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(Muscle protein breakdown) OR (Muscle protein degradation) OR (Muscle Atrophy)

Zhihao Qi, Zhen Huang, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of neuronal function by continuously providing energy. Here, we will give a detailed review about the recent developments in regards to dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) induced unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, excessive mitochondrial division, and neuronal injury in neural system dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases, including the Drp1 knockout induced mice embryonic death, the dysfunction of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial division induced neuronal cell apoptosis and impaired neuronal axonal transportation, the abnormal interaction between Drp1 and amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington's disease (HD), and the Drp1-associated pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Arijit Nath, Máté András Molnár, Attila Csighy, Kornélia Kőszegi, Ildikó Galambos, Klára Pásztorné Huszár, András Koris, Gyula Vatai
Lactose-based prebiotics are synthesized by enzymatic- or microbial- biotransformation of lactose and have unique functional values. In this comprehensive review article, the biochemical mechanisms of controlling osteoporosis, blood-lipid, and glucose levels by lactose-based prebiotics and symbiosis with probiotics are reported along with the results of clinical investigations. Interaction between lactose-based prebiotics and probiotics reduces osteoporosis by (a) transforming insoluble inorganic salts to soluble and increasing their absorption to gut wall; (b) maintaining and protecting mineral absorption surface in the intestine; (c) increasing the expression of calcium-binding proteins in the gut wall; (d) remodeling osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation; (e) releasing bone modulating factors; and (f) degrading mineral complexing phytic acid...
December 3, 2018: Medicina
Michael H Gerber, Patrick W Underwood, Sarah M Judge, Daniel Delitto, Andrea E Delitto, Rachel L Nosacka, Bayli B DiVita, Ryan M Thomas, Jennifer B Permuth, Steven J Hughes, Shannon M Wallet, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition seen frequently in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The underlying mechanisms driving cancer cachexia are not fully understood but are related, at least in part, to the immune response to the tumor both locally and systemically. We hypothesize that there are unique differences in cytokine levels in the tumor microenvironment and systemic circulation between PDAC tumors and that these varying profiles affect the degree of cancer cachexia observed...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yutao Liu, Yuan Gao, Jing Yang, Changhe Shi, Yanlin Wang, Yuming Xu
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by muscle disorders. We conducted this study to detect whether NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway inhibit inflammatory infiltration by macrophage in experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) rat model. METHODS: CD163 levels were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while serum creatine kinase (CK), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA), both in IIM patients and EAM rat...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Immunology
M Quintana, J Shrader, C Slota, G Joe, J C McKew, M Fitzgerald, W A Gahl, S Berry, N Carrillo
One Sentence Summary: A Bayesian repeated measures model based on quantitative muscle strength data from a prospective Natural History Study was developed to determine disease progression and design clinical trials for GNE myopathy, a rare and slowly progressive muscle disease. GNE myopathy is a rare muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. To address the significant challenges of defining the natural history and designing clinical trials for GNE myopathy, we developed a Bayesian latent variable repeated measures model to determine disease progression...
December 3, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Milad S Bitar, Joelle Nader, Waleed Al-Ali, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Hossein Arefanian, Fahd Al-Mulla
Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass and functionality, constitutes a major contributor to disability in diabetes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) dynamics and muscle mass regulatory signaling were studied in GK rats, a model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). GK rats exhibited a number of features that are consistent with sarcopenia and T2D including loss of muscle mass and strength, in addition to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired β -cell responsiveness to glucose. Mechanistically, activation levels of Akt, a key modulator of protein balance, were decreased in T2D...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Claudia Testa, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Stefania Evangelisti, Giulia Giannini, Federica Provini, Stefano Ratti, Annagrazia Cecere, Lia Talozzi, David Neil Manners, Raffaele Lodi, Caterina Tonon, Pietro Cortelli
INTRODUCTION: The neuroanatomical substrate of stridor associated with Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) remains unclear. We evaluated stridor-related gray matter (GM) changes in MSA. METHODS: 36 MSA patients underwent standardized nocturnal video-polysomnography and brain MRI. Differences in GM density between MSA patients with and without stridor and a sample of 22 matched healthy controls were evaluated with Voxel Based Morphometry protocol supplemented by a specific tool (SUIT) for analysing infratentorial structures...
November 17, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yutan Liu, Fei Xiao, Xibin Liang
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a genetic muscle disorder in which muscles of the face, shoulder blades and upper arms develop gradual and progressive weakness. There is no effective pharmacological treatment currently available for this disorder so far. We had an opportunity to treat a patient with FSHD using acupuncture. The patient was a 62-year-old female, who presented to us with symptoms as weakness in her eyes, mouth, shoulder, the upper and lower limbs. Muscle atrophy could be found in multiple area in her body including her face, shoulder, arm, chest and lower limbs, etc...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Shiroh Miura, Kengo Kosaka, Takuo Nomura, Shuji Nagata, Tomofumi Shimojo, Takuya Morikawa, Ryuta Fujioka, Masaya Harada, Takayuki Taniwaki, Hiroki Shibata
Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) comprise a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited lower motor neuron syndromes mainly characterized by a distal-predominant pattern of progressive muscle atrophy, weakness and hyporeflexia, without sensory dysfunction. Although at least 21 causative genes for dHMN have been reported, mutational scanning of these genes often fails to identify the causative variants in dHMN cohorts, suggesting that additional causative genes remain to be identified...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Paulo Eugênio Silva, Vinicius Maldaner, Luciana Vieira, Karina Livino de Carvalho, Hedian Gomes, Priscilla Melo, Nicolas Babault, Gerson Cipriano, Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Beth M Cleveland, Lisa M Radler
The functional role of amino acids as regulators of protein degradation was investigated using primary myogenic precursor cell culture as in vitro model of rainbow trout white muscle. Seven-day old myocytes were starved of amino acids for two hours then exposed to media that contained amino acid treatments, during which protein degradation rates were analyzed over five hours by measuring cellular release of 3 H-tyrosine. Increasing concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA) reduced protein degradation rates; this effect was dose-dependent within the physiological range found in plasma...
