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(Skeletal muscle) AND (hypertrophy or growth)

Josephine S Jakubowski, Edwin P T Wong, Everson A Nunes, Kenneth S Noguchi, Joshua K Vandeweerd, Kevin T Murphy, Robert W Morton, Chris McGlory, Stuart M Phillips
Ingestion of proteins with high leucine content during resistance training (RT) can augment hypertrophy. Some data suggest that a leucine metabolite, β-hydroxy, β-methylbutyrate (HMB), is substantially more anabolically efficacious than leucine. PURPOSE: We aimed to test whether supplementation with HMB versus leucine, added to whey protein, would result in differential muscle hypertrophy and strength gains in young men performing resistance training. METHODS: Twenty-six resistance-trained men (23 ± 2 y) performed 12 wk of RT with 3 phases...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Keito Fujimura, Junpei Norisada, Yoko Hirata
We have previously identified a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible protein, namely, cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (CRELD2), which is predominantly regulated by ATF6. However, few studies on intrinsic CRELD2 have been published. In the present study, we elucidated the expression of intrinsic CRELD2 in mouse tissues and ER stress- treated Neuro2a cells. Among nine tissues we tested, CRELD2 protein in the heart and skeletal muscles was negligible. CRELD2 expression in Neuro2a cells was induced at the late phase after treatment with tunicamycin (Tm) compared with rapid induction of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene 153 (GADD153)...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dallan McMahon, Ethan Mah, Kullervo Hynynen
Focused ultrasound (FUS) and circulating microbubbles can induce a targeted and transient increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. While preclinical research has demonstrated the utility of FUS for efficacious drug deliver to the brain, there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding the long-term response of brain vasculature to this intervention. Previous work has demonstrated transcriptional changes in hippocampal microvessels following sonication that are indicative of the initiation of angiogenic processes...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emily S Riddle, Erica L Bender, Anna E Thalacker-Mercer
Activation of satellite cells and expansion of the muscle progenitor cell (MPC) population is essential to generate a sufficient number of cells to repair damaged skeletal muscle. Proliferating MPCs have high energetic and biosynthetic material requirements, and the ability to utilize oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and/or glycolysis may affect expansion capacity of MPCs. In the present study, we investigated whether donor age and sex impact human MPC (hMPCs) expansion capacity and metabolic fuel preference...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Cetewayo S Rashid, Amita Bansal, Rebecca A Simmons
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to reduced birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress are commonly found in key tissues (pancreatic islets, liver, and skeletal muscle) of IUGR individuals. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in IUGR-associated diabetes etiology.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
Iddrisu B Yabasin, Jaceline G P Sanches, Mohammed M Ibrahim, Jin Huidan, Walana Williams, Zhi-Li Lu, Qingping Wen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be the third and fourth, most diagnosed and cause of cancer associated deaths respectively. In 2012 for instance, about 1.4 million new cases were reported, and approximately 700,000 deaths recorded. Survival from CRC is dependent on the stage at which it is diagnosed coupled with appropriate surgical and medical intervention. Cisatracurium is widely used for skeletal muscle relaxation during abdominal surgeries, including bowel and colon surgeries. Recent studies reported that cisatracurium inhibits progression of human cancer cells, however, the mechanisms leading to the inhibition are yet to be completely understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
K Ropka-Molik, M Stefaniuk-Szmukier, K Piórkowska, T Szmatoła, M Bugno-Poniewierska
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis plays an important role in the regulation of healthy tissue growth and development as well as in controlling the maintenance of homeostasis in exercising muscles. During an intensive physical effort, the regulation of cell death by apoptosis results in the replacement of unaccustomed muscle cells by new cells that are better suited to exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of two genes (SH3FR1 and SH3RF2) that control apoptosis in muscle tissues during training periods characterized by different intensities...
