fisher 344 rats (n = 8 per group) were provided with one of two isocaloric diets: standard chow (SC) or KD. Rats were euthanized if: a) vitality scores exceeded a score of 16, b) rapid weight loss, or c) veterinarian deemed euthanasia necessary...
November 2018: Heliyon
Mauricio Krause, Domenico Crognale, Karl Cogan, Serena Contarelli, Brendan Egan, Philip Newsholme, Giuseppe De Vito
This investigation sought to determine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance exercise training in addition to protein supplementation on body composition, markers of muscle atrophy/hypertrophy and heat shock response (HSR) in healthy older adults. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary participants (M/F, 18/20; age, 63.5 ± 4.4 y) were randomly assigned to four groups: I) PLACEBO: no training, receiving placebo sachets; II) NUTRITION: no training, receiving protein supplementation sachets; III) EXERCISE PLACEBO: training, placebo sachets and IV) EXERCISE NUTRITION: training, receiving protein sachets...
December 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Chengfeng Xiao, Shuang Qiu
Drosophila egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase (EDTP) is a lipid phosphatase essential for oogenesis and muscle function. Loss-of-EDTP is lethal at early developmental stages. Hypomorphic mutation of EDTP causes impaired muscle performance and shortened lifespan. Mutation of MTMR14, a mammalian homolog to EDTP, is associated with muscle fatigue in rodents and a rare genetic disease called centronuclear myopathy in humans. Despite the deleterious consequences, downregulation of MTMR14 promotes autophagy. It is proposed that selective downregulation of EDTP/MTMR14 in non-muscle tissues improves the survivorship to cellular wastes and extend lifespan...
December 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hema Bye-A-Jee, Dhamayanthi Pugazhendhi, Samuel Woodhouse, Patrick Brien, Rachel Watson, Martin Turner, Jennifer Pell
BACKGROUND: Members of the ZFP36 family of RNA-binding proteins regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to AU-rich elements in the 3'UTR of mRNA and stimulating mRNA degradation. The proteins within this family target different transcripts in different tissues. In particular, ZFP36 targets myogenic transcripts and may have a role in adult muscle stem cell quiescence. Our study examined the requirement of ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 in adult muscle cell fate regulation. METHODS: We generated single and double conditional knockout mice in which Zfp36l1 and/or Zfp36l2 were deleted in Pax7-expressing cells...
December 7, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Christel Mathis, Isabelle Lascombe, Franck Monnien, Hugues Bittard, François Kleinclauss, Isabelle Bedgedjian, Sylvie Fauconnet, Séverine Valmary-Degano
BACKGROUND: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC: pTa, pT1) are characterised by a high risk of recurrence and/or progression. Identification of prognostic markers is needed to improve both diagnosis and management of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of A-FABP (adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein) and to evaluate its prognostic value in bladder cancer with a long term clinical follow-up. METHODS: A-FABP expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 236 tumours (114 pTa, 61 pT1, 61 pT2-4)...
December 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
Fabio Penna, Paola Costelli
Cachexia is a frequent feature of chronic diseases. This syndrome includes loss of body weight, depletion of skeletal muscle mass and altered metabolic homeostasis. Acceleration of protein and energy metabolism, impaired myogenesis and systemic inflammation contribute to cachexia. Its occurrence impinges on treatment tolerance and on the quality of life of the patient, however, no effective therapy is available yet. Areas covered: This review focuses on the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors as pharmacological tools to prevent or delay cachexia, with reference to muscle wasting...
December 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Prangmalee Leurcharusmee, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Yodying Punjasawadwong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by tourniquet (TQ) application leads to the release of both oxygen free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. The skeletal muscle I/R may contribute to local skeletal muscle and remote organ damage affecting outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of the study is to summarize the current findings associated with I/R injury following TKA using a thigh TQ, which include cellular alterations and protective therapeutic interventions. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords "ischemia reperfusion injury," "oxidative stress," "tourniquet," and "knee arthroplasty...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
John Hung, Vladislav Miscianinov, Judith C Sluimer, David E Newby, Andrew H Baker
Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance and complexity of the non-coding genome, owing in some part to truly significant advances in genomic technology such as RNA sequencing and genome-wide profiling studies. Previously thought to be non-functional transcriptional "noise," non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are now known to play important roles in many diverse biological pathways, not least in vascular disease. While microRNAs (miRNA) are known to regulate protein-coding gene expression principally through mRNA degradation, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can activate and repress genes by a variety of mechanisms at both transcriptional and translational levels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Siming Gao, Huali Zhang, Xiaoxia Zuo, Yizhi Xiao, Di Liu, Honglin Zhu, Hui Luo
AIM: Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are refractory systemic autoimmune diseases with unknown pathogenesis. miRNAs is an important epigenetic mechanism to regulate gene expression. METHODS: We performed whole miRNAs analysis, transcription analysis and the association between miRNAome and mRNAome. RESULTS: For transcription and miRNAs analysis, there were common and specific mRNAs and miRNAs in the muscles of DM and PM. Among them, the expression levels of miR-196a-5p and CPM were negatively correlated in PM, miR-193b-3p and NECAP2 were negatively correlated in DM and PM...
December 7, 2018: Epigenomics
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