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Elijah Mak, Paul C Donaghy, Elizabeth McKiernan, Michael J Firbank, Jim Lloyd, George S Petrides, Alan J Thomas, John T O'Brien
Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a synucleinopathy, it is frequently accompanied by beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation. Elucidating the relationships of Aβ with gray matter atrophy in DLB may yield insights regarding the contributions of comorbid Alzheimer's disease to its disease progression. Twenty healthy controls and 25 DLB subjects underwent clinical assessment, [18 F]-Florbetapir, and 3T magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness and subcortical volumes, and PetSurfer was used to quantify [18 F]-Florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio...
September 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Eduardo Varejão Díaz Placencia, Fernando Tadeu Serra, Jessica Salles Henrique, Ricardo Mario Arida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Several studies report the influence of gender on physical exercise-induced brain plasticity, including neurotrophic factor levels, neurogenesis, and navigation strategies in spatial memory task. However, it has been noted that females are physically more active than males in animal models of physical exercise. With this in mind, we conducted an experimental study to investigate the effect of sex on the brain of rats submitted to same volume and intensity of aerobic exercise. To do so, we used calcium-binding protein parvalbumin as neuroplastic marker to explore the hippocampal formation (a brain neurogenic/mnemonic region) of male and female rats submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise on a treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min per day...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Christian Wozny, Prateep Beed, Noam Nitzan, Yona Pössnecker, Benjamin R Rost, Dietmar Schmitz
The subiculum is the gatekeeper between the hippocampus and cortical areas. Yet, the lack of a pyramidal cell-specific marker gene has made the analysis of the subicular area very difficult. Here we report that the vesicular-glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) functions as a specific marker gene for subicular burst-firing neurons, and demonstrate that VGLUT2-Cre mice allow for Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-assisted connectivity analysis.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Renata Bartesaghi, Sandra Guidi
Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) has been attributed to neurogenesis impairment during fetal brain development. Consistently with explicit memory alterations observed in children with DS, fetuses with DS exhibit neurogenesis impairment in the hippocampus, a key region involved in memory formation and consolidation. Recent evidence suggests that the subiculum plays a unique role in memory retrieval, a process that is also altered in DS. While much attention has been devoted to the hippocampus, there is a striking lack of information regarding the subiculum of individuals with DS and DS models...
October 16, 2018: Brain Pathology
Lisa Müller-Ehrenberg, Joost M Riphagen, Frans R J Verhey, Alexander T Sack, Heidi I L Jacobs
Measures of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid are extensively used for diagnostic and research purposes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as correlates of cortical thinning and cognitive outcomes. The present study investigated the relationship of Aβ and p-tau with hippocampal subfield volumes Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1-4, dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum. Subfields were segmented from T1-weighted images from the ADNI-population using FreeSurfer v6. Linear and polynomial regression models revealed distinct associations of Aβ and p-tau with subfield volumes...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Michael S Bienkowski, Ian Bowman, Monica Y Song, Lin Gou, Tyler Ard, Kaelan Cotter, Muye Zhu, Nora L Benavidez, Seita Yamashita, Jaspar Abu-Jaber, Sana Azam, Darrick Lo, Nicholas N Foster, Houri Hintiryan, Hong-Wei Dong
Understanding the organization of the hippocampus is fundamental to understanding brain function related to learning, memory, emotions, and diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Physiological studies in humans and rodents have suggested that there is both structural and functional heterogeneity along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. However, the recent discovery of discrete gene expression domains in the mouse hippocampus has provided the opportunity to re-evaluate hippocampal connectivity. To integrate mouse hippocampal gene expression and connectivity, we mapped the distribution of distinct gene expression patterns in mouse hippocampus and subiculum to create the Hippocampus Gene Expression Atlas (HGEA)...
