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(Resistance OR strength) AND (exercise OR training)

Henrik Petré, Fredrik Wernstål, C Mikael Mattsson
BACKGROUND: Strength and power development are abilities important for athletic performance in many sports. Generally, resistance training based on gravity is used to improve these qualities. Flywheel training instead utilizes kinetic energy transferred to a flywheel. This allows for eccentric overload and variable resistance throughout the movement. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of flywheel training on multiple strength-related variables affecting athletic performance...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Mark S Nash, James L J Bilzon
Purpose of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks. Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Rebecca L Neiduski, Rhonda K Powell
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. INTRODUCTION: The rehabilitation of patients following flexor tendon injury has progressed from immobilization to true active flexion with the addition of wrist motion over the last 75 years. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This review specifically intended to determine whether there is evidence to support one type of exercise regimen, early passive, place and hold, or true active, as superior for producing safe and maximal range of motion following flexor tendon repair...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Ines Schadock, Barbara G Freitas, Irae L Moreira, Joao A Rincon, Marcio Nunes Correa, Renata Zanella, Evelise Sampaio Silva, Ronaldo Carvalho Araujo, Marcia Rubia D Buchweitz, Elizabete Helbig, Fabricio B Del Vecchio, Augusto Schneider, Carlos Castilho Barros
β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite derived from the amino acid leucine, usually applied for muscle mass increase during physical training, as well as for muscle mass maintenance in debilitating chronic diseases. The hypothesis of the present study is that HMB is a safe supplement for muscle mass gain by strength training. Based on this, the objective was to measure changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis and hepatic metabolism of HMB supplemented mice during strength training...
December 14, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Tingli Xiang, Hongjun Wang
In order to overcome the limitations of traditional road test methods in 5G mobile communication network signal coverage detection, a signal coverage detection algorithm based on distributed sensor network for 5G mobile communication network is proposed. First, the received signal strength of the communication base station is collected and pre-processed by randomly deploying distributed sensor nodes. Then, the neural network objective function is modified by using the variogram function, and the initial weight coefficient of the neural network is optimized by using the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm...
December 11, 2018: Sensors
Takudzwa A Madzima, Jonas R Black, Jared T Melanson, Svetlana Nepocatych, Eric E Hall
To determine changes in appetite, affect and cortisol in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) the morning after consuming whey (WP) and casein (CP) protein and a non-caloric placebo (PLA) consumed pre-sleep, 14 active men (n = 5) and women (n = 9) consumed a single dose of 24 g WP, 48 g WP, 24 g CP, 48 g CP, or PLA 30 min pre-sleep. Prior to and immediately after RE, appetite, affect and cortisol were assessed. Significant time effects were observed for Energetic Arousal and Tense Arousal ( p = 0...
December 11, 2018: Sports
Matheus Barbalho, Paulo Gentil, Rodolfo Raiol, Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Victor Silveira Coswig
BACKGROUND: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflicting results regarding its reproducibility in elderly populations. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility of the test both before and after a 12-week training period by using the bench press and leg press 45° 1-RM tests in the elderly, taking into consideration the training experience and strength level of the women. METHODS: Elderly women (n = 376; age, 68...
December 11, 2018: Sports
Andrew T Askow, Jason D Stone, Daniel J Arndts, Adam C King, Shiho Goto, Joseph P Hannon, J Craig Garrison, James M Bothwell, Phil E Esposito, Andrew R Jagim, Margaret T Jones, Will Jennings, Jonathan M Oliver
Given the relationship between explosive-type training and power adaptation, tracking movement velocity has become popular. However, unlike previous variables, tracking velocity necessitates the use of a valid and reliable tool to monitor adaptation over time. Therefore, the primary purpose of this research was to assess the validity and reliability of a commercially-available linear position transducer (LPT). Nine resistance-trained men completed four sessions consisting of a single set of barbell back squat to volitional failure at 75% or 90% one-repetition maximum...
December 10, 2018: Sports
Vinicius Guzzoni, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araújo, Rita de Cássia Marqueti
Exercise training (ET), anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), and aging are potential factors that affect tendon homeostasis, particularly extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The goal of this review is to aggregate findings regarding the effects of resistance training (RT), AAS, and aging on tendon homeostasis. Data were gathered from our studies regarding the impact of RT, AAS, and aging on the calcaneal tendon (CT) of rats. We demonstrated a series of detrimental effects of AAS and aging on functional and biomechanical parameters, including the volume density of blood vessel cells, adipose tissue cells, tendon calcification, collagen content, the regulation of the major proteins related to the metabolic/development processes of tendons, and ECM remodeling...
December 7, 2018: Cells
Shih-Wei Huang, Yi-Ju Hsu, Mon-Chien Lee, Hua-Shuai Li, Paul Chee Wei Yeo, Ai Lin Lim, Chi-Chang Huang
Essence of chicken is a popular Asian nutritional supplement that is often taken to improve metabolism and general health. Although used as a traditional remedy for combating fatigue and general health, there has been few studies investigating the ergogenic properties of chicken essence and its associated mechanism. We conducted a study to investigate the anti-fatigue and anti-oxidant properties of essence of chicken (EC) after exercise. Six weeks old male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were divided to four groups (10 mice/group) and were provided different doses of Essence of Chicken (EC): (1) Vehicle (water), (2) EC-0...
December 7, 2018: Nutrients
Vanessa Oschwald, Aram Prokop, Jonas Boehme, Nadja Gressler, Felicitas Harscheidt, Volker Maas, Wilhelm Bloch, Freerk T Baumann, Julia Daeggelmann
BACKGROUND: With improved survival rates in pediatric oncology, the detection of adverse side- and late-effects is gaining increased interest. This cross-sectional study investigated walking abilities and ankle dorsiflexion function in children with cancer. PATIENTS: Study participants included 16 children with various cancers (4-20 years, patient group) after completion of the intense treatment and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy peers (comparison group). METHOD: Walking speed (10-meter-walking-test, treadmill test assessing preferred transition speed), walking capacity (2-minute-walk-test), walking balance (Timed-Up-And-Go-Test), active/passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) (goniometer) and ankle dorsiflexion strength (hand-held dynamometer) were comprehensively assessed...
