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Ehsan Ullah, Raghvendra Mall, Reda Rawi, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Adeel A Butt, Halima Bensmail
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors' names was processed incorrectly. In this Correction the incorrect and correct author name are shown. The original publication of this article has been corrected.
October 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Roberta Guagliardo, Jésus Pérez-Gil, Stefaan De Smedt, Koen Raemdonck
Pulmonary surfactant (PS) has been extensively studied because of its primary role in mammalian breathing. The deposition of this surface-active material at the alveolar air-water interface is essential to lower surface tension, thus avoiding alveolar collapse during expiration. In addition, PS is involved in host defense, facilitating the clearance of potentially harmful particulates. PS has a unique composition, including 92% of lipids and 8% of surfactant proteins (SPs) by mass. Although they constitute the minor fraction, SPs to a large extent orchestrate PS-related functions...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jane Harper, Katherine J Adams, Giovanna Bossi, Debbie E Wright, Andrea R Stacey, Nicole Bedke, Ruth Martinez-Hague, Dan Blat, Laure Humbert, Hazel Buchanan, Gabrielle S Le Provost, Zoe Donnellan, Ricardo J Carreira, Samantha J Paston, Luise U Weigand, Martina Canestraro, Joseph P Sanderson, Sophie Botta Gordon-Smith, Kate L Lowe, Karolina A Rygiel, Alex S Powlesland, Annelise Vuidepot, Namir J Hassan, Brian J Cameron, Bent K Jakobsen, Joseph Dukes
Robust preclinical testing is essential to predict clinical safety and efficacy and provide data to determine safe dose for first-in-man studies. There are a growing number of examples where the preclinical development of drugs failed to adequately predict clinical adverse events in part due to their assessment with inappropriate preclinical models. Preclinical investigations of T cell receptor (TCR)-based immunotherapies prove particularly challenging as these biologics are human-specific and thus the conventional testing in animal models is inadequate...
2018: PloS One
Adam B Raff, Carina N Thomas, Gary S Chuang, Mathew M Avram, Monica H Le, R Rox Anderson, Martin Purschke
OBJECTIVE: Lidocaine acts as a local anesthetic by blocking transmembrane sodium channel permeability, but also induces the synthesis of heat shock proteins and sensitizes cells to hyperthermia. A previous study reported two cases of deep focal skin ulceration at points corresponding to depot local lidocaine injection sites after treatment with non-ablative fractional resurfacing and it was hypothesized that lidocaine had focally sensitized keratinocytes to the thermal damage of laser treatment...
October 15, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Daniel M Altmann
The field of cancer immunology stepped into the limelight this year when James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. Among many exciting advances contributing to the coming of age of tumour immunology as a viable clinical specialty has been the ability to progress from the initial elucidation of tumour antigens, such as the melanoma antigen, MAGE-1, to high-throughput sequencing facilitating identification of T cell epitopes from diverse tumour neoantigens...
November 2018: Immunology
Katherine E Riojas, Richard J Hendrick, Robert J Webster
Concentric tube manipulators exhibit elastic instability in which tubes snap from one configuration to another, rapidly releasing stored strain energy. While this has long been viewed as a negative phenomenon to be avoided at all costs, in this paper we explore for the first time whether the effect can be harnessed beneficially for certain applications. Specifically, we show that the energy released in an instability can be useful for challenging, high-force surgical tasks such as driving a needle through tissue...
July 2018: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
M V Rohit, S Venkata Mohan
Microalgae are gaining commercial interests in the areas food, feed and biofuel sector. They have intrinsic ability to harness energy from sunlight and photosynthetically valorize CO2 into various bio-based products viz., triacylglycerols (TAGs), mono/poly-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), pigments etc. Microalgae have adapted to grow in various nutritional environments due to their metabolic versatility and resilience. Strategic evaluation of newly isolated strain Chlorella sp. from a residential lake was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Cahit Polat, Sertaç Düzer, Hakan Ayyıldız, Semih Seç, Neval Aksoy, Öner Sakallıoğlu, Abdulvahap Akyiğit, Hasan Çetiner
Objective: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease of the oral mucosa that commonly affects the general population. The objective of this study was to conduct a research in assesing the relationship between psychological disorders including anxiety, depression and salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS. Methods: Thirty-nine patients suffering from minor RAS were enrolled in the study after obtaining an informed consent. The control group consisted of 25 age and gender matched healthy individuals...