October 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Xiaoxiao Hu, Lianqing Zhang, Xinyu Hu, Lu Lu, Shi Tang, Hailong Li, Xuan Bu, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies had proved that hippocampal volume has predictive value for antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the exact subregion of the hippocampus relevant to the predictive role of antidepressants response is not known. PURPOSE: To explore which hippocampal subfield volumes might predict an early response to first-time use of antidepressants in drug-naïve MDD patients. STUDY TYPE: Prospective...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Soo Jung Shin, Yuon Jeong, Seong Gak Jeon, Sujin Kim, Seong-Kyung Lee, Hong Seok Choi, Cheong Su Im, Seong Hee Kim, Soo Hwan Kim, Jae Ho Park, Jin-Il Kim, Jwa-Jin Kim, Minho Moon
One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the abnormal aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR), one of the Uncaria species, has long been used to treat neurodegenerative disease. In particular, it has been reported that UR inhibits aggregation of Aβ in vitro. However, little is known about the histological effects of UR treatment on Aβ pathology in AD animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effect of UR on Aβ aggregation, Aβ-mediated pathologies and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the brain of 5XFAD mice...
October 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Che-Chih Chen, Sheng-Hua Wu, Chi-Yu Chen
Two new genera with phylogenetic affinities to Phanerochaete s.l. are presented, namely Hydnophanerochaete and Odontoefibula . The generic type of Hydnophanerochaete is Phanerochaeteodontoidea . Odontoefibula is established based on a new species: O.orientalis (generic type). Both genera have effused basidiocarps with odontioid hymenial surface, simple-septate generative hyphae, cystidia lacking, clavate basidia and ellipsoid basidiospores that are smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, non-dextrinoid and acyanophilous...
2018: MycoKeys
Mark D Zuppichini, Joshua Sandry
Memory impairment and hippocampal atrophy are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present pilot study, we investigate whether the mnemonic process of pattern separation is impaired and a predictor of hippocampal volume in relapsing remitting MS. MS participants and healthy controls completed the Mnemonic Similarities Task (MST) along with traditional neurocognitive assessments of memory. 3T structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to estimate whole hippocampal volumes (main aim) and hippocampal subfield volumes (exploratory aim)...
September 13, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Benjamin B Tournier, Stergios Tsartsalis, Daphney Rigaud, Christine Fossey, Thomas Cailly, Frédéric Fabis, Tien Pham, Marie-Claude Grégoire, Eniko Kövari, Marcelle Moulin-Sallanon, Armand Savioz, Philippe Millet
The involvement of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of neuroinflammation, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. In the present report, we used [125 I]-CLINDE, a SPECT TSPO radiotracer never before used in AD, and we investigated the relationship between TSPO and amyloid plaque density (using [125 I]-DRM106) in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD, APPSWE , PS1M146V and TauP301L ). Our results show that TSPO increases appear before those of amyloid deposits. Moreover, the different parts of the hippocampus are differentially affected...
September 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Lyon W Chen, Delin Sun, Sarah L Davis, Courtney C Haswell, Emily L Dennis, Chelsea A Swanson, Christopher D Whelan, Boris Gutman, Neda Jahanshad, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Paul Thompson, H Ryan Wagner, Philipp Saemann, Kevin S LaBar, Rajendra A Morey
BACKGROUND: Smaller hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents the most consistently reported structural alteration in the brain. Subfields of the hippocampus play distinct roles in encoding and processing of memories, which are disrupted in PTSD. We examined PTSD-associated alterations in 12 hippocampal subfields in relation to global hippocampal shape, and clinical features. METHODS: Case-control cross-sectional studies of U...
September 26, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
John W Rutland, Rebecca E Feldman, Bradley N Delman, Fedor Panov, Madeline C Fields, Lara V Marcuse, Patrick R Hof, Hung-Mo Lin, Priti Balchandani
PURPOSE: MRI-negative epilepsy patients could benefit from advanced imaging techniques such as high-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Our aim was to perform hippocampal subfield-specific tractography and quantify connectivity of the subfields in MRI-negative patients. Abnormal connectivity of the hippocampal subfields may help inform seizure focus hypothesis and provide information to guide surgical intervention. METHODS: Hippocampal structural imaging and dMRI was acquired in 25 drug resistant MRI-negative patients and 25 healthy volunteers...
