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(Resistance OR strength) AND (exercise OR training)

Jozo Grgic, Luke C Mcllvenna, Jackson J Fyfe, Filip Sabol, David J Bishop, Brad J Schoenfeld, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are inconsistencies in the body of evidence for the effects of resistance and aerobic training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze current evidence on the differences in hypertrophic adaptation to aerobic and resistance training, and to discuss potential reasons for the disparities noted in the literature. METHODS: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed for this review...
October 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Baubak Shamim, Brooke L Devlin, Ryan G Timmins, Paul Tofari, Connor Lee Dow, Vernon G Coffey, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
BACKGROUND: We implemented a high-protein diet (2 g·kg-1 ·d-1 ) throughout 12 weeks of concurrent exercise training to determine whether interferences to adaptation in muscle hypertrophy, strength and power could be attenuated compared to resistance training alone. METHODS: Thirty-two recreationally active males (age: 25 ± 5 years, body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg·m-2 ; mean ± SD) performed 12 weeks of either isolated resistance (RES; n = 10) or endurance (END; n = 10) training (three sessions·w-1 ), or concurrent resistance and endurance (CET; n = 12) training (six sessions·w-1 )...
October 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
T Gagné, A Y Omorou, J Kivits, F Alla, L Minary
BACKGROUND: Targeted interventions among vulnerable youth populations represent an important approach to the reduction of health inequalities. We must, however, ensure that impacts are not unequally distributed according to the range of resources available to them. We explore these concerns among youth in vocational training to be enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention by describing (1) their socio-economic profile and (2) the association between their socioeconomic characteristics, their smoking practices, and key factors that could be targeted in interventions...
October 16, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Liselotte De Wit, Deirdre O'Shea, Melanie Chandler, Tripti Bhaskar, Jared Tanner, Prashanthi Vemuri, Julia Crook, Miranda Morris, Glenn Smith
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is considered a risk state for the development of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. It is also a period in which interventions may be most effective in slowing progression to dementia. Computerized cognitive training and increased physical activity have shown to be among the most promising interventions. However, current evidence from randomized controlled trials comparing cognitive training, physical activity, and an active control is inconsistent...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Wilbroad Mutale, Susan Cleary, Jill Olivier, Roma Chilengi, Lucy Gilson
BACKGROUND: Under the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's African Health Initiative, five Population Health Implementation and Training partnerships were established as long-term health system strengthening projects in five Sub-Saharan Countries. In Zambia, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia began to implement the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship and Assessments (BHOMA) in 2009. This was a combined community and health systems project involving 42 public facilities and their catchment populations...
October 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Kerry S Courneya, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Nathalie Sami, Kyuwan Lee, Frank C Sweeney, Christina Stewart, Thomas A Buchanan, Darcy Spicer, Debu Tripathy, Leslie Bernstein, Joanne E Mortimer
BACKGROUND: Exercise is an effective strategy to improve quality of life and physical fitness in breast cancer survivors; however, few studies have focused on the early survivorship period, minorities, physically inactive and obese women, or tested a combined exercise program and measured bone health. Here, we report the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on patient-reported outcomes, physical fitness, and bone health in ethnically diverse, physically inactive, overweight or obese breast cancer survivors...
October 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Michael Nadson Santana, Diego Santos Souza, Rodrigo Miguel-Dos-Santos, Thallita Kelly Rabelo, Carla Maria Lins de Vasconcelos, Juliana Maria Navia-Pelaez, Itamar Couto Guedes de Jesus, Júlio Alves da Silva Neto, Sandra Lauton-Santos, Luciano Dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Silvia Guatimosim, Russell G Rogers, Márcio Roberto Viana Dos Santos, Valter Joviniano Santana-Filho, Thássio Ricardo Ribeiro Mesquita
BACKGROUND: Currently viewed as a complementary non-pharmacological intervention for preventing cardiac disorders, long-term aerobic training produces cardioprotection through remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) mechanisms. However, RIPC triggered by acute exercise remains poorly understood. Although resistance exercise (RE) has been highly recommended by several public health guidelines, there is no evidence showing that RE mediates RIPC. Hence, we investigated whether RE induces cardiac RIPC through nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanism...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Molly M Schumacher, Paula McNiel
OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical significance of pre- and post-exercise rehabilitation physical and psychosocial outcomes of the Livestrong® at the YMCA program. SAMPLE & SETTING: 158 participants at the YMCA of the Fox Cities in Appleton, Wisconsin, were analyzed for pre- and postparticipation physical outcomes, 68 participants were analyzed for pre- and postparticipation psychosocial outcomes, and 11 participants were interviewed about their experiences...