November 28, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Anand R Saran, Diana Kalinowska, Sangphil Oh, Ralf Janknecht, Luciano DiTacchio
The circadian oscillator is a molecular feedback circuit whose orchestration involves posttranslational control of the activity and protein levels of its components. Although controlled proteolysis of circadian proteins is critical for oscillator function, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we report that JmjC domain-containing protein 5 (JMJD5) interacts with CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1) in an F-box/leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (FBXL3)-dependent manner and facilitates targeting of CRY1 to the proteasome...
November 30, 2018: PLoS Biology
J Hughes, F Clarke, Y Li, P Purslow, R Warner
Beef colour is essential to consumer acceptability with dark muscle colours being problematic. Dark meat has less light scattering but the mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesise that three mechanisms are responsible for decreased light scattering in dark meat, namely (i) larger lateral separation of myofilaments, (ii) decreased optical protein density in the I-band and (iii) decreased denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Nineteen beef longissimus thoracis muscles, divided into 'light', 'medium' and 'dark' colour groups, were assessed for light scattering by reflectance confocal microscopy, sarcomere length, and myofilament lattice spacing by small-angle X-ray diffraction...
November 8, 2018: Meat Science
Yuantong Liu, Jianmin Li, Yue Shang, Yan Guo, Zhenzhong Li
Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is involved in a variety of biological processes in different cell types and disease conditions, including myogenesis. However, the specific function of CARM1 in skeletal muscle wasting under pathologic conditions remains unclear. Here, we identify CARM1 as a novel participant in muscular atrophy. Increases in CARM1 protein levels correlated positively with the loss of muscle mass upon denervation in mice. Notably, the knockdown of CARM1 represses the progression of muscle wasting and the expression of the atrophy-related genes Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in vivo and in vitro...
November 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Maya N Elías, Cindy L Munro, Zhan Liang, Karel Calero, Ming Ji
BACKGROUND: Older adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often experience sleep disturbances, which may stem from life-threatening illness, the ICU environment, medications/sedation, or psychological stress. Two complementary endocrinological responses occur as a result of compromised sleep and consequently could exacerbate ICU-acquired weakness: a decrease in anabolic hormones leading to decreased protein synthesis and an increase in catabolic hormones leading to increased protein degradation...
January 2019: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Bhawana Sharma, Rajesh Dabur
BACKGROUND: Metabolic pathways perturbations lead to skeletal muscular atrophy in the cachexia and sarcopenia due to increased catabolism. Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the catabolic pathways that impair the muscle integrity and function. Hence, this review primarily concentrates on the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines in regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. OBJECTIVE: This review will discuss role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscles during muscle wasting conditions...
November 28, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Shrikant J Chinchalkar, Juliana Larocerie-Salgado, Jeremy Cepek, Marie-Lyne Grenier
Therapeutic management of brachial plexus injuries remains complex. The impact of brachial plexus injuries on everyday human functioning should not be underestimated. Early active-assisted range of motion following such injuries may prevent myostatic contractures, minimize muscle atrophy, facilitate muscle fiber recruitment, and enable a faster return to baseline strength levels. The dynamic assist elbow flexion orthosis proposed is designed to provide patients with a graded system for muscle reeducation and function...
December 2018: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
Chang-Cheng Zhao, Jong-Bang Eun
Ammonia-producing bacteria were isolated and identified from five commercial fermented skates (A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5). In addition, the pH, ammonia nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMAN), and amino nitrogen contents of skate samples were also determined. A total of 88 strains of ammonia-producing bacteria was isolated and seven hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria isolates (A2-2, A2-3, A2-12, A2-18, A2-20, A3-6 and A3-14) were selected based on ammonia nitrogen producing ability...
December 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
T M Mirzoev, B S Shenkman
Disuse atrophy of skeletal muscles is characterized by a significant decrease in the mass and size of muscle fibers. Disuse atrophy develops as a result of prolonged reduction in the muscle functional activity caused by bed rest, limb immobilization, and real or simulated microgravity. Disuse atrophy is associated with the downregulation of protein biosynthesis and simultaneous activation of protein degradation. This review is focused on the key molecular mechanisms regulating the rate of protein synthesis in mammalian skeletal muscles during functional unloading...
November 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Kimberly K Long, Karen M O'Shea, Ramzi J Khairallah, Kelly Howell, Sergey Paushkin, Karen S Chen, Shaun M Cote, Micah T Webster, Joseph P Stains, Erin Treece, Alan Buckler, Adriana Donovan
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by loss of α-motor neurons, leading to profound skeletal muscle atrophy. Patients also suffer from decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. The majority of treatments for SMA, approved or in clinic trials, focus on addressing the underlying cause of disease, insufficient production of full-length SMN protein. While restoration of SMN has resulted in improvements in functional measures, significant deficits remain in both mice and SMA patients following treatment...
November 27, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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