December 13, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
Elizabeth A Ashley, Nandini Shetty, Jean Patel, Rogier van Doorn, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas A Feasey, Iruka N Okeke, Sharon J Peacock
One of the most pressing challenges facing the global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the generation, sharing, systematic analysis and dissemination of data in low-resource settings. Numerous agencies and initiatives are working to support the development of globally distributed microbiology capacity, but the routine generation of a sustainable flow of reliable data will take time to establish before it can deliver a clinical and public health impact. By contrast, there are a large number of pharma- and academia-led initiatives that have generated a wealth of data on AMR and drug-resistant infections in low-resource settings, together with high-volume data generation by private laboratories...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mary T Imboden, Matthew P Harber, Mitchell H Whaley, W Holmes Finch, Derron L Bishop, Bradley S Fleenor, Leonard A Kaminsky
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality risk has typically been assessed using a single measurement, though some evidence suggests the change in CRF over time influences risk. This evidence is predominantly based on studies using estimated CRF (CRFe ). The strength of this relationship using change in directly measured CRF over time in apparently healthy men and women is not well understood. PURPOSE: To examine the association of change in CRF over time, measured using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), with all-cause and disease-specific mortality and to compare baseline and subsequent CRF measurements as predictors of all-cause mortality...
December 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Antonello D'Andrea, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Rajan Saggar, Rajeev Saggar, Simona Sperlongano, Marianna Conte, Michele D'Alto, Francesco Ferrara, Luna Gargani, Patrizio Lancellotti, Eduardo Bossone
BACKGROUND: The most important determinant of long term survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients is the adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to the increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Our aim was to explore RV contractile reserve during stress echocardiography (SE) in early stage IPF. METHODS: 50 early stage IPF patients and 50 healthy controls underwent rest and SE, including RV 2-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (2DSTE). At peak exertion blood gas analysis and spirometry were also assessed...
December 10, 2018: Chest
Anson B Rosenfeldt, Susan M Linder, Sara Davidson, Cynthia Clark, Nicole M Zimmerman, John J Lee, Jay L Alberts
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to determine the effects of lower extremity aerobic exercise coupled with upper extremity repetitive task practice (RTP) on health related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptomology in individuals with chronic stroke. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from two randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals (N=40) with chronic stroke...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Thomas Bjørnsen, Mathias Wernbom, Amund Tjellaug Løvstad, Gøran Paulsen, Randall F D'Souza, David Cameron-Smith, Alexander Flesche, Jonny Hisdal, Sveinung Berntsen, Truls Raastad
PURPOSE: To investigate muscle hypertrophy, strength, myonuclear and satellite cell (SC) responses to high-frequency blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE). METHODS: Thirteen individuals (24±2 years [mean ± SD], 9 males) completed two 5-day-blocks of 7 BFRRE sessions, separated by a 10-day rest period. Four sets of unilateral knee extensions to voluntary failure at 20% of 1RM were conducted with partial blood flow restriction (90-100 mmHg). Muscle samples obtained before-, during, 3- and 10 days after training were analyzed for muscle fiber area (MFA), myonuclei, SC, and mRNA and miRNA expression...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Silvana Roberto, Raffaele Milia, Azzurra Doneddu, Virginia Pinna, Girolamo Palazzolo, Stefano Serra, Andrea Orrù, Seyed Alireza Hosseini Kakhak, Giovanna Ghiani, Gabriele Mulliri, Pasquale Pagliaro, Antonio Crisafulli
Metaboreflex is a reflex triggered during exercise or post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) by metaboreceptor stimulation. Typical features of metaboreflex are increased cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure. Patients suffering from metabolic syndrome display hemodynamic abnormalities, with an exaggerated systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and reduced CO response during PEMI-induced metaboreflex. Whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients have similar hemodynamic abnormalities is unknown. Here we contrast the hemodynamic response to PEMI in 14 patients suffering from DM2 (age 62...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ramonica Scott, Hyung Suk Yang, C Roger James, Steven F Sawyer, Phillip S Sizer
CONTEXT: The abdominal-bracing maneuver, a volitional preemptive abdominal contraction (VPAC) strategy, is commonly used during resisted shoulder exercises. How VPAC affects shoulder-muscle function during resisted shoulder exercise is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of VPAC on selected parascapular and glenohumeral muscles during specific shoulder exercises with or without resistance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical biomechanics research laboratory...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Larissa Kuhn, Heidi Weberruß, Thomas Horstmann
This study investigated the effect of a six-week in-season core stability training (CST) intervention on maximal throwing velocity and core strength parameters. Twenty female handball players (23.4±4.4 years, 168.4±3.5 cm, and 66.9±9.2 kg) were randomized into a CST intervention group (n=10) and a control group (CON, n=10). Throwing velocity, maximal isometric strength (MIS) and endurance strength of the ventral, dorsal and lateral core muscle chains were measured before and after progressive, six-week core stability training in the CST group...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sam Hallberg, Mikael Sansone, Jesper Augustsson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study dynamic hip  external rotation strength in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement surgery (FAI) syndrome who have undergone unilateral arthroscopic treatment and returned to sports. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using an observational group (n = 22) and a matched control group (n = 22). Dynamic external rotation strength of the hip was measured using the Augustsson Strength Test, which has shown high reliability for examining side-to-side differences in hip muscle strength...
December 12, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
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