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(Muscle) AND (disuse or atrophy or immobilization)

Joshua A Tuck, Smith M Meads, Jordan L Ramage
Femoral nerve palsy with concomitant patellar dislocation is a rare clinical entity that has not previously been well documented. The authors present the case of a 16-year-old female ballet dancer who sustained a patellar dislocation with concomitant femoral nerve palsy. She experienced muscle weakness after the initial injury and developed neuropathic symptoms through the anterior left thigh. The patient exhibited muscle atrophy in her left lower extremity verified by circumferential thigh measurements as well as magnetic resonance imaging showing clear atrophy of the anterior compartment...
December 11, 2018: Orthopedics
Ashraf S Gorgey, Oksana Witt, Laura O'Brien, Christopher Cardozo, Qun Chen, Edward J Lesnefsky, Zachary A Graham
Mitochondria are responsible for aerobic respiration and large-scale ATP production in almost all cells of the body. Their function is decreased in many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease states, in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity, and as a normal component of aging. Disuse of skeletal muscle from immobilization or unloading triggers alterations of mitochondrial density and activity. Resultant mitochondrial dysfunction after paralysis, which precedes muscle atrophy, may augment subsequent release of reactive oxygen species leading to protein ubiquitination and degradation...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Agata Sebastian, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Maria Misterska-Skóra, Agnieszka Hałoń, Marta Skoczyńska, Maciej Sebastian, Piotr Wiland, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) is a progressive, skeletal muscle disease with poor prognosis. However, establishing the final diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of clear biomarkers in the blood serum and very slow development of clinical symptoms. Moreover, most other organs function normally without any disturbance. Here, in patients with this untreatable disease, we have underlined the importance of immunohistochemical and ultrastructural assessment of skeletal muscle in patients diagnosed with s-IBM...
December 8, 2018: Rheumatology International
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Gilson Masahiro Murata, José Luis Márquez, Rui Curi
Due to the difficulty of performing research protocols that reproduce human skeletal muscle disuse conditions, an experimental animal model of "hindlimb suspension" (or hindlimb unloading) was developed. This method was created in the 1970s and utilizes rats and mice to mimic space flight and bed rest in humans. It provides an alternative to investigate mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle mass loss and interventions designed to attenuate atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading. The mentioned protocol also allows investigating quality of bones and changes in several physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, plasma or tissue lipid composition, and glycemia...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 161 in vol. 91, PMID: 29962922.].
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Klaus Engelke, Oleg Museyko, Ling Wang, Jean-Denis Laredo
The radiological assessment of muscle properties-size, mass, density (also termed radiodensity), composition, and adipose tissue infiltration-is fundamental in muscle diseases. More recently, it also became obvious that muscle atrophy, also termed muscle wasting, is caused by or associated with many other diseases or conditions, such as inactivity, malnutrition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, cancer-associated cachexia, diabetes, renal and cardiac failure, and sarcopenia and even potentially with osteoporotic hip fracture...
October 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Xiongwei Yu, Wenjun Han, Changli Wang, Daming Sui, Jinjun Bian, Lulong Bo, Xiaoming Deng
Hemin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), can enhance the activation of HO-1. HO-1 exhibits a variety of activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hemin on sepsis-induced skeletal muscle wasting and to explore the mechanisms by which hemin exerts its effects. Cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) was performed to create a sepsis mouse model. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, CLP, CLP plus group, and CLP-hemin-ZnPP (a HO-1 inhibitor)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Miki Kobayakawa, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, William Addison, Takuma Matsubara, Shoichiro Kokabu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Mauricio Krause, Domenico Crognale, Karl Cogan, Serena Contarelli, Brendan Egan, Philip Newsholme, Giuseppe De Vito
This investigation sought to determine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance exercise training in addition to protein supplementation on body composition, markers of muscle atrophy/hypertrophy and heat shock response (HSR) in healthy older adults. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary participants (M/F, 18/20; age, 63.5 ± 4.4 y) were randomly assigned to four groups: I) PLACEBO: no training, receiving placebo sachets; II) NUTRITION: no training, receiving protein supplementation sachets; III) EXERCISE PLACEBO: training, placebo sachets and IV) EXERCISE NUTRITION: training, receiving protein sachets...
December 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Matheus Garcia, Marilia Seelaender, Athanassia Sotiropoulos, Dario Coletti, Antonio Herbert Lancha
The relevance of vitamin D to skeletal muscle metabolism has been highlighted in recent years. The interest arises from the important findings of studies demonstrating multiple effects of vitamin D on this tissue, which can be divided into genomic (direct effects) and non-genomic effects (indirect effects). Another important aspect to be considered in the study of vitamin D and muscle fiber metabolism is related to different expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which varies in muscle tissue depending on age, sex, and pathology...
October 7, 2018: Nutrition
René Günther, Christoph Neuwirth, Jan Christoph Koch, Paul Lingor, Nathalie Braun, Robert Untucht, Daniel Petzold, Markus Weber, Andreas Hermann
OBJECTIVE: There is still insufficient knowledge about natural history in adult spinal muscular atrophy, thus valid markers for treatment and disease monitoring are urgently needed. METHODS: We studied hand muscle innervation pattern of 38 adult genetically confirmed 5q spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients by the motor unit number index (MUNIX) method. Data were compared to healthy controls and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and systematically correlated to typical disease-relevant scores and other clinical as well as demographic characteristics...
