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Functional symptoms

Lindsay D Oliver, John D Haltigan, James M Gold, George Foussias, Pamela DeRosse, Robert W Buchanan, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) often feature social cognitive deficits. However, little work has focused on the factor structure of social cognition, and results have been inconsistent in schizophrenia. This study aimed to elucidate the factor structure of social cognition across people with SSDs and healthy controls. It was hypothesized that a 2-factor model, including lower-level "simulation" and higher-level "mentalizing" factors, would demonstrate the best fit across participants...
August 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Wendy Damman, Rani Liu, Ad A Kaptein, Andrea W M Evers, Henriët van Middendorp, Frits R Rosendaal, Margreet Kloppenburg
Objective: To investigate the association between illness perceptions and disability both cross-sectionally and over 2 years in patients with hand OA. Methods: Illness perceptions and self-reported disability were assessed at baseline and after 2 years in 384 patients with primary hand OA (mean age 61 years, 84% women, n = 312 with follow-up) with the Illness Perception Questionnaire - Revised (IPQ-R), Functional Index for Hand OA, Australian/Canadian Hand OA Index and HAQ...
August 10, 2018: Rheumatology
Sarah E Piper, Phoebe E Bailey, Lawrence T Lam, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVES: Older adults exhibit poorer mental health literacy than younger adults, including less accuracy at identifying symptoms of mental disorders, and endorsing fewer sources of treatment for a mental disorder. The current study's intention was to determine if the executive component of cognition is associated with mental health literacy in older adults, when controlling for other established predictors (sex, age, education, and proximity to someone with a mental disorder). METHOD: The sample included 85 cognitively healthy adults aged 60 and over...
July 26, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Mahtab Roohi-Azizi, Anahita Torkaman-Boutorabi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Depression is associated with significant functional disabilities. Application of new drugs which could enhance the effectiveness of antidepressants drug and reduce side effects of their long-term use seems necessary. Citicoline is used as an effective chemical agent for improving the symptoms of some neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this survey, the application of citicoline as an adjuvant drug was evaluated in mice model of depression. A total of 180 adult NMRI male albino mice were used in this study...
August 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kevin P Jensen, Gerald Valentine, Eugenia Buta, Elise E DeVito, Joel Gelernter, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European American vs African America], sex, body mass index and age); a set of blood-based biomarkers (baseline nicotine, cotinine and cortisol levels and nicotine metabolite ratio); and a set of self-reported measures related to tobacco use...
August 11, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Anne B Arnett, Candace L Rhoads, Kendra Hoekzema, Tychele N Turner, Jennifer Gerdts, Arianne S Wallace, Sandra Bedrosian-Sermone, Evan E Eichler, Raphael A Bernier
Pathogenic disruptions to the activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox (ADNP) gene are among the most common heterozygous genetic mutations associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Individuals with ADNP disruptions share a constellation of medical and psychiatric features, including ASD, intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. However, the profile of ASD symptoms associated with ADNP may differ from that of individuals with another ASD-associated single gene disruption or with ASD without a known genetic cause...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong-Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: Clinical hyper and hypothyroidism are associated with a risk for depression. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical thyroid dysfunction. METHODS: Among the 7,550 subjects who participated in the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1,763 participants without overt thyroid disease were included in this study. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum free thyroxine (fT4), and depressive symptoms were analyzed based on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)...
2018: PloS One
Matthew E Smith, Isabelle L Cochrane, Neil Donnelly, Patrick R Axon, James R Tysome
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a novel patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to distinguish patulous from obstructive Eustachian Tube Dysfunction (ETD). To determine accuracy of PROMs and ET function tests as diagnostic tools for ETD. STUDY DESIGN: 1) PROM development and validation. 2) Test case-control diagnostic accuracy study. INTERVENTIONS: Cambridge ETD Assessment (CETDA) and ETDQ-7 PROMs, sonotubometry and tubomanometry ET function tests...