September 17, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
C García-Díaz, M J Sánchez-Catalán, E Castro-Salazar, A García-Avilés, H Albert-Gascó, S Sánchez-Sarasúa de la Bárcena, A M Sánchez-Pérez, A L Gundlach, F E Olucha-Bordonau
Social interaction involves neural activity in prefrontal cortex, septum, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. Notably, these areas all receive projections from the nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum. Therefore, we investigated the effect of excitotoxic lesions of NI neurons in adult male, Wistar rats on performance in a social discrimination test, and associated changes in immediate-early gene protein levels. NI was lesioned with quinolinic acid, and after recovery, rats underwent two trials in the 3-chamber test...
January 1, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Amy R Wolff, Alexei M Bygrave, David J Sanderson, Edward S Boyden, David M Bannerman, Dimitri M Kullmann, Dennis Kätzel
Pathological over-activity of the CA1 subfield of the human anterior hippocampus has been identified as a potential predictive marker for transition from a prodromal state to overt schizophrenia. Psychosis, in turn, is associated with elevated activity in the anterior subiculum, the hippocampal output stage directly activated by CA1. Over-activity in these subfields may represent a useful endophenotype to guide translationally predictive preclinical models. To recreate this endophenotype and study its causal relation to deficits in the positive and cognitive symptom domains, we optogenetically activated excitatory neurons of the ventral hippocampus (vHPC; analogous to the human anterior hippocampus), targeting the ventral subiculum...
August 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Takuma Kitanishi, Kenji Mizuseki
The hippocampal formation, which comprises the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus, and subiculum, is crucial for learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Historically, most studies have focused on the hippocampus proper and dentate gyrus; however, recent evidence has highlighted the substantial contribution of the subiculum to interregional communication and behavioral performance. Moreover, various network oscillations in the subiculum appear to be crucial for cognitive functions. The subiculum shows complicated spatial representation during exploratory behavior, suggesting that the subiculum does not simply relay hippocampal information to the target regions but it functions as a unique computational unit...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Unn K Haukvik, Christian K Tamnes, Erik Söderman, Ingrid Agartz
The hippocampus is a complex structure consisting of subregions with specialized cytoarchitecture and functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in psychotic disorders show hippocampal subfield abnormalities, but affected regions differ between studies. We here present an overview of hippocampal anatomy and function relevant to psychosis, and the first systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies of hippocampal subfield morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Twenty-one MRI studies assessing hippocampal subfield volumes or shape in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were included (n 15-887 subjects)...
September 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Paul M Macey, Janani P Prasad, Jennifer A Ogren, Ammar S Moiyadi, Ravi S Aysola, Rajesh Kumar, Frisca L Yan-Go, Mary A Woo, M Albert Thomas, Ronald M Harper
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients show hippocampal-related autonomic and neurological symptoms, including impaired memory and depression, which differ by sex, and are mediated in distinct hippocampal subfields. Determining sites and extent of hippocampal sub-regional injury in OSA could reveal localized structural damage linked with OSA symptoms. Methods: High-resolution T1-weighted images were collected from 66 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (mean age ± SD: 46...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Mihail Bota, Christina A Snider, Steven P Wilson, Kannan U Venkataraju, Pavel Osten, Alexis M Stranahan
Diabetes increases adrenal steroids in humans and animal models, but potential interactions with psychological stress remain poorly understood. Diabetic rodents exhibit anxiety and reductions in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and these studies investigated whether loss of BDNF-driven hippocampal activity promotes anxiety and disinhibits the HPA axis. Mice with genetic obesity and diabetes (db/db) received intrahippocampal injections of lentivirus for BDNF overexpression (db/db-BDNFOE), and Wt mice received lentiviral constructs for BDNF knockdown (Wt-BDNFKD)...
August 11, 2018: Hippocampus
Mark S Cembrowski, Matthew G Phillips, Salvatore F DiLisio, Brenda C Shields, Johan Winnubst, Jayaram Chandrashekar, Erhan Bas, Nelson Spruston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Cell
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