November 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Takuro Washio, Jennifer R Vranish, Jasdeep Kaur, Benjamin E Young, Keisho Katayama, Paul J Fadel, Shigehiko Ogoh
The mechanism(s) for the increased occurrence of a grayout or blackout, syncope, immediately after heavy resistance exercise are unclear. It is well-known that orthostatic stress increases the occurrence of postexercise syncope. In addition, previous findings have suggested that hypo-perfusion, especially in the posterior cerebral circulation rather than anterior cerebral circulation, may be associated with the occurrence of syncope. Herein, we hypothesized that the postexercise decrease in posterior, but not anterior, cerebral blood flow (CBF) would be greater during orthostatic stress...
October 2018: Physiological Reports
A Cremona, C O'Gorman, A Cotter, J Saunders, A Donnelly
Background/aim: Exercise can be used as a strategy to attenuate hyperglycaemia experienced during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To maximize its use for clinical management, the most effective modality should be identified. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the most effective modality of exercise on insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control in pregnant women with or at risk of GDM. Methods: A search was undertaken in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase and the Maternity & Infant Healthcare Database...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Nicolas W Clark, Dale R Wagner, Edward M Heath
The purpose of this study was to compare power outputs of the flying start to the stationary start method on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Twenty advanced resistance-trained men (age 24.6 ± 4.5 years; 25.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2 ) volunteered to participate in this study. A counter-balanced, repeated-measures design was utilized to randomly assign participants to either the flying start or the stationary start for their first Wingate test. Paired t tests were used to evaluate mean differences between start methods...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Collin J Popp, Michelle M Bohan Brown, William C Bridges, Elliot D Jesch
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of recommending a MyPlate or a Paleolithic-based diet, both with and without exercise, on aerobic fitness, strength, and anaerobic power over eight weeks. Participants (n=20) were randomized to one of four groups, (1) a MyPlate diet (MP), (2) Paleolithic-based diet (PD), (3) MyPlate and exercise (MP + Ex), and (4) Paleolithic-based diet and exercise (PD + Ex). The exercise included two days of unsupervised aerobic and resistance exercise. At baseline and final, absolute and relative peak oxygen consumption (absVO2peak and relVO2peak ), anaerobic power, and upper and lower body strength were determined...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Margie H Davenport, Ashley P McCurdy, Michelle F Mottola, Rachel J Skow, Victoria L Meah, Veronica J Poitras, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Casey E Gray, Nick Barrowman, Laurel Riske, Frances Sobierajski, Marina James, Taniya Nagpal, Andree-Anne Marchand, Megan Nuspl, Linda G Slater, Ruben Barakat, Kristi B Adamo, Gregory A Davies, Stephanie-May Ruchat
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of prenatal exercise on depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. DESIGN: Systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of all designs were included (except case studies) if they were published in English, Spanish or French and contained information on the Population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), Intervention (subjective or objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise), Comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume and type of exercise) and Outcome (prenatal or postnatal depression or anxiety)...
November 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Margie H Davenport, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Veronica J Poitras, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Casey E Gray, Nick Barrowman, Rachel J Skow, Victoria L Meah, Laurel Riske, Frances Sobierajski, Marina James, Amariah J Kathol, Megan Nuspl, Andree-Anne Marchand, Taniya S Nagpal, Linda G Slater, Ashley Weeks, Kristi B Adamo, Gregory A Davies, Ruben Barakat, Michelle F Mottola
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with short and long-term health issues for mother and child; prevention of these complications is critically important. This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationships between prenatal exercise and GDM, GH and PE. DESIGN: Systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017...
