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Darren W Roddy, Chloe Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Elena Roman, Leonardo Tozzi, Thomas Frodl, Veronica O'Keane, Erik O'Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume reduction is the most replicated finding in neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). Varying hippocampal volume definition is a well-established problem in this field. Given that hippocampal function can be mapped onto anatomically defined substructures and that detailed examination of substructure volumes is now possible, we examined different hippocampal composite measures in MDD to look for hippocampal markers of MDD. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were compared between 80 patients with a range of MDD duration and 83 healthy control subjects...
September 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Luciana Estefani Drumond de Carvalho, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Paula Rejane Beserra Diniz, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Roland Coras, Ingmar Blümcke, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Caio Cesar Marconato Simoes Matias, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Tonicarlo R Velasco, Marcio Flavio D Moraes, Joao Pereira Leite
In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveals hippocampal atrophy, while neuropathological assessment indicates the different types of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Different HS types are not discriminated in MRI so far. We aimed to define the volume of each hippocampal subfield on MRI manually and to compare automatic and manual segmentations for the discrimination of HS types. The T2-weighted images from 14 formalin-fixed age-matched control hippocampi were obtained with 4...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Minho Moon, Eun Sun Jung, Seong Gak Jeon, Moon-Yong Cha, Yongwoo Jang, Woori Kim, Claudia Lopes, Inhee Mook-Jung, Kwang-Soo Kim
The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 (also known as NR4A2) is critical for the development and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and is associated with Parkinson's disease. However, an association between Nurr1 and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology has not previously been reported. Here, we provide evidence that Nurr1 is expressed in a neuron-specific manner in AD-related brain regions; specifically, it is selectively expressed in glutamatergic neurons in the subiculum and the cortex of both normal and AD brains...
December 4, 2018: Aging Cell
Orhan Tansel Korkmaz, Hakan Ay, Nurgul Aytan, Isabel Carreras, Neil W Kowall, Alpaslan Dedeoglu, Nese Tuncel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposits of fibrillary β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain that initiate an inflammatory process resulting in neurodegeneration. The neuronal loss associated with AD results in gross atrophy of affected regions causing a progressive loss of cognitive ability and memory function, ultimately leading to dementia. Growing evidence suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) could be beneficial for various neurodegenerative diseases, including AD...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Katarina Ilic, Kristina Mlinac-Jerkovic, Natasa Jovanov-Milosevic, Goran Simic, Nikola Habek, Nenad Bogdanovic, Svjetlana Kalanj-Bognar
Cell-adhesion glycoprotein neuroplastin (Np) is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and balancing hippocampal excitatory/inhibitory inputs which aids in the process of associative memory formation and learning. Our recent findings show that neuroplastin expression in the adult human hippocampus is specifically associated with major hippocampal excitatory pathways and is related to neuronal calcium regulation. Here, we investigated the hippocampal expression of brain-specific neuroplastin isoform (Np65), its relationship with amyloid and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and potential involvement of neuroplastin in tissue response during the disease progression...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ruggiero Francavilla, Vincent Villette, Xiao Luo, Simon Chamberland, Einer Muñoz-Pino, Olivier Camiré, Kristina Wagner, Viktor Kis, Peter Somogyi, Lisa Topolnik
GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus provide for local and long-distance coordination of neurons in functionally connected areas. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing (VIP+) interneurons occupy a distinct niche in circuitry as many of them specialize in innervating GABAergic cells, thus providing network disinhibition. In the CA1 hippocampus, VIP+ interneuron-selective cells target local interneurons. Here, we discover a type of VIP+ neuron whose axon innervates CA1 and also projects to the subiculum (VIP-LRPs)...
November 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Bayram Şahin, Kadir Serkan Orhan, Hızır Aslıyüksek, Erdoğan Kara, Yalçın Büyük, Yahya Güldiken
INTRODUCTION: Microsurgery of the ear requires complete evaluation of middle ear surgical anatomy, especially the posterior tympanic cavity anatomy. Preoperative assessment of the middle ear cavity is limited by the permeability of eardrum and temporal bone density. Therefore, middle ear exploration is an extremely useful method to identify structural abnormalities and anatomical variations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine anatomic variations of the middle ear in an autopsy series...
