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(Muscle Protein) AND (Degradation or breakdown or atrophy or loss)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116978/l-glutamate-nutrition-and-metabolism-in-swine
#1
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu
L-Glutamate (Glu) has traditionally not been considered as a nutrient needed in diets for humans and other animals (including swine) due to the unsubstantiated assumption that animals can synthesize sufficient amounts of Glu to meet their needs. The lack of knowledge about Glu nutrition has contributed to suboptimal efficiency of global livestock production. Over the past 25 years, there has been growing interest in Glu metabolism in the pig, which is an agriculturally important species and also a useful model for studying human biology...
August 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116496/guarana-paullinia-cupana-extract-protects-caenorhabditis-elegans-models-for-alzheimer-disease-and-huntington-disease-through-activation-of-antioxidant-and-protein-degradation-pathways
#2
Patrícia Ferreira Boasquívis, Giovanna Melo Martins Silva, Franciny Aparecida Paiva, Rodrigo Marinho Cavalcanti, Cecília Verônica Nunez, Riva de Paula Oliveira
Guarana ( Paullinia cupana ) is largely consumed in Brazil in high energy drinks and dietary supplements because of its stimulant activity on the central nervous system. Although previous studies have indicated that guarana has some protective effects in Parkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD), and Huntington's (HD) disease models, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the protective effects of guarana hydroalcoholic extract (GHE) in Caenorhabditis elegans models of HD and AD. GHE reduced polyglutamine (polyQ) protein aggregation in the muscle and also reduced polyQ-mediated neuronal death in ASH sensory neurons and delayed β -amyloid-induced paralysis in a caffeine-independent manner...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115136/dietary-protein-and-changes-in-markers-of-cardiometabolic-health-across-20-years-of-follow-up-in-middle-aged-americans
#3
Adela Hruby, Paul F Jacques
OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein plays a role in counteracting age-related muscle loss. However, limited long-term data exist on protein intake and markers of cardiometabolic health, which tend to deteriorate with age. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. FFQ-derived protein intake (g/d) and cardiometabolic markers were assessed up to five times across 20 years. Markers included systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, circulating lipids (total, HDL and LDL cholesterol; TAG), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting glucose (FG), weight and waist circumference (WC)...
August 17, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113655/macrophage-infiltration-in-the-saccular-intracranial-aneurysm-wall-as-a-response-to-locally-lysed-erythrocytes-that-promote-degeneration
#4
Eliisa Ollikainen, Riikka Tulamo, Salla Kaitainen, Petri Honkanen, Satu Lehti, Timo Liimatainen, Juha Hernesniemi, Mika Niemelä, Petri T Kovanen, Juhana Frösen
Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) rupture is often fatal. Rupture-prone sIA walls are infiltrated by macrophages expressing hemoglobin-receptor CD163, suggesting a role for erythrocyte lysis in the degenerative remodeling predisposing to rupture. We therefore studied erythrocyte remnants in 16 unruptured and 20 ruptured sIA walls using histology and immunohistochemistry. Glycophorin A (GPA), an erythrocyte membrane protein, was present in 34/36 (94%) sIA walls and correlated with loss of αSMA+ cells, reflecting loss of mural smooth muscle cells ([SMCs]; r = -0...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113007/effects-of-exercise-and-ferulic-acid-on-alpha-synuclein-and-neuroprotective-heat-shock-protein-70-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinsonism-disease
#5
Mona Askar, Abdelaziz M Hussein, Soheir Al-Basiony, Refka Meseha, Emile Metias, Mohamed Salama, Ashraf Antar, Aya El Sayed
In this study we aimed to investigate and to compare the effects of ferulic acid (FR), muscle exercise (Ex) and combination of them on rotenone (ROT)-induced Parkinson disease (PD) in mice as well as their underlying mechanisms. Thirty five male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into 5 equal groups, 1) Normal control (CTL) group, 2) ROT group (rats received ROT 3 mg/Kg i.p. for 70 days), 3) FR group (rats received ROT + FR at 20 mg/kg/day), 4) Ex group (rats received ROT + swimming Ex) and 5) FR+Ex group (rats received ROT + FR and Ex)...
August 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112570/-mechanism-of-the-occurrence-of-sarcopenia-in-the-elderly
#6
Yong-Zhan Zhou, Pei-Jie Chen, Wei-Hua Xiao
The decline in skeletal muscle mass and function with age is referred as sarcopenia. It is characterized by the muscle fiber's quality, strength, muscle endurance and metabolic ability decreasing as well as the fat and connective tissue growing. Previous studies have shown that sarcopenia in itself features decreased number and cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and the net degradation of protein, which results from the joint effects of multiple factors such as the exacerbation of inflammation, oxidative stress injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal autophagy and dysregulation of muscle quality regulatory factors...
