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James G Dolan, Peter J Veazie
PURPOSE: In the process of developing an evidence-based decision dashboard to support treatment decisions for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, we found that the clinical evidence base is insufficient to provide high-quality comparative outcome data. We therefore sought to determine if clinically acceptable outcome estimates could be created using a modified version of the Sheffield Elicitation Framework (SHELF), a formal method for eliciting judgments regarding probability distributions of expected decision outcomes...
December 5, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Zhilei Ge, Hongzhou Gu, Qian Li, Chunhai Fan
The blooming field of structural DNA nanotechnology harnessing the material properties of nucleic acids has attracted widespread interest. The exploitation of the precise and programmable Watson-Crick base pairing of DNA or RNA has led to the development of exquisite nucleic acid nanostructures from one to three dimensions. The advances of computer-aided tools facilitate automated design of DNA nanostructures with various sizes and shapes. Especially, the construction of shell or skeleton DNA frameworks, or more recently dubbed 'Framework Nucleic Acids' (FNAs) provides a means to organize molecules or nanoparticles with nanometer precision...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abhishweta Saxena, Gaurav Sharma, Shweta Tyagi, Manish Mourya, Poonam Coshic, Pramod K Tiwari, Narinder K Mehra, Uma Kanga
The allelic family of HLA-A*02 with a repertoire of approximately 1022 alleles represents the predominant and most heterogeneous group at the HLA-A locus. This remarkable diversity signifies its evolutionary relevance. Its population specific diversity is attributed to environmental factors and pathogen pressure and can be harnessed in biology and medicine, particularly in disease association and for HLA based vaccination approaches. We therefore investigated the HLA-A*02 repertoire in two North Indian caste populations, viz Punjabi Khatries (PK, N=250), Kashmiri Brahmins (KB, N=160) and a Central Indian tribe Sahariya (ST, N=100) using Luminex based high resolution rSSO method...
December 4, 2018: HLA
Magali Cucchiarini, Henning Madry
Articular cartilage defects are prevalent and are potentially involved in the initiation of osteoarthritis, yet the lack of efficient therapeutic options to treat cartilage defects represents a substantial challenge. Molecular treatments that require the delivery of therapeutic gene vectors are often less effective that specific, targeted approaches, and the scientific evidence for acellular biomaterial-assisted procedures is limited. Controlled delivery of gene vectors using biocompatible materials is emerging as a novel strategy for the sustained and tuneable release of gene therapies in a spatiotemporally precise manner, thereby reducing intra-articular vector spread and possible loss of the therapeutic gene product...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Michel Georges, Carole Charlier, Ben Hayes
The world demand for animal-based food products is anticipated to increase by 70% by 2050. Meeting this demand in a way that has a minimal impact on the environment will require the implementation of advanced technologies, and methods to improve the genetic quality of livestock are expected to play a large part. Over the past 10 years, genomic selection has been introduced in several major livestock species and has more than doubled genetic progress in some. However, additional improvements are required. Genomic information of increasing complexity (including genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and microbiome data), combined with technological advances for its cost-effective collection and use, will make a major contribution...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Kaya Xu, Jea-Young Lee, Yuji Kaneko, Julian P Tuazon, Fernando Vale, Harry van Loveren, Cesario V Borlongan
Despite mounting evidence of a massive peripheral inflammatory response accompanying stroke, the ability of intracerebrally transplanted cells to migrate to the periphery and sequester systemic inflammation remains unexamined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells intracerebrally transplanted in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental stroke can migrate to the spleen, a vital organ that confers peripheral inflammation after stroke. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received sham or experimental stroke via the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion model...
December 4, 2018: Haematologica
Ryan M Brown, Gregory D Wiens, Irene Salinas
Commensal microorganisms present at mucosal surfaces play a vital role in protecting the host organism from bacterial infection. There are multiple factors that contribute to selecting for the microbiome, including host genetics. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of Bacterial Cold Water Disease in salmonids, accounts for acute losses in wild and farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The U.S. National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has used family-based selective breeding to generate a line of rainbow trout with enhanced resistance to F...
December 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Justin R Dee, Henry D Adams, Michael W Palmer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Herb chronology, the study of belowground annual growth rings in perennial forbs, has much potential as a tool for monitoring plant growth as a function of environment. To harness this potential, understanding of the coordination between ring ontogeny, aboveground phenology, and the temporal allocation of carbon products belowground in herbaceous forbs must be improved. METHODS: We investigated these relationships in two southern United States tallgrass prairie perennial forb species, Asclepias viridis and Lespedeza stuevei, making monthly excavations for a year...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Surjendu Maity, Joydip Chaudhuri, Shirsendu Mitra, Saptak Rarotra, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
We explore the improvements in yield and conversion of a chemical reaction inside a two-phase microfluidic reactor when subjected to an externally applied alternating current (AC) electric field. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) framework has been developed to incorporate the descriptions of the two-phase flow, multicomponent transport and reaction, and the Maxwell's stresses generated at oil-water interface owing to the presence of the externally applied electric field. The CFD model ensures that the reactants are flown into a microchannel together with the oil and water phases before the reaction takes place at the interface and products diffuse back to the bulk phases...