September 2018: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Chin Min Wong, Marianna Fekete, Rhianna Nelson-Forde, Mark R D Gatus, Peter J Rayner, Adrian C Whitwood, Simon B Duckett, Barbara A Messerle
The catalytic signal amplification by reversible exchange process has become widely used for the hyperpolarisation of small molecules to improve their magnetic resonance detectability. It harnesses the latent polarisation of para hydrogen, and involves the formation of a labile metal complex that often contains an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand ( e.g. [Ir(H)2 (NHC)(pyridine)3 ]Cl), which act as a polarisation transfer catalyst. Unfortunately, if the target molecule is too bulky, binding to the catalyst is poor and the hyperpolarisation yield is therefore low...
October 7, 2018: Catalysis Science & Technology
Claire Gorby, Jonathan Martinez-Fabregas, Stephan Wilmes, Ignacio Moraga
Cytokines comprise a large family of secreted ligands that are critical for the regulation of immune homeostasis. Cytokines initiate signaling via dimerization or oligomerization of the cognate receptor subunits, triggering the activation of the Janus Kinases (JAKs)/ signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) pathway and the induction of specific gene expression programs and bioactivities. Deregulation of cytokines or their downstream signaling pathways are at the root of many human disorders including autoimmunity and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Elizabeth Story-Roller, Emily C Maggioncalda, Keira A Cohen, Gyanu Lamichhane
β-lactams, the most widely used class of antibiotics, are well-tolerated, and their molecular mechanisms of action against many bacteria are well-documented. Mycobacterium abscessus ( Mab ) is a highly drug-resistant rapidly-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Only in recent years have we started to gain insight into the unique relationship between β-lactams and their targets in Mab . In this mini-review, we summarize recent findings that have begun to unravel the molecular basis for overall efficacy of β-lactams against Mab and discuss emerging evidence that indicates that we have yet to harness the full potential of this antibiotic class to treat Mab infections...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xianling Gong, Ruibo Sun, Zhuowei Gao, Weili Han, Yawei Liu, Liang Zhao, Linlin Jing, Xueqing Yao, Xuegang Sun
Macropinocytosis is a highly conserved endocytic process which characterizes the engulfment of extracellular fluid and its contents into cells via large, heterogeneous vacuoles known as macropinosomes. Tubeimoside-1 (TBM1) is a low toxic triterpenoid saponin extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) . TBM1 stimulates a quick accumulation of numerous phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles in multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. These vacuoles can be termed as macropinosomes that efficiently engulf lucifer yellow...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Samuel C T Moorcroft, David G Jayne, Stephen D Evans, Zhan Yuin Ong
Recently, the combination of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Au, Ag, Fe2 O3 , and Fe3 O4 with traditional soft matter drug-delivery systems has emerged as a promising strategy to achieve site-specific and controlled release of antimicrobial agents. By harnessing the plasmonic and magnetic properties of inorganic NPs, the disruption of antibiotic-loaded liposomes, polymersomes, and hydrogels can be remotely triggered by mechanisms such as photo- and magneto-thermal effects, microbubble cavitation, magnetic positioning, and pH-changes, hence offering significant advantages in improving antibacterial efficacy, reducing side effects, and in overcoming antimicrobial resistance...