August 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111784/the-hippo-pathway-in-the-heart-pivotal-roles-in-development-disease-and-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Jun Wang, Shijie Liu, Todd Heallen, James F Martin
The Hippo-YAP (Yes-associated protein) pathway is an evolutionarily and functionally conserved regulator of organ size and growth with crucial roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This pathway has great potential for therapeutic manipulation in different disease states and to promote organ regeneration. In this Review, we summarize findings from the past decade revealing the function and regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway in cardiac development, growth, homeostasis, disease, and regeneration...
August 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111698/adverse-effects-of-fenofibrate-in-mice-deficient-in-the-protein-quality-control-regulator-chip
#8
Saranya Ravi, Traci L Parry, Monte S Willis, Pamela Lockyer, Cam Patterson, James R Bain, Robert D Stevens, Olga R Ilkayeva, Christopher B Newgard, Jonathan C Schisler
We previously reported how the loss of CHIP expression (Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein) during pressure overload resulted in robust cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by a failure to maintain ATP levels in the face of increased energy demand. In this study, we analyzed the cardiac metabolome after seven days of pressure overload and found an increase in long-chain and medium-chain fatty acid metabolites in wild-type hearts. This response was attenuated in mice that lack expression of CHIP ( CHIP -/- )...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111657/rar%C3%AE-is-required-for-mesodermal-gene-expression-prior-to-gastrulation
#9
Amanda Janesick, Weiyi Tang, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
The developing vertebrate embryo is exquisitely sensitive to retinoic acid (RA) concentration, particularly during anteroposterior patterning. In contrast to Nodal and Wnt signaling, RA was not previously considered to be an instructive signal in mesoderm formation during gastrulation. Here we show that RARγ is indispensable for the expression of early mesoderm markers and is, therefore, an obligatory factor in mesodermal competence and/or maintenance. We identified several novel targets up-regulated by RAR signaling in the early gastrula that are expressed in the circumblastoporal ring and linked to mesodermal development...
August 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110925/differentiation-of-human-tonsil-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-schwann-like-cells-improves-neuromuscular-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1a
#10
Saeyoung Park, Namhee Jung, Seoha Myung, Yoonyoung Choi, Ki Wha Chung, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is the most common inherited motor and sensory neuropathy, and is caused by duplication of PMP22 , alterations of which are a characteristic feature of demyelination. The clinical phenotype of CMT1A is determined by the degree of axonal loss, and patients suffer from progressive muscle weakness and impaired sensation. Therefore, we investigated the potential of Schwann-like cells differentiated from human tonsil-derived stem cells (T-MSCs) for use in neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice, a model of CMT1A...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110565/epigenetic-modification-of-intestinal-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-during-proliferation
#11
Quinn A Bonafiglia, Sandra R Lourenssen, David J Hurlbut, Michael G Blennerhassett
Inflammation causes proliferation of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), which contributes to a thickened intestinal wall, and also to stricture formation in Crohn's disease. Proliferation of ISMC both in vitro and in vivo caused decreased expression of marker proteins, but the underlying cause is unclear. Since epigenetic change is important in other systems, we examined this in cell lines from rat colon at either low passage or after extended growth, using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and qPCR to evaluate phenotype...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110564/hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-hyperhomocysteinemia-mediated-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-via-mitigation-of-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-injury
#12
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Jyotirmaya Behera, Nicholas T Theilen, Akash K George, Neetu Tyagi, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) occurs due to the deficiency in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) causing skeletal muscle dysfunction, it is still unclear whether this effect is mediated through oxidative/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress or both. Nevertheless, there is no treatment option available to improve HHcy-mediated muscle injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an anti-oxidant compound and patients with CBS mutation do not produce H2 S. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 S mitigates HHcy-induced redox imbalance/ER-stress during skeletal muscle atrophy via JNK-phosphorylation...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109697/prior-exercise-training-improves-cold-tolerance-independent-of-indices-associated-with-non-shivering-thermogenesis
#13
Carly M Knuth, Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Paula M Miotto, Anders Gudiksen, David C Wright
KEY POINTS: Mammals defend against cold-induced reductions in body temperature through both shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The activation of non-shivering thermogenesis is primarily driven by uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and to a lesser degree by the browning of white adipose tissue. Endurance exercise has also been shown to increase markers of white adipose tissue browning. This study aimed to determine whether prior exercise training would alter the response to a cold challenge and if this would be associated with differences in indices of non-shivering thermogenesis...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105760/characterization-of-voiding-function-and-structural-bladder-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-neurogenic-underactive-bladder-disease
#14
Emmanuel Weyne, Karel Dewulf, Yves Deruyer, Roma Rietjens, Wouter Everaerts, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Maarten Albersen
OBJECTIVES: To create an animal model for neurogenic underactive bladder disease (UAB) and identify markers to describe secondary myogenic changes in the bladder wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats underwent either bilateral pelvic nerve injury or sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery functional evaluation was performed and tissue was harvested. Functional evaluation consisted of analysis of voiding pattern, 24-h urine collection in a metabolic cage, in vivo cystometry and in-vitro contractile function assessment...