November 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Veronika Hanko, Alexandra C Apple, Kathryn I Alpert, Kristen N Warren, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett, Lei Wang
Despite advances in the development of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), accurate ante-mortem diagnosis remains challenging because a variety of neuropathologic disease states can coexist and contribute to the AD dementia syndrome. Here, we report a neuroimaging study correlating hippocampal deformity with regional AD and transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDA pathology burden. We used hippocampal shape analysis of ante-mortem T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging images of 42 participants from two longitudinal cohort studies conducted by the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center...
October 25, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Kristina M Gicas, Allen E Thornton, Kristina Waclawik, Nena Wang, Andrea A Jones, William J Panenka, Donna J Lang, Geoff N Smith, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Olga Leonova, Alasdair M Barr, Ric M Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, Wayne Su, Alexandra T Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, G William MacEwan, William G Honer
Objective: Persons who are homeless or marginally housed exhibit significant cognitive dysfunction, with memory being the most impaired domain. Hippocampal subfield volumes have been found to differentially relate to component processes of memory. The neural correlates of memory have not been previously examined in marginalized persons who are understudied and underserved. We examined whether hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex volumes are uniquely related to indices of verbal episodic memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised...
November 8, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
LeHoa Nguyen, Shingo Kakeda, Asuka Katsuki, Koichiro Sugimoto, Yuka Otsuka, Issei Ueda, Ryohei Igata, Keita Watanabe, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata, Yukunori Korogi, Reiji Yoshimura
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, a genome-wide association study has revealed that four VEGF-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (i.e., rs4416670, rs6921438, rs6993770 and rs10738760) were independently associated with circulating VEGF levels. The current study investigated the relationship between brain volume and these four SNPs in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients. A total of 38 first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients and 39 healthy subjects (HS) were recruited and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted imaging...
November 7, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Christopher L Averill, Lynnette A Averill, Kristen M Wrocklage, J Cobb Scott, Teddy J Akiki, Brian Schweinsburg, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
Purpose of the Study: Prior studies showed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related alterations in white matter integrity, but most of these studies have used region-based approaches. We address this limitation by investigating the relationship between PTSD severity and fractional anisotropy (FA) using a tract-based approach. Procedures: Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging were acquired from 67 combat-exposed US Veterans and processed using FSL/FreeSurfer TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy...
October 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Kyoung-Sae Na, Eunsoo Won, June Kang, Aram Kim, Sunyoung Choi, Yong-Ku Kim, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
Many studies have revealed that the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with emotional salience and depression among females. Hippocampus is closely associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known of the interaction effects of OXTR and MDD on hippocampal volume. We sought to investigate the interaction effects of OXTR (rs53576) allelic variants and MDD on hippocampal volumes which also including subfield volumes. The OXTR rs53576 genotype groups were categorized as minor G allele carriers and A allele homozygotes...
October 22, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Mark S Cembrowski, Lihua Wang, Andrew L Lemire, Monique Copeland, Salvatore F DiLisio, Jody Clements, Nelson Spruston
In the hippocampus, the classical pyramidal cell type of the subiculum acts as a primary output, conveying hippocampal signals to a diverse suite of downstream regions. Accumulating evidence suggests that the subiculum pyramidal cell population may actually be comprised of discrete subclasses. Here, we investigated the extent and organizational principles governing pyramidal cell heterogeneity throughout the mouse subiculum. Using single-cell RNA-seq, we find that the subiculum pyramidal cell population can be deconstructed into eight separable subclasses...