August 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Johannes W Von den Hoff, Paola L Carvajal Monroy, Edwin M Ongkosuwito, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Willeke F Daamen
The healing of skeletal muscle injuries after major trauma or surgical reconstruction is often complicated by the development of fibrosis leading to impaired function. Research in the field of muscle regeneration is mainly focused on the restoration of muscle mass while far less attention is paid to the prevention of fibrosis. In this review, we take as an example the reconstruction of the muscles in the soft palate of cleft palate patients. After surgical closure of the soft palate, muscle function during speech is often impaired by a shortage of muscle tissue as well as the development of fibrosis...
August 11, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Maria J Valamatos, Joana Reis, Francisco Tavares, Ana Batista, Christophe Domingos, Francisco Alves, Luís B Sardinha, Stuart M Phillips
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yoshiro Onoue, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Shinsuke Hanatani, Toshifumi Ishida, Yuichiro Arima, Satoru Yamamura, Yuichi Kimura, Satoshi Araki, Masanobu Ishii, Taishi Nakamura, Yu Oimatsu, Kenji Sakamoto, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Sunao Kojima, Koichi Kaikita, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise has beneficial effects for patients with peripheral arterial diseases. The hypothesis that muscle growth promotes angiogenesis by interacting with neighboring cells in ischemic lesions was assessed.Methods and Results:Skeletal muscle-specific inducible Akt1 transgenic (Akt1-TG) mice that induce growth of functional skeletal muscles as a model of resistance training were used. Proteomics analysis identified significant upregulation of heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) in muscle tissue in Akt1-TG mice compared with control mice...
August 10, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
D Joe Millward, Ken Smith
The nutritional regulation of protein and amino acid balance in human skeletal muscle carried out by the authors with Mike Rennie is reviewed in the context of a simple physiological model for the regulation of the maintenance and growth of skeletal muscle, the "Bag Theory." Beginning in London in the late 1970s the work has involved the use of stable isotopes to probe muscle protein synthesis and breakdown with two basic experimental models, primed-dose continuous tracer infusions combined with muscle biopsies and arterio-venous (A-V) studies across a limb, most often the leg, allowing both protein synthesis and breakdown as well as net balance to be measured...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Vida Naderi-Boldaji, Siyavash Joukar, Ali Noorafshan, Alireza Raji-Amirhasani, Samaneh Naderi-Boldaji, Mohammad-Abbas Bejeshk
AIMS: Low-intensity aerobic training along with limbs blood flow restriction can improve mass and strength of skeletal muscle, but its effects on aging heart structure and performance is unidentified. We investigated the effects of this model of training on myocardial function, histology and angiogenesis in old male rats. MAIN METHODS: Animals randomly were divided into control (Ctl), sham-operated (Sh), limbs blood flow restriction (BFR), sham-operated plus 10 weeks low intensity treadmill exercise (Sh + Ex), and BFR plus exercise (BFR + Ex) groups...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Qiming Shen, Haoyou Wang, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of p53-mediated apoptosis is the key to tumorigenesis, so most gene therapy programs concentrate on improving the expressing level of wild-type p53 in tumour cells. However, the p53 gene therapy has not yielded satisfactory results in tumours with normal p53 function. A new member of p53 gene family-p63, has provided new hopes. TAp63γ (p51A) resembles p53 the most, thus it might become a new promising therapeutic gene of tumours. METHODS: We designed the primer pairs of p51A and amplified the p51A cDNA sequence from human skeletal muscle poly A + RNA to construct recombinant plasmid...
August 10, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Masatsugu Ohara, Koji Ogawa, Goki Suda, Megumi Kimura, Osamu Maehara, Tomoe Shimazaki, Kazuharu Suzuki, Akihisa Nakamura, Machiko Umemura, Takaaki Izumi, Naoki Kawagishi, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Kenichi Morikawa, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Naoya Sakamoto
Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a major cause of secondary sarcopenia. Sarcopenia makes the prognosis worse; thus, novel therapeutic options for sarcopenia in patients with LC are urgently required as they are currently limited. In this retrospective study, 158 patients with LC were screened, and 35 of those patients who were treated with L-carnitine for more than 6 months and for whom skeletal muscle mass changes could be evaluated by computer tomography were enrolled. Of the 158 patients, 79 patients who did not receive L-carnitine supplementation served as controls...