June 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104552/effects-of-rhizome-extract-of-dioscorea-batatas-and-its-active-compound-allantoin-on-the-regulation-of-myoblast-differentiation-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c2c12-myotubes
#15
Junnan Ma, Seok Yong Kang, Xianglong Meng, An Na Kang, Jong Hun Park, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
With the aging process, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and dysfunction related to metabolic syndrome is observed in older people. Yams are commonly use in functional foods and medications with various effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and allantoin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103509/effects-of-adherence-to-a-higher-protein-diet-on-weight-loss-markers-of-health-and-functional-capacity-in-older-women-participating-in-a-resistance-based-exercise-program
#16
Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul LaBounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean L Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B Kreider
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65...
August 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103010/integrated-analysis-of-mrna-and-mirna-expression-profiles-reveals-muscle-growth-differences-between-adult-female-and-male-chinese-concave-eared-frogs-odorrana-tormota
#17
Yilin Shu, Jinquan Xia, Qiang Yu, Gang Wang, Jihui Zhang, Jun He, Huan Wang, Ling Zhang, Hailong Wu
The Chinese concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota) is the first known non-mammalian vertebrate that can communicate using ultrasound. In this species, females are approximately four times as large as males, in which the female growth rate is obviously higher than that of male. Until now, the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle growth development differences between male and female frogs have not been reported. Here, we integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiles to reveal growth differences in the hindlimb muscles of 2-year-old frogs...
August 10, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101479/srpk1-gene-silencing-promotes-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-vascular-remodeling-via-inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-intracranial-aneurysms
#18
Xin-Guo Li, Yi-Bao Wang
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a life threatening cerebrovascular disease characterized by phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and loss of vessel cells. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors have been proposed to be a critical factor in the onset and progression of IA. The present study investigates the effects of serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro, as well as its role in vascular remodeling in vivo through PI3 K/Akt signaling in IA...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099751/a-cellular-mechanism-of-muscle-memory-facilitates-mitochondrial-remodelling-following-resistance-training
#19
Hojun Lee, Kijeong Kim, Boa Kim, Junchul Shin, Sudarsan Rajan, Jingwei Wu, Xiongwen Chen, Michael D Brown, Sukho Lee, Joon-Young Park
KEY POINTS: Referring to the muscle memory theory, previously trained muscles acquire strength and volume much faster than naive muscles. Using extreme experimental models such as synergist ablation or steroid administration, previous studies have demonstrated that the number of nuclei increases when a muscle becomes enlarged, which serves as a cellular muscle memory mechanism for the muscle. In the present study, we found that, when rats were subjected to physiologically relevant resistance training, the number of myonuclei increased and was retained during a long-term detraining period...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099008/modulation-of-nitric-oxide-stimulated-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activity-by-cytoskeleton-associated-proteins-in-vascular-smooth-muscle
#20
Alexander Kollau, Bernd Gesslbauer, Michael Russwurm, Doris Koesling, Antonius C F Gorren, Astrid Schrammel, Bernd Mayer
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, EC 4.6.1.2) is a key enzyme in the regulation of vascular tone. In view of the therapeutic interest of the NO/cGMP pathway, drugs were developed that either increase the NO sensitivity of the enzyme or activate heme-free apo-sGC. However, modulation of sGC activity by endogenous agents is poorly understood. In the present study we show that the maximal activity of NO-stimulated purified sGC is significantly increased by cytosolic preparations of porcine coronary arteries. Purification of the active principle by several chromatographic steps resulted in a protein mixture consisting of 100, 70, and 40 kDa bands on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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