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epigenetic brain cognition

Julia Böck, Christian W Remmele, Marcus Dittrich, Tobias Müller, Ivanela Kondova, Stephan Persengiev, Ronald E Bontrop, Carsten P Ade, Theo F J Kraus, Armin Giese, Nady El Hajj, Eberhard Schneider, Thomas Haaf
Epigenetic changes have likely contributed to the large size and enhanced cognitive abilities of the human brain which evolved within the last 2 million years after the human-chimpanzee split. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we have compared the methylomes of neuronal and non-neuronal cells from 3 human and 3 chimpanzee cortices. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with genome-wide significance were enriched in specific genomic regions. Intraspecific methylation differences between neuronal and non-neuronal cells were approximately 3 times more abundant than interspecific methylation differences between human and chimpanzee cell types...
August 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Claudine M Kraan, David E Godler, David J Amor
The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1)-related disorder fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable form of cognitive impairment and the second most common cause of comorbid autism. FXS usually results when a premutation trinucleotide CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene (CGG 55-200) expands over generations to a full mutation allele (CGG >200). This expansion is associated with silencing of the FMR1 promoter via an epigenetic mechanism that involves DNA methylation of the CGG repeat and the surrounding regulatory regions...
August 7, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Alessandra Mallei, Alessandro Ieraci, Stefano Corna, Daniela Tardito, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin highly expressed in the hippocampus, plays crucial roles in cognition, neuroplasticity, synaptic function and dendritic remodeling. The common human Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, and in the outcome of pro-adaptive and therapeutic treatments. Altered gene expression profile has been previously shown in BDNF Val66Met knock-in mice, which recapitulate the phenotypic hallmarks of individuals carrying the BDNF Met allele...
August 1, 2018: Hippocampus
Daniel Frías-Lasserre, Cristian A Villagra, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Despite current advances on the relevance of environmental cues and epigenetic mechanisms in biological processes, including behavior, little attention has been paid to the potential link between epigenetic influences and educational sciences. For instance, could the learning environment and stress determine epigenetic marking, affecting students' behavior development? Could this have consequences on educational outcomes? So far, it has been shown that environmental stress influences neurological processes and behavior both in humans and rats...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Guia Guffanti, Andrew Bartlett, Torsten Klengel, Claudia Klengel, Richard Hunter, Gennadi Glinsky, Fabio Macciardi
Expression of transposable elements (TE) is transiently activated during human preimplantation embryogenesis in a developmental stage- and cell type-specific manner and TE-mediated epigenetic regulation is intrinsically wired in developmental genetic networks in human embryos and embryonic stem cells. However, there are no systematic studies devoted to a comprehensive analysis of the TE transcriptome in human adult organs and tissues, including human neural tissues. To investigate TE expression in the human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC), we developed and validated a straightforward analytical approach to chart quantitative genome-wide expression profiles of all annotated TE loci based on unambiguous mapping of discrete TE-encoded transcripts using a de novo assembly strategy...
July 20, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Riley M Bove, Ellis Patrick, Cristin McCabe Aubin, Gyan Srivastava, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Lori B Chibnik
PURPOSE: Human females have a unique duration of post-reproductive longevity, during which sex-specific mechanisms ma influence later-life mechanisms of neuronal resilience and vulnerability. The maintenance of energy metabolism, through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) apparatus, is essential for brain health. Given the known association between reproductive period (years from menarche to menopause) and cognitive aging, we examined the hypothesis that cumulative estrogen exposure across the lifetime may be associated with differential methylation of genes in the OXPHOS pathway...
2018: PloS One
Hiroshi Maejima, Shuta Ninuma, Akane Okuda, Takahiro Inoue, Masataka Hayashi
Aerobic exercise is known to increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and to improve cognitive function. The inhibition of GABAergic synapses enhances hippocampal plasticity as well as learning and memory. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactive effect of low-level GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise on behavior tests (cognitive function and locomotor activity), expression of BDNF and epigenetic regulations including the activity levels of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the hippocampus...
July 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Lars Nyberg, Sara Pudas
For more than 50 years, psychologists, gerontologists, and, more recently, neuroscientists have considered the possibility of successful aging. How to define successful aging remains debated, but well-preserved age-sensitive cognitive functions, like episodic memory, is an often-suggested criterion. Evidence for successful memory aging comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that some older individuals display high and stable levels of performance. Successful memory aging may be accomplished via multiple paths...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Aline Pertile Remor, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Filipe José de Matos, Viviane Glaser, Roberta de Paula Martins, Karina Ghisoni, Débora da Luz Scheffer, Denise Carleto Andia, Daniele Portinho, Ana Paula de Souza, Paulo Alexandre de Oliveira, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alicia I Torres, Rose Marie Mueller Linhares, Roger Walz, Marcelo Fernando Ronsoni, Alexandre Hohl, Alex Rafacho, Aderbal Silva Aguiar, Ana Lucia De Paul, Alexandra Latini
Chronic metabolic alterations may represent a risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases. Hyperglycemia and obesity are known to imprint epigenetic markers that compromise the proper expression of cell survival genes. Here, we showed that chronic hyperglycemia (60 days) induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin compromised cognition by reducing hippocampal ERK signaling and by inducing neurotoxicity in rats. The mechanisms appear to be linked to reduced active DNA demethylation and diminished expression of the neuroprotective transcription factor REST...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Hari Prasad, Rajini Rao
Endosomes have emerged as a central hub and pathogenic driver of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The earliest brain cytopathology in neurodegeneration, occurring decades before amyloid plaques and cognitive decline, is an expansion in the size and number of endosomal compartments. The strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is the ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). Previous studies have shown that ApoE4 potentiates presymptomatic endosomal dysfunction and defective endocytic clearance of amyloid beta (Aβ), although how these two pathways are linked at a cellular and mechanistic level has been unclear...
