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Functional symptoms

Ulrich Palm, Jérôme Brunelin, Linda Wulf, Marine Mondino, Andre R Brunoni, Frank Padberg
More than 40 % of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to established treatments despite advances in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. Since a couple of years, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques gain importance in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses weak constant direct current to modulate neuronal activation and changes the function of neuronal networks. This technique is recently investigated for the improvement of treatment resistant OCD symptoms...
December 11, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Tania Reisch, Näder Helmy, Alexander Antoniadis
A ganglion cyst is rarely the cause of peripheral nerve compression. In the lower extremity, it is important to distinguish clinically the symptoms from a radiculopathy. In the literature, neural damage of the peroneal nerve due to a ganglion cyst has been described. An acute, isolated plegia of the foot/toe dorsiflexors with completely unaffected sensory function - as in our case - has not yet been described. After clinical examination and imaging, the ganglion cyst was surgically removed and the nerve decompressed, which was followed by complete recovery of the motoric function...
December 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Marije Swets, Floor A van Dijk, Frederike Schirmbeck, Jaap Peen, Lieuwe de Haan, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Therese van Amelsvoort, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Nico J van Beveren, Richard Bruggeman, Wiepke Cahn, Philippe Delespaul, Jurjen J Luykx, Inez Myin-Germeys, Rene S Kahn, Claudia J P Simons, Neeltje E van Haren, Jim van Os, Ruud van Winkel
Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. The OCSpos/HF cluster had less negative symptoms compared to all other clusters, while the OCSpos/PF cluster showed poorer executive functioning...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Adrienne W Y Li, Christy L M Hui, Edwin H M Lee, W C Chang, Sherry K W Chan, Eric Y H Chen
Studies of gender cognitive differences in schizophrenia have reported mixed results. This study examined cognitive correlates including demographics, symptoms and functioning in men and women in a large sample of first-episode adult-onset psychosis patients. Detailed demographic, clinical and functioning data were collected from 360 first-episode patients upon admission into an early intervention service for psychotic disorders. They were also administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Correlation analyses showed that memory and working memory were more significantly associated with onset age, negative symptoms and side effects in women...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
C Guducu, B O Olcay, L Donner, M Aziz, V A Schriever, M Ozgoren, T Hummel
OBJECTIVE: Methods based on electroencephalography (EEG) are used to evaluate brain responses to odors which is challenging due to the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. This is especially difficult in patients with olfactory loss. In the present study, we aim to establish a method to separate functionally anosmic and normosmic individuals by means of recordings of olfactory event-related potentials (OERP) using an automated tool. Therefore, Shannon entropy was adopted to examine the complexity of the averaged electrophysiological responses...
December 8, 2018: Brain Research
Kate Radford, Ryan C Taylor, Judith G Hall, Bryan Gick
The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors...
December 10, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Jae H Kang, Julie P W Bynum, Lu Zhang, Francine Grodstein, David G Stevenson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Relatively little is known regarding predictors of advance care planning (ACP) in former nurses. We aimed to evaluate potential predictors of ACP documentation and discussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, 2012-2014. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60,917 community-dwelling female nurses aged 66 to 93 years living across the United States. MEASUREMENTS: Based on self-reports, participants were categorized as having (1) only ACP documentation, (2) ACP documentation and a recent ACP discussion with a healthcare provider, or (3) neither...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Zoha Saeedi, Nima Ghorbani, Mahdi R Sarafraz, Tahereh Karami Shoar
Studies have shown that repressors tend to respond to self-report tools in a positive fashion which distorts the findings of studies based on questionnaires. The present study aimed to examine the way repressors respond to "Self-relevant" scales (which assess variables related to adaptive self-function) in comparison to "Health-relevant" scales (which assess physical and psychological health). Iranian university students (N = 271) responded to the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (to differentiate between repressors and self-assured individuals), Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, Self-control Scale, Integrative Self-knowledge Scale and Self-compassion Scale (to measure self-relevant variables), Bartone Symptoms checklist and the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Subscale (DASS-21) (to measure health-relevant variables)...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Boaz Shay, Orly Ben Ami, Dana Levy Ianculovici, Avraham Zini, Clariel Ianculovici, Galit Almoznino
BACKGROUND: Researchers demonstrated a correlation between nutrition and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Little is known about the correlation between disorders of nutrition (DON) and Oral HRQoL (OHRQoL). OBJECTIVES: 1) to measure OHRQoL in DON patients compared to patients attending nutritional counseling for other reasons (e.g. systemic diseases or general dietary counseling) (NCOR) and to healthy controls attending routine dental screenings.(2) analyze associations between OHRQoL and demographics, health-related behaviors and nutritional practices...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Han Ni, Soe Moe, Zay Soe, Kay Thi Myint, K Neelakantan Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Several dual bronchodilator combinations of long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) have been approved for treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) recommendations suggest the use of LABA/LAMA combinations in people with group B COPD with persistent symptoms, group C COPD with further exacerbations on LAMA therapy alone and group D COPD with or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
December 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nathan M Stall, Sanghun J Kim, Kate A Hardacre, Prakesh S Shah, Sharon E Straus, Susan E Bronskill, Lisa M Lix, Chaim M Bell, Paula A Rochon