August 13, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Janina Krell-Roesch, Leah P Cerhan, Mary M Machulda, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, David S Knopman, Jeremy A Syrjanen, Teresa J Christianson, Ronald C Petersen, Yonas E Geda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Takamitsu Shimada, Kazutaka Ohi, Toshiki Yasuyama, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Motor conversion disorders are characterized by movement symptoms without a neurological cause. A psychogenic etiology is presumed for these disorders, but little is known about their underlying neural mechanisms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been utilized to understand the mechanisms associated with unexplained motor symptoms. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the cerebral response to motor stimulation in a patient with conversion disorder with motor paralysis to determine the underlying neural mechanisms of this disorder...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacol Rep
Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Ella L Oar, Evelin Tiralongo, Vinay Garbharran, Clair Alston-Knox, Harry McConnell, Nigel Collings, Melanie Zimmer-Gembeck, Caroline L Donovan, Chris Testa, Eric A Storch, Thomas H Ollendick
BACKGROUND: D-Cycloserine has potential to enhance exposure therapy outcomes. The current study presents a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial of DCS-augmented one-session treatment (OST) for youth (7-14 years) with specific phobia. A secondary aim of this pilot study was to explore the effects of youth age and within-session fear reduction as potential moderators of DCS outcomes in order to generate hypotheses for a larger trial. It was hypothesized that DCS would be associated with greater improvements than placebo, that children (7-10 years) would have greater benefits than adolescents (11-14 years), and that DCS effects would be stronger for participants with the greater within-session fear reduction during the OST...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Aline S Monte-Santo, Silvânia V C Viana, Kelly Maria S Moreira, José Carlos P Imparato, Fausto M Mendes, Gabriela A V C Bonini
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the impact of premature loss of primary molars on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of premature loss of primary molars in schoolchildren and its impact on OHRQoL. DESIGN: We randomly selected 667 children aged 8-9 years enrolled in public and private schools from Aracaju (Brazil). The presence of untreated dental caries and early loss of primary molars were recorded, and its impacts on OHRQoL evaluated using Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 )...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Nan Lian, Hailong Lv, Wenbing Guo, Yidong Shen, Renlong Wu, Yong Liu, Furong Zhu, Maorong Hu, Jianjun Ou, Jingping Zhao
It is very difficult to predict the future development possibility of schizophrenia through the clinical symptoms of the high-risk cases. Therefore, how to determine the possibility of developing into schizophrenia individuals before the onset of the diseases are particularly important. The study investigated cerebral gray matter volume differences and resting-state functional connections among patients with psychosis risk syndrome (PRS), patients with first-episode schizophrenic (FES), and healthy controls (HC), aiming to provide scientific clinical evidence for schizophrenia early identification and intervention...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
S Amoretti, B Cabrera, C Torrent, G Mezquida, A Lobo, A González-Pinto, M Parellada, I Corripio, E Vieta, E de la Serna, A Butjosa, F Contreras, S Sarró, R Penadés, A M Sánchez-Torres, M Cuesta, M Bernardo
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the brain's capacity to cope with pathology in order to minimize the symptoms. CR is associated with different outcomes in severe mental illness. This study aimed to analyze the impact of CR according to the diagnosis of first-episode affective or non-affective psychosis (FEP). METHOD: A total of 247 FEP patients (211 non-affective and 36 affective) and 205 healthy controls were enrolled. To assess CR, common proxies have been integrated (premorbid IQ; education-occupation; leisure activities)...
August 14, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Mays Talib, Mary J van Schooneveld, Caroline Van Cauwenbergh, Jan Wijnholds, Jacoline B Ten Brink, Ralph J Florijn, Nicoline E Schalij-Delfos, Gislin Dagnelie, Maria M van Genderen, Elfride De Baere, Magda A Meester-Smoor, Julie De Zaeytijd, Frans P M Cremers, L Ingeborgh van den Born, Alberta A Thiadens, Carel B Hoyng, Caroline C Klaver, Bart P Leroy, Arthur A Bergen, Camiel J F Boon
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenotype and long-term clinical course of female carriers of RPGR mutations. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 125 heterozygous RPGR mutation carriers from 49 families. Results: Eighty-three heterozygotes were from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) pedigrees, 37 were from cone-/cone-rod dystrophy (COD/CORD) pedigrees, and 5 heterozygotes were from pedigrees with mixed RP/CORD or unknown diagnosis...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Heidi D Nelson, Amy Cantor, Miranda Pappas, Liev Miller
Background: Urinary incontinence is infrequently addressed during routine health care despite its high prevalence and adverse effects on health. Purpose: To evaluate whether screening for urinary incontinence in women not previously diagnosed improves outcomes (symptoms, quality of life, and function) and to evaluate the accuracy of screening methods and potential harms of screening. Data Sources: English-language searches of Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 1996 to 30 March 2018); ClinicalTrials...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Guillaume Lezmi, Maria Leite-de-Moraes
Recent studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of asthma. Distinct patient phenotypes (symptoms, age at onset, atopy, and lung function) may result from different pathogenic mechanisms, including airway inflammation, remodeling, and immune and metabolic pathways in a specific microbial environment. These features, which define the asthma endotype, may have significant consequences for the development and progression of the disease. Asthma is generally associated with Th2 cells, which produce a panel of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) that act in synergy to drive lung inflammatory responses, mucus secretion, IgE production, and fibrosis, causing the characteristic symptoms of asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Koji Ishikuro, Nobuhiro Dougu, Takamasa Nukui, Mamoru Yamamoto, Yuji Nakatsuji, Satoshi Kuroda, Isao Matsushita, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Mariana F P Araujo, Hisao Nishijo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with motor and non-motor symptoms due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The current pharmacological treatments induce complications associated with long-term use. However, current stimulation techniques for PD treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), are too invasive. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a safe and effective alternative treatment for PD. We previously reported that anodal tDCS over the frontal polar area (FPA) improved motor functions in heathy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Blanka Klimova
Currently, there is an increasing number of older population groups, especially in developed countries. This demographic trend, however, may cause serious problems, such as an increase in aging diseases, one of which is dementia whose main symptom consists in the decline of cognitive functioning. Although there has been ongoing pharmacological research on this neurological disorder, it has not brought satisfying results as far as its treatment is concerned. Therefore, governments all over the world are trying to develop alternative, non-pharmacological strategies/activities, which could help to prevent this cognitive decline while this aging population is still healthy in order to reduce future economic and social burden...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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