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Sara T Kover
Purpose: In typical development, distributional cues-patterns in input-are related to language acquisition processes. Statistical and implicit learning refer to the utilization of such cues. In children with intellectual disability, much less is known about the extent to which distributional cues are harnessed in mechanisms of language learning. Method: This tutorial presents what is known about the process of language learning in children with language impairments associated with different sources of intellectual disability: Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fragile X syndrome...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Prabhat K Agnihotri, Viney Ghai, Harpreet Singh
Near perfect absorbers find application in many areas including solar cells, energy harvesting and antireflection coatings for space applications. Here we report the use of optical gradation concept to fabricate a near perfect absorber on etched Si wafer. As a proof of concept, 99.4% absorption is achieved in the broad range of 300 nm to 2000 nm. Moreover, absorption capacity of optically graded surface remains higher than 99% up to beam incident angle of 50°. While carbon nanotubes (index ~1.1) are used as top layer, subsequent layers with increasing optical index across the thickness are chosen so as to satisfy zero reflection condition on multilayered assembly...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miriam Schalamun, Ramawatar Nagar, David Kainer, Eleanor Beavan, David Eccles, John P Rathjen, Robert Lanfear, Benjamin Schwessinger
Long-read sequencing technologies are transforming our ability to assemble highly complex genomes. Realising their full potential is critically reliant on extracting high quality, high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from the organisms of interest. This is especially the case for the portable MinION sequencer which enables all laboratories to undertake their own genome sequencing projects, due to its low entry cost and minimal spatial footprint. One challenge of the MinION is that each group has to independently establish effective protocols for using the instrument, which can be time consuming and costly...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Kang-Da Wu, Zhibo Hou, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Guo-Yong Xiang, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo, Jiajun Ma, Qiong-Yi He, Jayne Thompson, Mile Gu
Quantum resource theories seek to quantify sources of nonclassicality that bestow quantum technologies their operational advantage. Chief among these are studies of quantum correlations and quantum coherence. The former isolates nonclassicality in the correlations between systems, and the latter captures nonclassicality of quantum superpositions within a single physical system. Here, we present a scheme that cyclically interconverts between these resources without loss. The first stage converts coherence present in an input system into correlations with an ancilla...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Joseph A Fantuzzo, Ronald P Hart, Jeffrey D Zahn, Zhiping P Pang
Neuropsychiatric disorders have traditionally been difficult to study due to the complexity of the human brain and limited availability of human tissue. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provide a promising avenue to further our understanding of human disease mechanisms, but traditional 2D cell cultures can only provide a limited view of the neural circuits. To better model complex brain neurocircuitry, compartmentalized culturing systems and 3D organoids have been developed. Early compartmentalized devices demonstrated how neuronal cell bodies can be isolated both physically and chemically from neurites...
August 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Revathy Sankaran, Pau Loke Show, Yu-Shen Cheng, Yang Tao, Xia Ao, Thi Dong Phuong Nguyen, Dong Van Quyen
Microalgae are the most promising sources of protein, which have high potential due to their high-value protein content. Conventional methods of protein harnessing required multiple steps, and they are generally complex, time consuming, and expensive. Currently, the study of integration methods for microalgae cell disruption and protein recovery process as a single-step process is attracting considerable interest. This study aims to investigate the novel approach of integration method of electrolysis and liquid biphasic flotation for protein extraction from wet biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 and obtaining the optimal operating conditions for the protein extraction...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Mafalda Andrea, Mario Andrea, Maria Luísa Figueira
PURPOSE: Functional voice disorders (FVD) are multifactorial and may have a significant impact on the patients' quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the relationship between the VHI scores, psychological variables, and objective voice measurements, and to develop a psychological and/or vocal acoustic model for the overall self-perceived evaluation of quality of life for three different types of FVD. METHODS: After ENT examination, 83 women were classified into three groups: psychogenic voice disorder (PVD = 39), primary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD1 = 16), and secondary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD2 = 28)...
August 16, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Yihua Ge, Zhigang Wang, Yunlan Xu
PURPOSE: To investigate the use of anterior hip ultrasound (van Douveren's method)-assisted Pavlik harness in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). METHODS: Weekly anterior hip ultrasound scanning was performed in children with fixed Pavlik harness to detect whether hip reduction was achieved with the help of harness (the superior ramus of the pubis, the acetabulum, the femoral head, and the femoral neck being depicted in one plane indicated concentric reduction of the hip), and the stability of the reduction was checked by ultrasonography...
August 16, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Buddini Iroshika Karawdeniya, Y M Nuwan D Y Bandara, Jonathan W Nichols, Robert B Chevalier, Jason R Dwyer
Polysaccharides have key biological functions and can be harnessed for therapeutic roles, such as the anticoagulant heparin. Their complexity-e.g., >100 monosaccharides with variety in linkage and branching structure-significantly complicates analysis compared to other biopolymers such as DNA and proteins. More, and improved, analysis tools have been called for, and here we demonstrate that solid-state silicon nitride nanopore sensors and tuned sensing conditions can be used to reliably detect native polysaccharides and enzymatic digestion products, differentiate between different polysaccharides in straightforward assays, provide new experimental insights into nanopore electrokinetics, and uncover polysaccharide properties...