November 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Byron N Van Nest, Matthew W Otto, Darrell Moore
Honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) foragers can remember both the location and time of day food is collected and, even in the absence of a reward, reconnoiter the food source at the appropriate time on subsequent days. This spatiotemporal memory (time-memory) is linked to the circadian clock and enables foragers to synchronize their behavior with floral nectar secretion rhythms, thus eliminating the need to rediscover productive food sources each day. Here, we asked if the establishment of one time-memory influences the formation of another time-memory at the same time of day...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Rachel J Skow, Margie H Davenport, Michelle F Mottola, Gregory A Davies, Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Nick Barrowman, Victoria L Meah, Linda G Slater, Kristi B Adamo, Ruben Barakat, Stephanie-May Ruchat
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the influence of acute and chronic prenatal exercise on fetal heart rate (FHR) and umbilical and uterine blood flow metrics. DESIGN: Systematic review with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of all designs were included (except case studies) if published in English, Spanish or French, and contained information on the population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), intervention (subjective or objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise, alone ["exercise-only"] or in combination with other intervention components [eg, dietary; "exercise + co-intervention"]), comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume and type of exercise) and outcomes (FHR, beats per minute (bpm); uterine and umbilical blood flow metrics (systolic:diastolic (S/D) ratio; Pulsatility Index (PI); Resistance Index (RI); blood flow, mL/min; and blood velocity, cm/s))...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Mariona Pons-Vigués, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Anna Berenguera, Concepción Violán, Vinita Mahtani-Chugani
OBJECTIVE: Explore the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) for development of public involvement in research by Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol (IDIAPJGol) according to primary health care researchers in Catalonia (Spain). METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2017 with 36 primary health care research teams accredited by IDIAPJGol and its management staff. An open questionnaire (paper and online) was designed and piloted to develop a SWOT technique, and 65 answers were obtained (14 in paper and 51 online)...
October 15, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
Katarzyna E Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar, Jolanta Patro-Małysza, Agnieszka Stenzel-Bembenek, Jan Oleszczuk, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complex condition that involves a variety of pathological mechanisms, including pancreatic β-cell failure, insulin resistance, and inflammation. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that these interrelated phenomena may arise from the common mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Both obesity-associated nutrient excess and hyperglycemia disturb ER function in protein folding and transport. This results in the accumulation of polypeptides in the ER lumen and impairs insulin secretion and signaling...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Siobhan Robinson, Christa C Christ, Margaret M Cahill, Sara J Aldrich, Elisa Taylor-Yeremeeva
Many people will experience at least one traumatic event in their lifetime, with up to 20% developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or PTSD-like symptoms. In addition, the likelihood that females will develop PTSD after trauma is more than twice that of males. Despite its prevalence, current treatment strategies for trauma victims are limited and substantial portions of affected individuals remain resistant to treatment suggesting that additional interventions are necessary. Using an animal model of traumatic stress, the present studies tested the hypothesis that either voluntary exercise and/or administration of the adrenergic beta-receptor antagonist propranolol, would ameliorate stress-related maladaptive behaviors...
October 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Wissem Dhahbi, Maha Sellami, Anis Chaouachi, Johnny Padulo, Mirjana Milic, Imed Mekki, Karim Chamari
The purpose of the present investigation was to follow-up the effect of specific commandos' training-cycles (SCTCs) on upper-body strength resistance and running endurance performance, as well as determine whether variation in seasonal parameters has any effect on physical performance. Fourteen SCTCs were held over eight years, involving 466 participants. Participants were assigned to four subgroups according to their distribution over the seasons: summer (n = 124), autumn (n = 145), winter (n = 52) and spring (n = 145)...
2018: PloS One
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