BACKGROUND: Most dementia care occurs in the community with support from informal caregivers who are often distressed. Dementia caregiver distress is known to be hazardous to the caregiver's health, but the impact on the dementia care recipient is not well known. METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from inception until June 2017 for studies investigating the association of informal caregiver distress with health outcomes of community-dwelling dementia care recipients...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Eskandar Taghizadeh, Mehdi Rezaee, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a highly heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders that are associated with weakness and wasting of muscles in legs and arms. Signs and symptoms may begin at any age and usually worsen by time. LGMDs are autosomal disorders with different types and their prevalence is not the same in different areas. New technologies such as next-generation sequencing can accelerate their diagnosis. Several important pathological mechanisms that are involved in the pathology of the LGMD include abnormalities in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, the sarcomere, glycosylation of dystroglycan, vesicle and molecular trafficking, signal transduction pathways, and nuclear functions...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Massimiliano Salati, Chiara Braconi
Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are tumors with a dismal prognosis. Early diagnosis is a key challenge because of the lack of specific symptoms, and the curability rate is low due to the difficulty in achieving a radical resection and the intrinsic chemoresistance of CCA cells. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcripts that are not translated into proteins but exert their functional role by regulating the transcription and translation of other genes. The discovery of the first ncRNA dates back to 1993 when the microRNA (miRNA) lin-4 was discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
December 7, 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Cordelia Schulz, Dirk Eßer, Steffen Rosahl, Izet Baljić, Sabrina Kösling, Stefan K Plontke
Vestibular schwannomas are benign neoplasms originating from the Schwann cells of the vestibular vestibular nerve of the vestibulocochlear nerve, and rarely from the pars cochlearis. These are tumors that are in contact with the nerve but do not bind the fibers. Benign neoplasms of the Schwann cells of the auditory and equilibrium nerves can also occur primarily in the inner ear and are referred to as intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS). Vestibular schwannomas represent 6-7 % of all intracranial and 90 % of cerebellopontine angle tumors...
December 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
C Fisser, O W Hamer, R Eiber, M Pfeifer, C Lerzer
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. PAP results from impaired surfactant clearance. In adults, autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is present in 90 - 95 % of the cases. In 5 - 10 %, other etiologies such as toxins and dust exposure, hematological disorders and infections have to be considered. Men between 30 - 60 years are commonly affected. Typical symptoms are cough, dyspnea and alteration in ventilatory function. CT scan of the lung is characterised by a crazy paving pattern...
December 7, 2018: Pneumologie
Zhongzhong Jiang, Mengqiang Yu, Yugang Jiang, Yong Peng
The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical presentation and outcomes associated with endoscopic endonasal resection of Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs). The authors retrospectively studied a series of 13 patients who were diagnosed with RCCs after endoscopic endonasal resection at the Second Xiangya Hospital between June 2016 and December 2017. All 13 patients (8 women) underwent a purely endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for fenestration and aspiration of RCCs with excision of the cystic wall. The patient ages varied from 25 to 67 years (mean, 45...
December 10, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Agata Sebastian, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Maria Misterska-Skóra, Agnieszka Hałoń, Marta Skoczyńska, Maciej Sebastian, Piotr Wiland, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) is a progressive, skeletal muscle disease with poor prognosis. However, establishing the final diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of clear biomarkers in the blood serum and very slow development of clinical symptoms. Moreover, most other organs function normally without any disturbance. Here, in patients with this untreatable disease, we have underlined the importance of immunohistochemical and ultrastructural assessment of skeletal muscle in patients diagnosed with s-IBM...
December 8, 2018: Rheumatology International
Constantin Tuleasca, Mercy George, Luis Schiappacasse, David Patin, Jacopo Fenu, Raphael Maire, Marc Levivier
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas of the VIIIth cranial nerve are benign tumours, with vast majority occurring in vestibular division. Rarely, they can also arise from distal branches of cochlear, superior or inferior vestibular. We review our experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR), as first intention treatment for intracochlear (ICS) and intravestibular (IVS) schwannomas. METHODS: A total number of five patients were analysed, treated over 8 years, between June 2010 and September 2018, with Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion or Icon (Elekta Instruments, AB, Sweden)...
December 8, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Margarida Paiva Coelho, Esmeralda Martins, Laura Vilarinho
Primary mitochondrial disorders are highly variable in clinical presentation, biochemistry, and molecular etiology. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by genetic defects in the mitochondrial, in nuclear genome, or in the interplay between the two genomes. Biochemical screening tests may be inconclusive or misleading since patients, with confirmed mitochondrial disorders specially in pediatric age, may exhibit normal routine biochemistry, muscle histology, or enzymatic analysis of the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Shanna L Burke, Tianyan Hu, Mitra Naseh, Nicole M Fava, Janice O'Driscoll, Daniel Alvarez, Linda B Cottler, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVE: A lack of understanding of the causes of attrition in longitudinal studies of older adults may lead to higher attrition rates and bias longitudinal study results. In longitudinal epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, high rates of attrition may cause a systematic underestimation of dementia prevalence and skew the characterization of the disease. This can compromise the generalizability of the study results and any inferences based on the surviving sample may grossly misrepresent the importance of the risk factors for dementia...
December 10, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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