August 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Matt DeLisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Alireza Ahmadvand, John Murtagh, Lisa Nissen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Australian journal of general practice
Roby P Bhattacharyya, Sri Gowtham Thakku, Deborah T Hung
Nucleic acid detection is an important method for pathogen identification but can be expensive, have variable sensitivity and specificity, and require substantial infrastructure. Two new methods capitalize on unexpected in vitro properties of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) effectors, turning activated nucleases into intrinsic amplifiers of a specific nucleic-acid binding event. These effectors are coupled with a variety of reporters and used in tandem with existing isothermal amplification methods to produce sensitive, sequence-specific pathogen identification in multiple field-deployable formats...
August 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Yi Qi Liaw, Mien Li Goh
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this evidence-based utilization project was to improve the accuracy of fluid intake charting through patient involvement. INTRODUCTION: The accurate documentation and maintenance of fluid balance charts constitute an integral part of nursing care. However, inaccuracies in fluid balance charting by nurses often occur. Inaccurate charting can result in delayed interventions, affecting the safety of patients. It has been found that fluid intake charting in an acute surgical inpatient ward is highly inaccurate...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Matteo Lanzi, Jérémy Merad, Dina V Boyarskaya, Giovanni Maestri, Clémence Allain, Géraldine Masson
The cleavage of sulfidic C-S bonds under visible-light irradiation was harnessed to generate carbocations under neutral conditions and synthesize valuable di- and triarylalkanes as well as benzyl amines. To this end, photoredox catalysis and direct photoinduced C-S bond cleavage are used as complementary approaches and participate in the versatility of the general strategy. Extensive mechanistic studies have demonstrated the diversity of the reaction mechanism at work in these different reactions.
August 16, 2018: Organic Letters
Phillip L Lewis, Jimmy Su, Ming Yan, Fanyin Meng, Shannon S Glaser, Gianfranco D Alpini, Richard M Green, Beatriz Sosa-Pineda, Ramille N Shah
The biliary tree is an essential component of transplantable human liver tissue. Despite recent advances in liver tissue engineering, attempts at re-creating the intrahepatic biliary tree have not progressed significantly. The finer branches of the biliary tree are structurally and functionally complex and heterogeneous and require harnessing innate developmental processes for their regrowth. Here we demonstrate the ability of decellularized liver extracellular matrix (dECM) hydrogels to induce the in vitro formation of complex biliary networks using encapsulated immortalized mouse small biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes)...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sreekumar Balan, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Abdenour Abbas, Norbert Couespel, Juliette Savoret, Francesco Imperatore, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Nina Bhardwaj, Marc Dalod
The ability to generate large numbers of distinct types of human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro is critical for accelerating our understanding of DC biology and harnessing them clinically. We developed a DC differentiation method from human CD34+ precursors leading to high yields of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and both types of conventional DCs (cDC1s and cDC2s). The identity of the cells generated in vitro and their strong homology to their blood counterparts were demonstrated by phenotypic, functional, and single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
A R Tellegen, I Rudnik-Jansen, M Beukers, A Miranda-Bedate, F C Bach, W de Jong, N Woike, G Mihov, J Thies, B P Meij, L B Creemers, M A Tryfonidou
Low back pain, related to degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD), affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical studies using oral cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have shown beneficial effects, although side-effects were reported. Therefore, intradiscal delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be an alternative treatment strategy to halt degeneration and address IVD-related pain. In the present study, the controlled release and biologic potency of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, from polyesteramide microspheres was investigated in vitro...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Haobijam Johnson Singh, Ambarish Ghosh
Photonic manipulation with plasmonic materials is typically associated with high ohmic losses, which has triggered interest in alternative strategies based on low loss dielectric materials. Here we describe a novel dielectric nanomaterial capable of supporting strong Mie resonances from the visible to IR regimes. The fundamental block of this metamaterial is based on nanopillars in a core-shell configuration, with a large refractive index (RI) contrast between the (low RI) core and the (high RI) shell. The material showed strongly tunable optical resonances that varied from visible to near and mid IR as a function of shell thickness, core diameter and inter-pillar spacing...
August 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Kristine Laws, Kogularamanan Suntharalingam
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are heavily linked to fatal incidences of cancer relapse and metastasis. Conventional cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are largely futile against CSCs. Therefore, highly original approaches are needed to overcome CSCs and provide durable, long-term clinical outcomes. Many academia- and pharmaceutical-led studies aimed at developing chemical or biological anti-CSC agents are ongoing, however, the application of inorganic compounds is rare. In this minireview we discuss how the chemical diversity and versatility offered by metals has been harnessed to develop an unprecedented, emerging class of metallopharmaceuticals; CSC-active inorganics...
August 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Asaf Shemer, Liron Talmi, Dror S Shouval, Gil Har-Zahav, Raz Somech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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