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Unn K Haukvik, Christian K Tamnes, Erik Söderman, Ingrid Agartz
The hippocampus is a complex structure consisting of subregions with specialized cytoarchitecture and functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in psychotic disorders show hippocampal subfield abnormalities, but affected regions differ between studies. We here present an overview of hippocampal anatomy and function relevant to psychosis, and the first systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies of hippocampal subfield morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Twenty-one MRI studies assessing hippocampal subfield volumes or shape in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were included (n 15-887 subjects)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Paul M Macey, Janani P Prasad, Jennifer A Ogren, Ammar S Moiyadi, Ravi S Aysola, Rajesh Kumar, Frisca L Yan-Go, Mary A Woo, M Albert Thomas, Ronald M Harper
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients show hippocampal-related autonomic and neurological symptoms, including impaired memory and depression, which differ by sex, and are mediated in distinct hippocampal subfields. Determining sites and extent of hippocampal sub-regional injury in OSA could reveal localized structural damage linked with OSA symptoms. Methods: High-resolution T1-weighted images were collected from 66 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (mean age ± SD: 46...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Mihail Bota, Christina A Snider, Steven P Wilson, Kannan U Venkataraju, Pavel Osten, Alexis M Stranahan
Diabetes increases adrenal steroids in humans and animal models, but potential interactions with psychological stress remain poorly understood. Diabetic rodents exhibit anxiety and reductions in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and these studies investigated whether loss of BDNF-driven hippocampal activity promotes anxiety and disinhibits the HPA axis. Mice with genetic obesity and diabetes (db/db) received intrahippocampal injections of lentivirus for BDNF overexpression (db/db-BDNFOE), and Wt mice received lentiviral constructs for BDNF knockdown (Wt-BDNFKD)...
August 11, 2018: Hippocampus
Mark S Cembrowski, Matthew G Phillips, Salvatore F DiLisio, Brenda C Shields, Johan Winnubst, Jayaram Chandrashekar, Erhan Bas, Nelson Spruston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Cell
Xiaofei Lv, Haoqiang He, Yadi Yang, Lujun Han, Zheng Guo, Hong Chen, Jing Li, Yingwei Qiu, Chuanmiao Xie
Increasing evidence indicates that radiation-induced injury to the hippocampus may play a critical role in neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, few studies have assessed RT-induced hippocampal structural alterations in these patients early after radiotherapy (RT). In this study, 58 NPC patients were longitudinally followed up prior to treatment initiation as well as 3 and 6 months after RT, respectively. Twenty comparable normal controls were recruited and followed up in parallel...
July 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Laura Cacciaguerra, Elisabetta Pagani, Sharlota Mesaros, Jelena Dackovic, Irena Dujmovic-Basuroski, Jelena Drulovic, Paola Valsasina, Massimo Filippi, Maria Assunta Rocca
BACKGROUND: Different subregional patterns of hippocampal involvement have been observed in diverse multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of regional hippocampal variations in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, their relationships with focal white matter (WM) lesions, and their prognostic implications. METHODS: Brain dual-echo and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were acquired from 14 healthy controls and 36 CIS patients within 2 months from clinical onset and after 3, 12, and 24 months...
July 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Hyun-Woo Lee, Su-Min Lee, Inah Lee
Literature suggests that the hippocampus is central to processing visual scenes to remember contextual information, but the roles of its downstream structure, subiculum remain unknown. Here, single units were recorded simultaneously in the dorsal CA1 and subiculum while male rats made spatial choices using visual scenes as cues in a T-maze. The firing fields of subicular neurons were schematically organized following the task structure, largely divided into pre-choice and post-choice epochs, whereas those of CA1 cells were more punctate and bound to specific locations...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeffrey L Gauthier, David W Tank
The hippocampus plays a critical role in goal-directed navigation. Across different environments, however, hippocampal maps are randomized, making it unclear how goal locations could be encoded consistently. To address this question, we developed a virtual reality task with shifting reward contingencies to distinguish place versus reward encoding. In mice performing the task, large-scale recordings in CA1 and subiculum revealed a small, specialized cell population that was only active near reward yet whose activity could not be explained by sensory cues or stereotyped reward anticipation behavior...
July 11, 2018: Neuron
Xinyang Feng, Marla J Hamberger, Hannah C Sigmon, Jia Guo, Scott A Small, Frank A Provenzano
Steady-state cerebral blood volume (CBV) is tightly coupled to regional cerebral metabolism, and CBV imaging is a variant of MRI that has proven useful in mapping brain dysfunction. CBV derived from exogenous contrast-enhanced MRI can generate sub-millimeter functional maps. Higher resolution helps to more accurately interrogate smaller cortical regions, such as functionally distinct regions of the hippocampus. Many MRIs have fortuitously adequate sequences required for CBV mapping. However, these scans vary substantially in acquisition parameters...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Francisco M Mouro, Joaquim A Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião, Neil Dawson
Elucidating how cannabinoids affect brain function is instrumental for the development of therapeutic tools aiming to mitigate 'on target' side effects of cannabinoid based therapies. A single treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, disrupts recognition memory in mice. Here we evaluate how prolonged, intermittent (30 days) exposure to WIN 55,212-2 (1mg/kg) alters recognition memory and impacts on brain metabolism and functional connectivity. We show that chronic, intermittent treatment with WIN 55,212-2 disrupts recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test) without affecting locomotion and anxiety-like behaviour (Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral symptoms are commonly reported by patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). In other patient populations, symptoms are commonly associated with hippocampal volume reduction linked to neuroinflammation (inferred from regional iron deposition), as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that PBC patients would exhibit reduced volume and increased iron deposition of the hippocampus. METHODS: Seventeen female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 17 age/gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla T1 -weighted MRI and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM; an indicator of iron deposition)...
