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(Skeletal muscle) AND (hypertrophy or growth)

Rana Attalla, Erin Puersten, Nidhi Jain, P Ravi Selvaganapathy
One of the primary focuses in recent years in tissue engineering has been the fabrication and integration of vascular structures into artificial tissue constructs. However, most available methodologies lack the ability to create multi-layered concentric conduits inside natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) and gels that replicate more accurately the hierarchical architecture of biological blood vessels. In this work, we present a new microfluidic nozzle design capable of multi-axial extrusion in order to 3D print and pattern bi- and tri-layered hollow channel structures...
December 11, 2018: Biofabrication
Devaleena S Pradhan, Chunqi Ma, Barney A Schlinger, Kiran K Soma, Marilyn Ramenofsky
Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. We measured morphological parameters, plasma and tissue levels of testosterone, as well as mRNA expression levels of androgen receptor, 5α-reductase (converts testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone), and the androgen-dependent myotrophic factor insulin-like growth factor-1...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Jay S Johnson, Lance H Baumgard
Postnatal heat stress negatively impacts pig productivity and well-being as animals attempt to manage the resultant strain response. This is especially true when postnatal heat stress is combined with production stressors (e.g., mixing, weaning, transport, handling, and isolation) that have the potential to increase disease occurrence, morbidity and mortality. While pigs can utilize adaptive physiological mechanisms to compensate, these are often unfavorable to efficient livestock production. Specifically, postnatal heat stress decreases weight gain, reduces growth and production efficiency, alters carcass composition, and increases morbidity and mortality...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Z A Kovács, Mónika G Kovács, Renáta Gáspár, Gergő Szűcs, László Dux
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem and a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD could amplify the progression of chronic heart failure leading to the development of type 4 cardio-renal syndrome (T4CRS). The severity and persistence of heart failure are strongly associated with mortality risk in T4CRS. CKD is also a catabolic state leading to renal sarcopenia which is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle strength and physical function. Renal sarcopenia also promotes the development of CVD and increases the mortality in CKD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mauricio Krause, Domenico Crognale, Karl Cogan, Serena Contarelli, Brendan Egan, Philip Newsholme, Giuseppe De Vito
This investigation sought to determine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance exercise training in addition to protein supplementation on body composition, markers of muscle atrophy/hypertrophy and heat shock response (HSR) in healthy older adults. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary participants (M/F, 18/20; age, 63.5 ± 4.4 y) were randomly assigned to four groups: I) PLACEBO: no training, receiving placebo sachets; II) NUTRITION: no training, receiving protein supplementation sachets; III) EXERCISE PLACEBO: training, placebo sachets and IV) EXERCISE NUTRITION: training, receiving protein sachets...
December 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Matheus Garcia, Marilia Seelaender, Athanassia Sotiropoulos, Dario Coletti, Antonio Herbert Lancha
The relevance of vitamin D to skeletal muscle metabolism has been highlighted in recent years. The interest arises from the important findings of studies demonstrating multiple effects of vitamin D on this tissue, which can be divided into genomic (direct effects) and non-genomic effects (indirect effects). Another important aspect to be considered in the study of vitamin D and muscle fiber metabolism is related to different expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which varies in muscle tissue depending on age, sex, and pathology...
October 7, 2018: Nutrition
Eleonora Guadagnin, Debalina Bagchi, Indranil Sinha, Ronald L Neppl
Skeletal muscle regeneration following injury is a complex multi-stage process involving the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the activation of muscle resident fibroblasts, and the differentiation of activated myoblasts into myocytes. Dysregulation of these cellular processes is associated with ineffective myofiber repair and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins leading to fibrosis. PI3K/Akt signaling is a critical integrator of intra- and intercellular signals connecting nutrient availability to cell survival and growth...
December 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Richard J Mills, Benjamin L Parker, Pauline Monnot, Elise J Needham, Celine J Vivien, Charles Ferguson, Robert G Parton, David E James, Enzo R Porrello, James E Hudson
Three dimensional engineered culture systems are powerful tools to rapidly expand our knowledge of human biology and identify novel therapeutic targets for disease. Bioengineered skeletal muscle has been recently shown to recapitulate many features of native muscle biology. However, current skeletal muscle bioengineering approaches require large numbers of cells, reagents and labour, limiting their potential for high-throughput studies. Herein, we use a miniaturized 96-well micro-muscle platform to facilitate semi-automated tissue formation, culture and analysis of human skeletal micro muscles (hμMs)...
November 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Xiaofan Yang, Pingping Xue, Xin Liu, Xiang Xu, Zhenbing Chen
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a classical modulator of skeletal muscle and regulates several processes, such as myogenesis, regeneration and muscle function in skeletal muscle diseases. Skeletal muscle atrophy, characterized by the loss of muscle strength and mass, is one of the pathological conditions regulated by TGF-β1, but the underlying mechanism involved in the atrophic effects of TGF-β1 is not fully understood. METHODS: Mice sciatic nerve transection model was created and gastrocnemius were analysed by western blot, immunofluorescence staining and fibre diameter quantification after 2 weeks...
December 7, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Hui Yan, Jiejie Meng, Shasha Zhang, Hang Zhuang, YuE Song, Xiao Xiao, Dao Wen Wang, Jiangang Jiang
Myostatin, a negative modulator of muscle growth, has been considered as a potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In our previous work, we found that myostatin inhibition by adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated gene delivery of myostatin propeptide (MPRO) could improve muscle mass and achieve therapeutic effects on glucose regulation and lipid metabolism in db/db mice. In this study, we investigated whether pre-intervention of rAAV-mediated expression of MPRO could lower the incidence of type 2 diabetes...
