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(Skeletal muscle) AND (hypertrophy or growth)

Paola D'Andrea, Marina Sciancalepore, Katerina Veltruska, Paola Lorenzon, Antonella Bandiera
The biochemical properties of muscle extracellular matrix are essential for stem cell adhesion, motility, proliferation and myogenic development. Recombinant elastin-like polypeptides are synthetic polypeptides that, besides maintaining some properties of the native protein, can be tailored by fusing bioactive sequences to their C-terminal. Our laboratory synthesized several Human Elastin-Like Polypeptides (HELP) derived from the sequence of human tropoelastin. Here, we developed a novel HELP family member by fusing the elastin-like backbone to the sequence of human Epidermal Growth Factor...
October 18, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jozo Grgic, Luke C Mcllvenna, Jackson J Fyfe, Filip Sabol, David J Bishop, Brad J Schoenfeld, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are inconsistencies in the body of evidence for the effects of resistance and aerobic training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze current evidence on the differences in hypertrophic adaptation to aerobic and resistance training, and to discuss potential reasons for the disparities noted in the literature. METHODS: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed for this review...
October 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Tomohiro Yamada, Goro Sugiyama, Ken Higashimoto, Azusa Nakashima, Hiroyuki Nakano, Tomoki Sumida, Hidenobu Soejima, Yoshihide Mori
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital disorder with 3 main features-overgrowth in infancy, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. Here, we report on a 5-month old girl with hemihyperplasia and macroglossia caused by paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) asymmetric mosaic on chromosome 11p15.5. She could not retract her tongue into her mouth and the midline of the tongue was shifted to the left. Glossectomy was performed at age 1 year. A specimen of the tongue showed normal skeletal muscle, but the muscle fibers were closely spaced, and there were fewer stroma components in the tissue from the right side of the tongue than that from the left side...
August 22, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Cora Weigert, Miriam Hoene, Peter Plomgaard
Regular physical activity not only improves the exercise capacity of the skeletal muscle performing the contractions, but it is beneficial for the whole body. An extensive search for "exercise factors" mediating these beneficial effects has been going on for decades. Particularly skeletal muscle tissue has been investigated as a source of circulating exercise factors, and several myokines have been identified. However, exercise also has an impact on other tissues. The liver is interposed between energy storing and energy utilising tissues and is highly active during exercise, maintaining energy homeostasis...
October 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Guihua Ge, Dongli Yang, Ya Tan, Ying Chen, Dongmei Jiang, Anan Jiang, Qiang Li, Yihui Liu, Zhijun Zhong, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
The development of skeletal muscle is a complex process including myoblasts proliferation and differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Increasing evidences indicate that miRNAs are important regulators in myogenic processes. Here, we reported that the expression of miR-10b-5p steadily decreased during myoblasts proliferation, but significantly increased during myoblasts differentiation. The over-expression of miR-10b-5p promoted myoblasts proliferation and blunted myofiber formation in C2C12 cells, while miR-10b-5p down-regulation showed an opposite result...
October 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Henning Wackerhage, Brad J Schoenfeld, D Lee Hamilton, Maarit Lehti, Juha J Hulmi
One of the most striking adaptations to exercise is the skeletal muscle hypertrophy that occurs in response to resistance exercise. A large body of work shows that a mTORC1-mediated increase of muscle protein synthesis is the key, but not sole, mechanism by which resistance exercise causes muscle hypertrophy. Whilst much of the hypertrophy signaling cascade has been identified, the initiating, resistance exercise-induced and hypertrophy-stimulating stimuli have remained elusive. For the purpose of this review, we define an initiating, resistance exercise-induced and hypertrophy-stimulating signal as "hypertrophy stimulus", and the sensor of such a signal as "hypertrophy sensor"...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Emma A Mitchell, Neil Richard William Martin, Mark C Turner, Conor W Taylor, Richard A Ferguson
Sprint interval training (SIT) combined with post-exercise blood-flow restriction (BFR) is a novel method to increase maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) in trained individuals, and also provides a potent acute stimulus for angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. The efficacy to enhance endurance performance has however yet to be demonstrated. 21 trained male cyclists (V̇O2max ; 62.8 ± 3.7 ml.min-1 .kg-1 ) undertook 4 weeks of SIT (repeated 30 sec maximal sprints) either alone (CON; n = 10) or with post-exercise BFR (n = 11)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hoda S Hashemi, Stefanie Fallone, Mathieu Boily, Anna Towers, Robert D Kilgour, Hassan Rivaz
Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a consequence of a malfunctioning lymphatic drainage system resulting from surgery or some other form of treatment. In the initial stages, minor and reversible increases in fluid volume of the arm are evident. As the stages progress over time, the underlying pathophysiology dramatically changes with an irreversible increase in arm volume most likely due to a chronic local inflammation leading to adipose tissue hypertrophy and fibrosis. Clinicians have subjective ways to stage the degree and severity such as the pitting test which entails manually comparing the elasticity of the affected and unaffected arms...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Kendra Huseman, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Holly Van Remmen, Tyrone A Washington, Michael P Wiggs, Nicholas P Greene
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia occurs in approximately 80% of cancer patients and is a key contributor to cancer-related death. The mechanisms controlling development of tumour-induced muscle wasting are not fully elucidated. Specifically, the progression and development of cancer cachexia are underexplored. Therefore, we examined skeletal muscle protein turnover throughout the development of cancer cachexia in tumour-bearing mice. METHODS: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was injected into the hind flank of C57BL6/J mice at 8 weeks age with tumour allowed to develop for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks and compared with PBS injected control...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Dong-Ho Bak, Mi Ji Choi, Esther Lee, Tae-Rin Kwon, Jong Hwan Kim, Sang-Hyun Nam, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Seung Won Ahn, Seog-Kyun Mun, Jungtae Na, Beom Joon Kim
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is used clinically for various muscle disorders and acts by preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into the synapse space. Here, we compared the efficacy of prabotulinumtoxinA (PRA) and onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) for the reduction of hypertrophy in myostatin-deficiency (Mstn-/- ) mice. Two different BoNT-A products (2.5, 10, and 25 U/kg) were injected to paralyze the hind limb for 2 months, after which sciatic nerve conduction study (NCS), 3D micro-CT, Haematoxylin &Eosin (H&E) and dystrophin staining were conducted...