July 6, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Asuka Katsuki, Koichiro Sugimoto, Natsuki Igata, Issei Ueda, Ryohei Igata, Osamu Abe, Reiji Yoshimura, Yukunori Korogi
There is a growing body of evidence to support the involvement of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of depression; however, no previous studies have examined the relationship between cytokines and the brain morphology of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We therefore evaluated the relationship between serum cytokine levels and cortical thinning during the first depressive episode in drug-naïve patients with MDD. We measured the serum cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNFα), and whole-brain cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield volumes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using surface-based morphometry in 40 patients with MDD and 47 healthy volunteers (controls)...
July 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Norihisa Maeda, Hiroyuki Honda, Satoshi O Suzuki, Naoki Fujii, Jun-Ichi Kira, Toru Iwaki
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. It has recently been shown that patients with MSA accompanied by cognitive decline display numerous neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) in the limbic neurons. We examined potential mechanisms underlying the formation of these NCIs by determining of mitochondrial function and statuses of RNA processing by analyzing 12 pathologically confirmed cases of MSA. Among them, four had cognitive impairment Semiquantitative evaluation using immunohistochemistry analyses revealed a significantly greater NCI burden in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) subfield, subiculum, and amygdala in the cases with cognitive impairments compared with those without cognitive impairment...
July 1, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Raquel García-García, Álvaro Javier Cruz-Gómez, Amparo Urios, Alba Mangas-Losada, Cristina Forn, Desamparados Escudero-García, Elena Kosenko, Isidro Torregrosa, Joan Tosca, Remedios Giner-Durán, Miguel Angel Serra, César Avila, Vicente Belloch, Vicente Felipo, Carmina Montoliu
Patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) show mild cognitive impairment associated with alterations in attentional and executive networks. There are no studies evaluating the relationship between memory in MHE and structural and functional connectivity (FC) changes in the hippocampal system. This study aimed to evaluate verbal learning and long-term memory in cirrhotic patients with (C-MHE) and without MHE (C-NMHE) and healthy controls. We assessed the relationship between alterations in memory and the structural integrity and FC of the hippocampal system...
June 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martina Bocchetta, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Marzia A Scelsi, David M Cash, M Jorge Cardoso, Marc Modat, Andre Altmann, Sebastien Ourselin, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, with a strong genetic component. Previous research has shown that medial temporal lobe atrophy is a common feature of FTD. However, no study has so far investigated the differential vulnerability of the hippocampal subfields in FTD. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate hippocampal subfield volumes in genetic FTD. METHODS: We in6/2/2018vestigated hippocampal subfield volumes in a cohort of 75 patients with genetic FTD (age: mean (standard deviation) 59...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Naoki Yamawaki, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Gordon M G Shepherd, Jelena Radulovic
Learning to associate stressful events with specific environmental contexts depends on excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, but how this information is transmitted to the neocortex for lasting memory storage is unclear. We identified dorsal hippocampal (DH) projections to the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which arise mainly from the subiculum and contain either the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) or vGlut2. Both vGlut1+ and vGlut2+ axons strongly excite and disynaptically inhibit RSC pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, but vGlut2+ axons trigger greater inhibition that spreads to deep layers, indicating that these pathways engage RSC circuits via partially redundant, partially differentiated cellular mechanisms...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Joao P Leite
Executive functions and working memory are long known to involve the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and two PFC-projecting areas: midline/paramidline thalamus (MLT) and cornus ammonis 1 (CA1)/subiculum of the hippocampal formation (HF). An increasing number of rodent electrophysiology studies are examining these substrates together, thus providing circuit-level perspectives on input convergence, synaptic plasticity and functional coupling, as well as insights into cognition mechanisms and brain disorders. Our review article puts this literature into a method-oriented narrative...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Eva Pešlová, Radek Mareček, Daniel J Shaw, Tomáš Kašpárek, Martin Pail, Milan Brázdil
INTRODUCTION: Morphological correlates of nonpathological déjà vu (DV) have been identified recently within the human brain. Significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) within a set of cortical and subcortical regions reported in subjects experiencing DV seems to mirror the distribution of GMV reduction in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients but vary in terms of the hippocampus. Another condition associated with hippocampal GMV reduction and DV alike disturbance in memory processing is schizophrenia (SCH)...
July 2018: Brain and Behavior
Xuetong Wang, Yang Yu, Weina Zhao, Qiongling Li, Xinwei Li, Shuyu Li, Changhao Yin, Ying Han
The hippocampus plays important roles in memory processing. However, the hippocampus is not a homogeneous structure, which consists of several subfields. The hippocampal subfields are differently affected by many neurodegenerative diseases, especially mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) are the two subtypes of MCI. aMCI is characterized by episodic memory loss, and svMCI is characterized by extensive white matter hyperintensities and multiple lacunar infarctions on magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Siddhartha Mondragón-Rodríguez, Ning Gu, Frederic Manseau, Sylvain Williams
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein aggregates. However, increasing data is suggesting that brain network alterations rather than protein deposition could account for the early pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we performed in vitro extracellular field recordings in the CA1/subiculum area of the hippocampus from 30 days old J20-TG-AD mice. Here, we found that theta oscillations were significantly less rhythmic than those recorded from control group...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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