November 24, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yan Chen, Minhua Cheng, Ting Su, Tao Gao, Wenkui Yu
Constant light exposure is widespread in the intensive care unit (ICU) and could increase the rate of brain dysfunction as delirium and sleep disorders in critical patients. And the activation of hypothalamic neuropeptides is proved to play a crucial role in regulating hypercatabolism, especially skeletal muscle wasting in critical patients, which could lead to serious complications and poor prognosis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that constant light exposure could aggravate skeletal muscle wasting in endotoxemia rats and whether it was associated with alterations of circadian clock and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin(POMC) expression...
December 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sumedh S Shah, Jose M Consuegra, Ty K Subhawong, Timur M Urakov, Glen R Manzano
Piriformis syndrome (PS) is a rare etiology of extra-spinal sciatica in which pathologies associated with or around the piriformis muscle (PM) irritate the adjacent sciatic nerve (SN), however, there is scarcity in the literature regarding its exact etiologies, thus, we performed a retrospective study to elucidate the epidemiology of PS and assess various causes of the syndrome. Our study included patients assessed at our institution who presented with sciatica of non-spinal origin between May 2014 and December 2015...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Carrie A Kubiak, Kavitha Ranganathan, Niki Matusko, Jon A Jacobson, Stewart C Wang, Pauline K Park, Benjamin L Levi
BACKGROUND: Morphomic studies have demonstrated a correlation between sarcopenia and clinical outcomes in septic patients. However, tendon morphomics has not yet been studied in this context. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate tendon morphology in septic patients through analytic morphomics. We hypothesized that morphomic analyses would reveal concomitant muscle and tendon wasting in sepsis patients. The results of this study may help to implement different rehabilitation modalities for critically ill patients...
February 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Sung Sup Park, Young-Kyo Seo, Ki-Sun Kwon
The loss of skeletal muscle, called sarcopenia, is an inevitable event during the aging process, and significantly impacts quality of life. Autophagy is known to reduce muscle atrophy caused by dysfunctional organelles, even though the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we have discuss the current understanding of exercise-induced autophagy activation in skeletal muscle regeneration and remodeling, leading to sarcopenia intervention. With aging, dysregulation of autophagy flux inhibits lysosomal storage processes involved in muscle biogenesis...
December 11, 2018: BMB Reports
Xiaofan Yang, Pingping Xue, Xin Liu, Xiang Xu, Zhenbing Chen
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a classical modulator of skeletal muscle and regulates several processes, such as myogenesis, regeneration and muscle function in skeletal muscle diseases. Skeletal muscle atrophy, characterized by the loss of muscle strength and mass, is one of the pathological conditions regulated by TGF-β1, but the underlying mechanism involved in the atrophic effects of TGF-β1 is not fully understood. METHODS: Mice sciatic nerve transection model was created and gastrocnemius were analysed by western blot, immunofluorescence staining and fibre diameter quantification after 2 weeks...
December 7, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
André V Cordeiro, Vagner R R Silva, José R Pauli, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Leandro P Moura, Eduardo R Ropelle
Sphingolipids were discovered more than a century ago and were simply considered as a class of cell membrane lipids for a long time. However, after the discovery of several intracellular functions and their role in the control of many physiological and pathophysiological conditions, these molecules have gained much attention. For instance, the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a circulating bioactive sphingolipid capable of triggering strong intracellular reactions through the family of S1P receptors (S1PRs) spread in several cell types and tissues...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Raquel Guimarães-Costa, Thomas Similowski, Isabelle Rivals, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Mai Thao Bui, David Akbar, Christian Straus, Norma Beatriz Romero, Patrick Pierre Michel, Fabrice Menegaux, François Salachas, Jésus Gonzalez-Bermejo, Gaëlle Bruneteau
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients show progressive respiratory muscle weakness leading to death from respiratory failure. However, there are no data on diaphragm histological changes in ALS patients and how they correlate with routine respiratory measurements.We collected 39 diaphragm biopsies concomitantly with laparoscopic insertion of intradiaphragmatic electrodes during a randomised controlled trial evaluating early diaphragm pacing in ALS (NCT01583088). Myofibre type, size, and distribution were evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy and correlated with spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, and phrenic nerve conduction parameters...
December 5, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Brian T O'Neill, Gourav Bhardwaj, Christie M Penniman, Megan T Krumpoch, Pablo A Suarez Beltran, Katherine Klaus, Kennedy Poro, Mengyao Li, Hui Pan, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, K Sreekumaran Nair, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin deficiency and uncontrolled diabetes lead to a catabolic state with decreased muscle strength, contributing to disease-related morbidity. FoxO transcription factors are suppressed by insulin and thus are key mediators of insulin action. To study their role in diabetic muscle wasting, we created mice with muscle-specific triple knockout of FoxO1/3/4 and induced diabetes in these M-FoxO-TKO mice with streptozotocin (STZ). Muscle mass and myofiber area were decreased 20-30% in STZ-Diabetes mice due to increased ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and autophagy alterations, characterized by increased LC3 containing vesicles, and elevated levels of p-ULK1 and LC3-II...
December 6, 2018: Diabetes
Zhihao Qi, Zhen Huang, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of neuronal function by continuously providing energy. Here, we will give a detailed review about the recent developments in regards to dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) induced unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, excessive mitochondrial division, and neuronal injury in neural system dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases, including the Drp1 knockout induced mice embryonic death, the dysfunction of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial division induced neuronal cell apoptosis and impaired neuronal axonal transportation, the abnormal interaction between Drp1 and amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington's disease (HD), and the Drp1-associated pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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