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(Muscle) AND (disuse or atrophy or immobilization)

Ravikumar Manickam, Hui Yun Penny Oh, Chek Kun Tan, Eeswari Paramalingam, Walter Wahli
Antibiotics lead to increased susceptibility to colonization by pathogenic organisms, with different effects on the host-microbiota relationship. Here, we show that metronidazole treatment of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice results in a significant increase of the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria in fecal pellets. Furthermore, metronidazole in SPF mice decreases hind limb muscle weight and results in smaller fibers in the tibialis anterior muscle. In the gastrocnemius muscle, metronidazole causes upregulation of Hdac4 , myogenin , MuRF1 , and atrogin1 , which are implicated in skeletal muscle neurogenic atrophy...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Li Wang, Luis E F Almeida, Sayuri Kamimura, Jack H van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Martha Quezado, Paul Wakim, Zenaide M N Quezado
Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can have limited exercise capacity and muscle dysfunction characterized by decreased force, atrophy, microvascular abnormalities, fiber distribution changes, and skeletal muscle energetics abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that in SCD, there is alteration in nitric oxide (NO) availability/signaling and that nitrate/nitrite can serve as a NO reservoir and enhance muscle performance. Here, we examined effects of nitrite on muscle strength, exercise capacity, and on contractile properties of fast-(extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles in SCD mice...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ziduan Han, Sita Thapa, Ursula Reuter-Carlson, Hannah Reed, Michael Gates, Kris N Lambert, Nathan E Schroeder
The sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes are considered among the most economically damaging pathogens of plants. Following infection and the establishment of a feeding site, sedentary nematodes become immobile. Loss of mobility is reversed in adult males while females never regain mobility. The structural basis for this change in mobility is unknown. We used a combination of light and transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate cell-specific muscle atrophy and sex-specific renewal of neuromuscular tissue in the sedentary nematode Heterodera glycines...
August 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Feifei Su, Jing Miao, Xuemei Liu, Xiaojing Wei, Xuefan Yu
Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) is a rare, autosomal, recessive inherited disease caused by mutations in the GNE gene. DMRV is an adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, which initially involves the distal muscles with quadriceps sparing. To date, >150 GNE mutations have been reported in different populations from around the world. The present study investigated the clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of seven unrelated DMRV patients from China...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Saeyoung Park, Namhee Jung, Seoha Myung, Yoonyoung Choi, Ki Wha Chung, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is the most common inherited motor and sensory neuropathy, and is caused by duplication of PMP22 , alterations of which are a characteristic feature of demyelination. The clinical phenotype of CMT1A is determined by the degree of axonal loss, and patients suffer from progressive muscle weakness and impaired sensation. Therefore, we investigated the potential of Schwann-like cells differentiated from human tonsil-derived stem cells (T-MSCs) for use in neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice, a model of CMT1A...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Jyotirmaya Behera, Nicholas T Theilen, Akash K George, Neetu Tyagi, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) occurs due to the deficiency in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) causing skeletal muscle dysfunction, it is still unclear whether this effect is mediated through oxidative/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress or both. Nevertheless, there is no treatment option available to improve HHcy-mediated muscle injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an anti-oxidant compound and patients with CBS mutation do not produce H2 S. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 S mitigates HHcy-induced redox imbalance/ER-stress during skeletal muscle atrophy via JNK-phosphorylation...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Jennifer R Vranish, Benjamin E Young, Brandi Y Stephens, Jasdeep Kaur, Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We aimed to examine leg vascular responses to brief periods of inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that a mere 10 min of sitting is sufficient to impair leg microvascular function (reactive hyperaemia). However, conduit artery vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilatation) was unaffected, indicating maintained macrovascular function. Interestingly, immobile supine rest also resulted in a reduction in microvascular function alone that was prevented when calf muscle contractions were performed...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Zhenji Gan, Tingting Fu, Daniel P Kelly, Rick B Vega
Skeletal muscle fitness and plasticity is an important determinant of human health and disease. Mitochondria are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle energy homeostasis by adaptive re-programming to meet the demands imposed by a myriad of physiologic or pathophysiological stresses. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including muscular dystrophy, atrophy, type 2 diabetes, and aging-related sarcopenia. Notably, exercise counteracts the effects of many chronic diseases on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function...