October 14, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Harald Walach, Michael Loughlin
BACKGROUND: The success of medicine in the treatment of patients brings with it new challenges. More people live on to suffer from functional, chronic or multifactorial diseases, and this has led to calls for more complex analyses of the causal determinants of health and illness. METHODS: Philosophical analysis of background assumptions of the current paradigmatic model. RESULTS: While these factors do not require a radical paradigm shift, they do give us cause to develop a new narrative, to add to existing narratives that frame our thinking about medical care...
October 14, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Anne Nsubuga, Kristof Zarschler, Massimo Sgarzi, Bim Graham, Holger Stephan, Tanmaya Joshi
We demonstrate a novel strategy for preparing hydrophilic upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) by harnessing the photocrosslinking ability of diacetylenes (DAs). Replacement of the hydrophobic oleate coating on the UCNPs with 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), followed by overcoating with diacetylene phospholipid and subsequent photocrosslinking under 254 nm irradiation produces water-dispersible polydiacetylene (PDA)-coated UCNPs. These UCNPs resist the formation of a biomolecular corona and show great colloidal stability...
October 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ajay Pillarisetti, Manpreet Gill, Tracy Allen, Sathish Madhavan, Arun Dhongade, Makarand Ghorpade, Sudipto Roy, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Sanjay Juvekar, Kirk R Smith
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs)-cash payments provided to households or specific household members who meet defined conditions or fulfill certain behaviors-have been extensively used in India to encourage antenatal care, institutional delivery, and vaccination. This paper describes the social design and technical development of a low-cost, meal-counting stove use monitor (the Pink Key) that enables a CCT based on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage and presents pilot data from its testing and the initial deployment...
October 12, 2018: EcoHealth
Peter J Rayner, Philip Norcott, Kate M Appleby, Wissam Iali, Richard O John, Sam J Hart, Adrian C Whitwood, Simon B Duckett
Iridium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes catalyse the para-hydrogen-induced hyperpolarization process, Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE). This process transfers the latent magnetism of para-hydrogen into a substrate, without changing its chemical identity, to dramatically improve its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detectability. By synthesizing and examining over 30 NHC containing complexes, here we rationalize the key characteristics of efficient SABRE catalysis prior to using appropriate catalyst-substrate combinations to quantify the substrate's NMR detectability...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Yunjiao Zhang, Rui Sha, Lan Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Peipei Jin, Weiguo Xu, Jianxun Ding, Jun Lin, Jing Qian, Guangyu Yao, Rui Zhang, Fanchen Luo, Jie Zeng, Jie Cao, Long-Ping Wen
Chemo-PTT, which combines chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, offers a viable approach for the complete tumor eradication but would likely fail in drug-resistant situations if conventional chemotherapeutic agents are used. Here we show that a type of copper (Cu)-palladium (Pd) alloy tetrapod nanoparticles (TNP-1) presents an ideal solution to the chemo-PTT challenges. TNP-1 exhibit superior near-infrared photothermal conversion efficiency, thanks to their special sharp-tip structure, and induce pro-survival autophagy in a shape- and composition-dependent manner...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Jeffrey R Powell
The issue of typological versus population thinking in biology is briefly introduced and defined. It is then emphasized how population thinking is most relevant and useful in vector biology. Three points are made: (1) Vectors, as they exist in nature, are genetically very heterogeneous. (2) Four examples of how this is relevant in vector biology research are presented: Understanding variation in vector competence, GWAS, identifying the origin of new introductions of invasive species, and resistance to inbreeding...
October 11, 2018: Insects
Himadri Shekhar Dhar, Matthias Zens, Dmitry O Krimer, Stefan Rotter
Mesoscopic spin ensembles coupled to a cavity offer the exciting prospect of observing complex nonclassical phenomena that pool the microscopic features from a few spins with those of macroscopic spin ensembles. Here, we demonstrate how the collective interactions in an ensemble of as many as a hundred spins can be harnessed to obtain a periodic pulse train of nonclassical light. To unravel the full quantum dynamics and photon statistics, we develop a time-adaptive variational renormalization group method that accurately captures the underlying Lindbladian dynamics of the mesoscopic spin-cavity system...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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