October 30, 2018: ELife
Greggory Wroblewski, Md Nabiul Islam, Akie Yanai, Mir Rubayet Jahan, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Koh Shinoda
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neural interactor of huntingtin in Huntington's disease and interacts with gene products in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. In normal brains, HAP1 is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and limbic-associated regions. These areas tend to be spared from neurodegeneration while those with little HAP1 are frequently neurodegenerative targets, suggesting its role as a protective factor against apoptosis. In light of the relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and deterioration of higher nervous activity, it is important to definitively clarify HAP1 expression in a cognitively important brain region, the retrosplenial-retrohippocampal area...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Charlotte Postel, Armelle Viard, Claire André, Fabian Guénolé, Robin de Flores, Jean-Marc Baleyte, Priscille Gerardin, Francis Eustache, Jacques Dayan, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Reexperiencing symptoms in adolescent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are characterized by the apparition of vivid intrusive images of the traumatic event. The emergence of these intrusions is thought to be related to a deficiency in context processing and could then be related to hippocampal alterations. The hippocampus is a complex structure which can be divided into several subfields, namely, the Cornu Ammonis (CA1, CA2, and CA3), the subiculum, and the dentate gyrus (DG). As each subfield presents different histological characteristics and functions, it appears more relevant to consider hippocampal subfields, instead of only assessing the whole hippocampus, to understand the neurobiology of PTSD...
October 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Fenglian Zheng, Dong Cui, Li Zhang, Shitong Zhang, Yue Zhao, Xiaojing Liu, Chunhua Liu, Zhengmei Li, Dongsheng Zhang, Liting Shi, Zhipeng Liu, Kun Hou, Wen Lu, Tao Yin, Jianfeng Qiu
Background: The hippocampus is an important limbic structure closely related to memory function. However, few studies have focused on the association between hippocampal subfields and age-related memory decline. We investigated the volume alterations of hippocampal subfields at different ages and assessed the correlations with Immediate and Delayed recall abilities. Materials and Methods: A total of 275 participants aged 20-89 years were classified into 4 groups: Young, 20-35 years; Middle-early, 36-50 years; Middle-late, 51-65 years; Old, 66-89 years...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Beryl Y T Chung, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampal formation (HF) plays an important role to facilitate higher-order cognitive functions. Cholinergic activation of heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) within the HF is critical for the normal development of principal neurons within this brain region. However, previous research investigating the expression and function of heteromeric nAChRs in principal neurons of the HF is limited to males or does not differentiate between sexes. We used whole-cell electrophysiology to show that principal neurons in the CA1 region of the female mouse HF are excited by heteromeric nAChRs throughout postnatal development, with the greatest response occurring during the first two weeks of postnatal life...
October 24, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Xiao-Hong Ji, Qian Chen, Genevieve Gates, Ping Du
Dentipellistasmanica sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Tasmania, Australia based on rDNA evidence and morphological characters. It is characterised by an annual growth habit; resupinate basidiocarps up to 100 cm long; spines cream when fresh and cinnamon when dry, up to 3 mm long and a few glued at tips when dry; distinct white fibrillous to cottony margin; a monomitic hyphal structure with non-amyloid, non-dextrinoid and cyanophilous generative hyphae; the presence of gloeoplerous hyphae and gloeocystidia which become dark blue in Melzer's reagent; the presence of chlamydospores in the subiculum and rough basidiospores measuring 3...
2018: MycoKeys
Elijah Mak, Paul C Donaghy, Elizabeth McKiernan, Michael J Firbank, Jim Lloyd, George S Petrides, Alan J Thomas, John T O'Brien
Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a synucleinopathy, it is frequently accompanied by beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation. Elucidating the relationships of Aβ with gray matter atrophy in DLB may yield insights regarding the contributions of comorbid Alzheimer's disease to its disease progression. Twenty healthy controls and 25 DLB subjects underwent clinical assessment, [18 F]-Florbetapir, and 3T magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness and subcortical volumes, and PetSurfer was used to quantify [18 F]-Florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio...
September 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Eduardo Varejão Díaz Placencia, Fernando Tadeu Serra, Jessica Salles Henrique, Ricardo Mario Arida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Several studies report the influence of gender on physical exercise-induced brain plasticity, including neurotrophic factor levels, neurogenesis, and navigation strategies in spatial memory task. However, it has been noted that females are physically more active than males in animal models of physical exercise. With this in mind, we conducted an experimental study to investigate the effect of sex on the brain of rats submitted to same volume and intensity of aerobic exercise. To do so, we used calcium-binding protein parvalbumin as neuroplastic marker to explore the hippocampal formation (a brain neurogenic/mnemonic region) of male and female rats submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise on a treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min per day...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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