August 14, 2018: Cell Research
Imre W K Kouw, Bart B L Groen, Joey S J Smeets, Irene Fleur Kramer, Janneau M X van Kranenburg, Rachél Nilwik, Jan A P Geurts, René H M Ten Broeke, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
OBJECTIVES: Short successive periods of skeletal muscle disuse have been suggested to substantially contribute to the observed loss of skeletal muscle mass over the life span. Hospitalization of older individuals due to acute illness, injury, or major surgery generally results in a mean hospital stay of 5 to 7 days, during which the level of physical activity is strongly reduced. We hypothesized that hospitalization following elective total hip arthroplasty is accompanied by substantial leg muscle atrophy in older men and women...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Zhen-Yu Liu, Zhen-Bing Chen, Jiang-Hai Chen
Current animal models of chronic peripheral nerve compression are mainly silicone tube models. However, the cross section of the rat sciatic nerve is not a perfect circle, and there are differences in the diameter of the sciatic nerve due to individual differences. The use of a silicone tube with a uniform internal diameter may not provide a reliable and consistent model. We have established a chronic sciatic nerve compression model that can induce demyelination of the sciatic nerve and lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ryo Sasaki, Yasuyuki Ohta, Yuto Yamada, Koh Tadokoro, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Kota Sato, Jingwei Shang, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Toru Yamashita, Takao Yasuhara, Isao Date, Shuntaro Ikegawa, Nobuharu Fujii, Koji Abe
Neurolymphomatosis is a rare form of extranodal malignant lymphoma defined as the infiltration of malignant lymphocytes into the central or peripheral nerve. We herein report a case of neurolymphomatosis in the cauda equina diagnosed by an open surgical biopsy. He presented with muscle weakness, atrophy, numbness and hypoesthesia in the bilateral lower extremities with the accumulation of 18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the bilateral cauda equina. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology (three times) and flow cytometry (two times) and biopsies of the left sural nerve, bone marrow, paranasal sinus and left testis were all negative for malignancy, so finally we performed a surgical open biopsy of the cauda equina by laminectomy and diagnosed him with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the cauda equina...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Mattia Verderio, Alessandro Mariani, Massimiliano de Paola, Nilo Riva, Giorgia Dina, Nicolò Panini, Eugenio Erba, Angelo Quattrini, Caterina Bendotti
BACKGROUND: The major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) is a key molecule for the interaction of mononucleated cells with CD8+ T lymphocytes. We previously showed that MHCI is upregulated in the spinal cord microglia and motor axons of transgenic SOD1G93A mice. METHODS: To assess the role of MHCI in the disease, we examined transgenic SOD1G93A mice crossbred with β2 microglobulin-deficient mice, which express little if any MHCI on the cell surface and are defective for CD8+ T cells...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sujin Kim, Min-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Choi, Dong-Ho Park, Hyo-Bum Kwak, Sohee Moon, Je-Woo Koh, Hun-Kyu Shin, Ji-Kan Ryu, Chang-Shin Park, Jai Hyung Park, Ju-Hee Kang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The complicated differentiation processes of cells in skeletal muscle against inflammation that induce muscle atrophy are not fully elucidated. Given that skeletal muscle is a secretory organ, we evaluated the effects of inflammation on myogenic signals and myokine expression, and the roles of inflammatory exosomes released by myotubes in myogenic differentiation. METHODS: Inflammation was induced by treatment of fully differentiated C2C12 myotubes with a cytokine mixture of TNF-α and INF-γ...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kevin L Shimkus, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Michael P Wiggs, Shaik T Ullah, Camilo Pohlenz, Delbert M Gatlin, Chad C Carroll, Harry A Hogan, James D Fluckey
AIM: Mechanical unloading has long been understood to contribute to rapid and substantial adaptations within skeletal muscle, most notably muscle atrophy. Studies have often demonstrated that many of the alterations resulting from disuse are reversed with a reintroduction of load and have supported the concept of muscle plasticity. We hypothesized that adaptations during disuse and recovery was a repeatable/reproducible phenomenon, which we tested with repeated changes in mechanical load...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yusuhn Kang, Joong Mo Ahn, Choong Guen Chee, Eugene Lee, Joon Woo Lee, Heung Sik Kang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the pattern of teres minor atrophy with regard to its two-bundle anatomy and to assess its association with clinical factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Shoulder MRIs performed between January and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Images were evaluated for the presence and pattern of isolated teres minor atrophy. Isolated teres minor atrophy was categorized into complete or partial pattern, and partial pattern was further classified according to the portion of the muscle that was predominantly affected...