October 16, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Alberto Ferlin, Luca De Toni, Alexander I Agoulnik, Giorgia Lunardon, Andrea Armani, Sergia Bortolanza, Bert Blaauw, Marco Sandri, Carlo Foresta
Androgens are primarily involved in muscle growth, whilst disease-driven muscle wasting is frequently associated with hypogonadism. The Leydig cells of the testes also produce the peptide-hormone Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3). INSL3 displays anabolic activity on bone, a target tissue of androgens, and its plasma concentrations are diminished in male hypogonadism. Here we tested the role of INSL3 on muscle mass regulation, in physiological and pathological conditions. Studies on C2C12 cell line showed that INSL3, acting on his specific receptor RXFP2, promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis through the Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jiayu Liu, Nannan Song, Yibing Huang, Yuxin Chen
Irisin, a recently identified myokine that is released from skeletal muscle following exercise, regulates body weight and influences various metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, human recombinant nonglycosylated P-irisin (expressed in Escherichia coli prokaryote cell system) or glycosylated E-irisin (expressed in Pichia pastoris eukaryote cell system) were compared to examine the role of recombinant irisin against pancreatic cancer (PC) cells lines, MIA PaCa-2 and Panc03.27. MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide] and cell colony formation assays revealed that irisin significantly inhibited the growth of MIA PaCa-2 and Panc03...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vittoria Infantino, Francesco Dituri, Paolo Convertini, Anna Santarsiero, Ferdinando Palmieri, Simona Todisco, Serena Mancarella, Gianluigi Giannelli, Vito Iacobazzi
Metabolic reprogramming is a common hallmark of cancer cells. Although some biochemical features have been clarified, there is still much to learn about cancer cell metabolism and its regulation. Aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1), encoded by SLC25A12 gene, catalyzes an exchange between intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate plus a proton across the mitochondrial membrane, so supplying aspartate to the cytosol. SLC25A12, expressed in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, is silenced in normal liver...
October 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Atsushi Kodani, Takahiro Kikuchi, Chihiro Tohda
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult to cure, even by several approaches effective at the acute or subacute phase. We focused on skeletal muscle atrophy as a detrimental factor in chronic SCI and explored drugs that protect against muscle atrophy and activate secretion of axonal growth factors from skeletal muscle. We found that acteoside induced the secretion of axonal growth factors from skeletal muscle cells and proliferation of these cells. Intramuscular injection of acteoside in mice with chronic SCI recovered skeletal muscle weight reduction and motor function impairment...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
David M Thomson
AMPK (5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is heavily involved in skeletal muscle metabolic control through its regulation of many downstream targets. Because of their effects on anabolic and catabolic cellular processes, AMPK plays an important role in the control of skeletal muscle development and growth. In this review, the effects of AMPK signaling, and those of its upstream activator, liver kinase B1 (LKB1), on skeletal muscle growth and atrophy are reviewed. The effect of AMPK activity on satellite cell-mediated muscle growth and regeneration after injury is also reviewed...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mengxin Cai, Qing'an Wang, Zhiwei Liu, Dandan Jia, Rui Feng, Zhenjun Tian
AIMS: Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied with skeletal muscle abnormalities. The aims are to explore an optimal exercise mode to improve cardiac function and prevent skeletal muscle atrophy, and detected the possible mechanisms of exercise-induced inhibition of muscle atrophy. MAIN METHODS: Rats were subjected to four weeks of different types of exercise after MI surgery (resistance training, RT; moderated-intensity continuous aerobic exercise, MCE and high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise, HIA)...
October 9, 2018: Life Sciences
Tiina Rasila, Olga Saavalainen, Hesham Attalla, Petri Lankila, Caj Haglund, Erkki Hölttä, Leif C Andersson
Our group originally found and cloned cDNA for a 98 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein of unknown function. Due to its abundant expression in astrocytes it was called the protein astroprincin (APCN). Two thirds of the evolutionarily conserved protein is intracytoplasmic whereas the extracellular domain carries two N-glycosidic side chains. APCN is physiologically expressed in placental trophoblasts, skeletal and hearth muscle, and kidney and pancreas. Overexpression of APCN (cDNA) in various cell lines induced sprouting of slender projections whereas knockdown of APCN expression by siRNA caused disappearance of actin stress fibres...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
During the course of life, muscle mass undergoes many changes in terms of quantity and quality. Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue able to hypertrophy or atrophy according to growth, ageing, physical activity, nutrition and health state. The purpose of the present review is to present the mechanisms by which exercise can induce changes in human skeletal muscle mass by modulating protein balance and regulating the fate of satellite cells. Exercise is known to exert transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulations as well as to induce epigenetic modifications and to control messenger RNA stability, which all contribute to the regulation of protein synthesis...
October 11, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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