August 2018: Hepatology communications
Mohammad Arif Hossain, Takashi Miyajima, Keiko Akiyama, Yoshikatsu Eto
BACKGROUND: Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing enzyme acid α-glucosidase. The adult-onset form, late-onset Pompe disease, has been characterized by glycogen accumulation, primarily in skeletal and smooth muscles, causing weakness of the proximal limb girdle and respiratory compromises. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with acute cerebral stroke at the age of 57 years...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Mette Flindt Heisterberg, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Peter Schjerling, Alberte Lund, Simone Dalskov, Anders Overgård Jønsson, Nichlas Warming, Mathilde Fogelstrøm, Michael Kjaer, Abigail Louise Mackey
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of blocking the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) on the hypertrophy response of elderly human skeletal muscle to four months of heavy resistance exercise training. METHODS: 58 healthy elderly men (+65 years) were randomized into three groups, consuming either AT1R blocker (losartan, 100mg/day) or placebo for 4 months. Two groups performed resistance training (RT) and were treated with either losartan or placebo and one group did not train but was treated with losartan...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Natalia Ziemkiewicz, Muhamed Talovic, Josh Madsen, Lindsay Hill, Robert Scheidt, Anjali Patel, Gabriel Haas, Madison Marcinczyk, Silviya Zustiak, Koyal Garg
Skeletal muscle has a remarkable regenerative capability following mild physical or chemical insult. However, following a critical loss of muscle tissue, the regeneration process is impaired due to the inadequate myogenic activity of muscle resident stem cells (i.e., satellite cells). Laminin (LM) is a heterotrimeric structural protein in the satellite cell niche that is crucial for maintaining its function. In this study, we created hydrogels composed of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and LM-111 to provide an elastic substrate for satellite cell proliferation at the site of injury...
August 9, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Yong-Zeng Chen, Fan Wang, Hai-Jun Wang, Hong-Bin Liu
Objective: To investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in cardiomyocyte autophagy, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac function. Methods: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal Vista rats. Autophagy and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes were induced via starvation culture and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and S1P was used to treat the cardiomyocytes. The effect of S1P on cardiomyocyte autophagy was evaluated by the number of autophagosomes, the expression of autophagy-related proteins and autophagic marker genes in cardiomyocytes...
May 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Jiao Jiao Zhang, Xian Zhong Wang, Taeho Kwon, Do Luong Huynh, Nisansala Chandimali, Nameun Kim, Tae Yoon Kang, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Meeta Gera, Sang Baek Lee, Sung Jin Lee, Wang Shik Lee, Seong Bong Kim, Young Sun Mok, Dong Kee Jeong
As an innovative technology in biological applications-non-thermal plasma technique-has recently been applied to living cells and tissues. However, it is unclear whether non-thermal plasma treatment can directly regulate the growth and development of livestock. In this study, we exposed four-day-incubated fertilized eggs to plasma at 11.7 kV for 2 min, which was found to be the optimal condition in respect of highest growth rate in chickens. Interestingly, plasma-treated male chickens conspicuously grew faster than females...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chen Rui, Ting Jiang, Si Lei, Yanling She, Huacai Shi, Shanyao Zhou, Jun Ou, Yulin Liu
The importance of circular RNAs (circRNAs) as regulators of muscle development and muscle-associated disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. To explore potential regulators of muscle differentiation, we determined the expression profiles of circRNAs of skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes using microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to explore circRNA functions. We also established competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks using bioinformatics methods and predicted the coding potential of differentially expressed circRNAs...
August 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
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