August 8, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Pavel Dušek, David Školoudík, Jan Roth, Petr Dušek
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the C19orf12 gene. We report a compound heterozygous c.[32C>T];[205G>A;424A>G] (p.[Thr11Met];[Gly69Arg;Lys142Glu]) Czech patient who manifested with right foot dystonia, impaired handwriting, attention deficit, and signs of iron accumulation on brain MRI. Gradually, he developed dysarthria, spastic-dystonic gait, pedes cavi, and atrophy of leg muscles. Additionally, we report demographic parameters, clinical signs, and allelic frequencies of C19orf12 mutations of all published MPAN cases...
August 8, 2018: Neurocase
Juliane C Campos, Leslie M Baehr, Kátia M S Gomes, Luiz R G Bechara, Vanessa A Voltarelli, Luiz H M Bozi, Márcio A C Ribeiro, Nikolas D Ferreira, José B N Moreira, Patricia C Brum, Sue C Bodine, Julio C B Ferreira
Increased proteolytic activity has been widely associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. However, elevated proteolysis is also critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by disposing cytotoxic proteins and non-functioning organelles. We recently demonstrated that exercise activates autophagy and re-establishes proteostasis in cardiac diseases. Here, we characterized the impact of exercise on skeletal muscle autophagy and proteostasis in a model of neurogenic myopathy induced by sciatic nerve constriction in rats...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Corrado Angelini, Laura Giaretta, Roberta Marozzo
Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies (LGMD) encompasses a clinically heterogeneous group of rare, genetic progressive muscle disorders presenting with weakness and atrophy of predominant pelvic and shoulder muscles. The spectrum of disease severity ranges from severe childhood-onset muscular dystrophy to adult-onset dystrophy. Areas covered: The review presents an update of the clinical phenotypes and diagnostic options for LGMD including both dominant and recessive LGMD and consider their differential clinical and histopathological features...
August 7, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Yeonsil Moon, Ye-Ji Choi, Jin Ok Kim, Seol-Heui Han
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disease is one of the main contributing factors affecting muscle atrophy. However, this intriguing brain-muscle axis has been explained by the unsubstantial mechanisms. Although there have been several studies that have evaluated the muscle profile and its relation to cognition in patients with dementia, there is still lack of data using standardized methods and only few published studies on Korean populations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of muscle mass and strength to cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD)...
August 6, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Xueying Yu, Bin Chen, Hefei Tang, Wei Li, Ying Fu, Zaiqiang Zhang, Yaping Yan
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase ( GARS) gene mutations have been reported to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2D and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V). In this study, we report a novel GARS mutation in a Chinese family with dHMN-V. Clinical, electromyogram, genetic, and functional data were explored. The proband was an 11-year-old girl presented with progressive distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy due to peripheral motor neuropathy for 1 year. Another five members from three successive generations of the family showed similar symptoms during their first to second decades and demonstrated an autosomal dominant inheritance...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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