December 10, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Jared M Gollie, Michael O Harris-Love, Samir S Patel, Sholey Argani
Skeletal muscle wasting has gained interest as a primary consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to the relationship between skeletal muscle mass, mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in this population. The combination of reductions in physical function, skeletal muscle performance and skeletal muscle mass places individuals with CKD at greater risk of sarcopenia. Therefore the monitoring of skeletal muscle composition and function may provide clinical insight into disease progression...
December 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Jinliang Li, Shania Aponte Paris, Hrishikesh Thakur, Michael S Kapiloff, Kimberly L Dodge-Kafka
Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors are key regulators of the development and adult phenotype of diverse tissues including skeletal and cardiac muscles. Controlled by multiple post-translational modifications, MEF2D is an effector for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN, PP2B, and PPP3). CaN-catalyzed dephosphorylation promotes the desumoylation and acetylation of MEF2D increasing its transcriptional activity. Both MEF2D and CaN bind the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β (mAKAPβ), which is localized to the nuclear envelope, such that C2C12 skeletal myoblast differentiation and neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy are inhibited by mAKAPβ signalosome targeting...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wenqiong Xu, Hongyi Zhou, Hongzhuan Xuan, Pradip Saha, Gongxian Wang, Weiqin Chen
Bscl2-/- mice recapitulate many of the major metabolic manifestations in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) individuals, including lipodystrophy, hepatosteatosis, muscular hypertrophy, and insulin resistance. Metabolic defects in Bscl2-/- mice with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle have never been investigated. Here, we identified Bscl2-/- mice displayed reduced intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) content but increased glycogen storage predominantly in oxidative type I soleus muscle (SM)...
December 4, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Jae-Sung You, Rachel M McNally, Brittany L Jacobs, Rachel E Privett, David M Gundermann, Kuan-Hung Lin, Nate D Steinert, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger
It is well known that an increase in mechanical loading can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and a long standing model in the field indicates that mechanical loads induce hypertrophy via a mechanism that requires signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Specifically, it has been widely proposed that mechanical loads activate signaling through mTORC1 and that this, in turn, promotes an increase in the rate of protein synthesis and the subsequent hypertrophic response. However, this model is based on a number of important assumptions that have not been rigorously tested...
December 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Paul Rosenberg, Danielle Katz, Victoria Bryson
Store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is an ancient and ubiquitous Ca2+ signaling pathway discovered decades ago, but the function of SOCE in human physiology is only now being revealed. The relevance of this pathway to striated muscle was solidified with the description of skeletal myopathies that result from mutations in STIM1 and Orai1, the two SOCE components. Here, we consider the evidence for STIM1 and SOCE in cardiac muscle and the sinoatrial node. We highlight recent studies revealing a role for STIM1 in cardiac growth in response to developmental and pathologic cues...
November 27, 2018: Cell Calcium
Jiajia Wang, Qianqian Ge, Jitao Li, Zhao Chen, Jian Li
Growth is among the most important traits for animal breeding. Muscle growth is controlled by different cellular and molecular pathways and environments, and it also relies heavily on high-quality muscle contractions. The troponin complex, composed of troponin T (TnT), troponin C (TnC) and troponin I (TnI), plays a vital role in the regulation of muscle contraction. In this study, the cDNA of EcTnT, EcTnC and EcTnI of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda were cloned and characterized. The full length cDNA of EcTnT, EcTnC and EcTnI were 1 373 bp, 692 bp, and 1 475 bp, encoding a protein of 385, 150 and 193 amino acid residues, respectively...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Jasmine Mikovic, Kate Sadler, Lauren Butchart, Sarah Voisin, Frederico Gerlinger-Romero, Paul Della Gatta, Miranda D Grounds, Séverine Lamon
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) undergo high levels of regulation in skeletal muscle development and control skeletal muscle mass, function and metabolism over the lifespan. More recently, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in skeletal muscle regulation has started to emerge. Following up on our recent study describing the expression pattern and putative roles of 768 miRNAs in the quadriceps muscle of mice at early life stages, we used a high-throughput miRNA qPCR-based array to assess the expression of the same miRNAs in 28-month old male mouse quadriceps muscle...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Claudia Hinze, Emmanuel Boucrot
Endocytosis mediates nutrient uptake, receptor internalization and the regulation of cell signaling. It is also hijacked by many bacteria, viruses and toxins to mediate their cellular entry. Several endocytic routes exist in parallel, fulfilling different functions. Most studies on endocytosis have used transformed cells in culture. However, as the majority of cells in an adult body have exited the cell cycle, our understanding is biased towards proliferating cells. Here, we review the evidence for the different pathways of endocytosis not only in dividing, but also in quiescent, senescent and terminally differentiated cells...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Steven A Niederer, Kenneth S Campbell, Stuart G Campbell
Cardiac mechanics plays a crucial role in atrial and ventricular function, in the regulation of growth and remodelling, in the progression of disease, and the response to treatment. The spatial scale of the critical mechanisms ranges from nm (molecules) to cm (hearts) with the fastest events occurring in milliseconds (molecular events) and the slowest requiring months (growth and remodelling). Due to its complexity and importance, cardiac mechanics has been studied extensively both experimentally and through mathematical models and simulation...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Junting Liu, Yinkun Yan, Bo Xi, Guimin Huang, Jie Mi
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle as an essential body composition component plays an important role in maintenance of normal growth and development as well as systemic glucose metabolism in children. No nationwide reference data for skeletal muscle mass for Chinese youths are available in China. We aimed to establish the sex-specific and age-specific percentile reference values of skeletal muscle mass for Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: This study consisted of 10 818 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years in Chinese urban area during 2013-15...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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