December 4, 2018: Electrophoresis
Hirokazu Kumazaki, Zachary Warren, Amy Swanson, Yuichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshio Matsumoto, Yuko Yoshimura, Jiro Shimaya, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Nilanjan Sarkar, Joshua Wade, Masaru Mimura, Yoshio Minabe, Mitsuru Kikuchi
Technological agents could be effective tools to be used in interventions for enhancing social orienting for some young children with ASD. We examined response to social bids in preschool children with ASD and typical development (TD) at a very early age (i.e., around 3 years) using social prompts presented by technological agents of various forms and human comparisons. Children with ASD demonstrated less response overall to social bids compared to TD controls, across agents or human. They responded more often to a simple humanoid robot and the simple avatar compared to the human...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Bertrand Schweitzer-Chaput, Matthew A Horwitz, Eduardo de Pedro Beato, Paolo Melchiorre
Chemists extensively use free radical reactivity for applications in organic synthesis, materials science, and life science. Traditionally, generating radicals requires strategies that exploit the bond dissociation energy or the redox properties of the precursors. Here, we disclose a photochemical catalytic approach that harnesses different physical properties of the substrate to form carbon radicals. We use a nucleophilic dithiocarbamate anion catalyst, adorned with a well-tailored chromophoric unit, to activate alkyl electrophiles via an SN 2 pathway...
December 3, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Stefanie L Groenland, Daniela Katz, Alwin D R Huitema, Neeltje Steeghs
BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma. Despite the high inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetic exposure, pazopanib is administered at a fixed dose of 800 mg once daily (QD). Pharmacokinetic exposure is linked to both efficacy and toxicity. In this case report, we illustrate the value of therapeutic drug monitoring by describing two patients with adequate pazopanib trough concentrations (Cmin ) at an eight times lower than standard dose...
December 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
Hyun-Chel Joo, Young-Nam Youn, Jung-Hwan Kim, Seung Hyun Lee, Sak Lee, Kyung-Jong Yoo
BACKGROUND: It is unclear at present whether conventional open repair or a hybrid technique is preferential in the treatment of aortic arch diseases. Our intent was to compare early and long-term outcomes of both therapeutic strategies. METHODS: Between January 2002 and December 2017, 238 patients eligible for total arch replacement (TAR, 174) or hybrid arch repair (HAR, 64) qualified for study. A retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes was undertaken, with propensity matching (48 pairs)...
November 30, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Patricia Masterson-Algar, Sion Williams, Christopher R Burton, Calum A Arthur, Zoe Hoare, Val Morrison, Kate Radford, Diane Seddon, Salah Elghenzai
PURPOSE: Rebuilding one's life after stroke is a key priority persistently identified by patients yet professionally led interventions have little impact. This co-design study constructs and tests a novel peer-led coaching intervention to improve post-stroke leisure and general social participation. METHODS: This study followed the principles of co-design by actively engaging and harnessing the knowledge of stroke survivors in order to develop and test a peer-lead coaching intervention...
December 3, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Jason P Van Batavia, Dana A Weiss, Christopher J Long, Julian Madison, Gus McCarthy, Natalie Plachter, Stephen A Zderic
PURPOSE: The era of the electronic health record (EHR) generates the ability to systematically collect and record innumerable data for complex procedures such as videourodynamic studies (VUDS). We developed a Structured Data Entry System (SDES) that would serve as a way to better standardize VUDS for both quality improvement and research capabilities. METHODS: A working group convened to design a SDES form for VUDS in a flow sheet format in our hospital's EHR, allowing for easy integration of the information into the clinical encounter note and for weekly export of data to clinicians in spreadsheet form...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Elizabeth Love, Afrah Sattikar, Hannah Cook, Kevin Gillen, Jonathan M Large, Seema Patel, David Matthews, Andy Merritt
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a growing class of therapeutics, harnessing the specificity of antibodies and the cell-killing potency of small molecule drugs. Beyond cytotoxics, there are few examples of the application of an ADC approach to difficult drug discovery targets. Here, we present the initial development of a non-internalising ADC, with a view to achieving selective inhibition of an extracellular protein. Employing the well investigated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as our model, we adapt a broad-spectrum, non-selective MMP inhibitor for conjugation and link this to a targeting MMP-9 antibody...
December 3, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Caitlin G Allen, Megan Roberts, Brittany Andersen, Muin J Khoury
Social media is increasingly being used as an information source and tool for individuals and organizations to share resources and engage in conversations about health topics. Because the public tends to learn about health topics and genetics from online social media sources, it is imperative to understand the amount, type, and quality of information being shared. We performed a retrospective analysis of tweets related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome (LS) between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Blake Ebert, Alex J Rai
Amniotic fluid, the fetal-protective liquid that fills the amniotic sac, represents a rich source of biomarkers. The diagnostic utility of amniotic fluid relies on the highly abundant maternal and fetal nucleic acid and proteomic content, which allows for the simultaneous determination of mother and fetal health status. Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that are released by all cells and found in amniotic fluid could be harnessed to provide substantial clinically actionable data. ECVs are mediators of critical biological functions and reflect the health of the parent cell...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthew J Scarborough, Christopher E Lawson, Joshua J Hamilton, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
Biomanufacturing from renewable feedstocks can offset fossil fuel-based chemical production. One potential biomanufacturing strategy is production of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) from organic feedstocks using either pure cultures or microbiomes. While the set of microbes in a microbiome can often metabolize organic materials of greater diversity than a single species can and while the role of specific species may be known, knowledge of the carbon and energy flow within and between organisms in MCFA-producing microbiomes is only now starting to emerge...
November 2018: MSystems
Maria Daniela Garcia-Castillo, Wayne I Lencer, Daniel J-F Chinnapen
Absorption and secretion of peptide and protein cargoes across single-cell thick mucosal and endothelial barriers occurs by active endocytic and vesicular trafficking that connects one side of the epithelial or endothelial cell (the lumen) with the other (the serosa or blood). Assays that assess this pathway must robustly control for non-specific and passive solute flux through weak or damaged intercellular junctions that seal the epithelial or endothelial cells together. Here we describe an in vitro cell culture Transwell assay for transcytosis of therapeutic peptides linked covalently to various species of the glycosphingolipid GM1...
October 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
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