July 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nagalakshmi B, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar
Of all types of injuries, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are most likely to result in death or permanent physical or mental disabilities. With the increased frequency of military operations, terror attacks, sports activities, and road mishaps, TBIs are increasingly becoming a serious public health concern. Patients who meet with moderate-to-severe TBI suffer from a constellation of cognitive deficits and phenotypes due to diffuse axonal injury. On the contrary, minimal TBI precipitates in long-term behavioral complications commonly referred to as post-traumatic stress disorders, which consist of depression, anxiety, hallucinations, and so on...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Dennis R Grayson, Alessandro Guidotti
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating disease that impacts 1% of the population worldwide. Association studies have shown that inherited genetic mutations account for a portion of disease risk. However, environmental factors play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease by altering cellular epigenetic marks at the level of chromatin. Postmortem brain studies of SZ subjects suggest that the dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation network components is disrupted at the level of individual SZ target genes...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Tiffany S Doherty, Tania L Roth
It is understood that adversity during development has the power to alter behavioral trajectories, and the role of the epigenome in that relationship is currently under intense investigation. Several studies in both nonhuman animals and humans have established a link between early adversity and epigenetic regulation of genes heavily implicated in the stress response, plasticity and cognition, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Thus the relatively recent surge of studies centering on the epigenetic outcomes of stress has great potential to inform treatments and interventions for psychiatric disorder precipitated by early adversity...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Chuan Xu, Qian Li, Olga Efimova, Liu He, Shoji Tatsumoto, Vita Stepanova, Takao Oishi, Toshifumi Udono, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hiroyuki Nawa, Philipp Khaitovich, Yasuhiro Go
Molecular maps of the human brain alone do not inform us of the features unique to humans. Yet, the identification of these features is important for understanding both the evolution and nature of human cognition. Here, we approached this question by analyzing gene expression and H3K27ac chromatin modification data collected in eight brain regions of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, a gibbon, and macaques. An analysis of spatial transcriptome trajectories across eight brain regions in four primate species revealed 1851 genes showing human-specific transcriptome differences in one or multiple brain regions, in contrast to 240 chimpanzee-specific differences...
August 2018: Genome Research
Herbert Y Meltzer, Min Young Sim, Adam Anderson, Christopher Cannistraci, Karu Jayathilake, Daniel Barrett Share, Myung Lee
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic spectrum disorder (PSD) links the syndromes of bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, and schizophrenia, often viewed as unique disorders. AIMS: Application of the PSD concept to a single patient rather than across groups of patients and demonstration of a remarkable remission of schizophrenia phenotype with recovery of gray matter in specific brain regions. RESULTS: We report a woman who experienced discrete, nonoverlapping periods of each of the above syndromes, in the order noted, over a 30-year period, followed by abrupt ending of psychosis and full remission lasting at least 7 years...
July 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
James H Cole, Riccardo E Marioni, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary
As our brains age, we tend to experience cognitive decline and are at greater risk of neurodegenerative disease and dementia. Symptoms of chronic neuropsychiatric diseases are also exacerbated during ageing. However, the ageing process does not affect people uniformly; nor, in fact, does the ageing process appear to be uniform even within an individual. Here, we outline recent neuroimaging research into brain ageing and the use of other bodily ageing biomarkers, including telomere length, the epigenetic clock, and grip strength...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Chao-Jiang Gu, Alejandra Borjabad, Eran Hadas, Jennifer Kelschenbach, Boe-Hyun Kim, Wei Chao, Ottavio Arancio, Jin Suh, Bruce Polsky, JoEllyn McMillan, Benson Edagwa, Howard E Gendelman, Mary Jane Potash, David J Volsky
Suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy (ART) or host immunity can prevent AIDS but not other HIV-associated conditions including neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI). Pathogenesis in HIV-suppressed individuals has been attributed to reservoirs of latent-inducible virus in resting CD4+ T cells. Macrophages are persistently infected with HIV but their role as HIV reservoirs in vivo has not been fully explored. Here we show that infection of conventional mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV, reproduces physiological conditions for development of disease in people on ART including immunocompetence, stable suppression of HIV replication, persistence of integrated, replication-competent HIV in T cells and macrophages, and manifestation of learning and memory deficits in behavioral tests, termed here murine HIV-NCI...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jolie D Barter, Thomas C Foster
Gene expression in the aging brain depends on transcription signals generated by senescent physiology, interacting with genetic and epigenetic programs. In turn, environmental factors influence epigenetic mechanisms, such that an epigenetic-environmental link may contribute to the accumulation of cellular damage, susceptibility or resilience to stressors, and variability in the trajectory of age-related cognitive decline. Epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modifications, alter chromatin structure and the accessibility of DNA...
June 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Tara Nguyen, Gerard E Li, Hui Chen, Charles G Cranfield, Kristine C McGrath, Catherine A Gorrie
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is on the rise worldwide and is particularly attractive to young people and as a smoking substitute by pregnant woman. There is a perception in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age that the use of e-cigarettes (vaping) is safer than smoking tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this perception. Here, we examined the offspring from mouse dams that had been exposed during and after pregnancy to ambient air (sham) ( n = 8), e-cigarette aerosols with nicotine ( n = 8), or e-cigarette aerosols without nicotine ( n = 8)...
July 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Marie A Labouesse, Marcello Polesel, Elena Clementi, Flavia Müller, Enni Markkanen, Forouhar Mouttet, Annamaria Cattaneo, Juliet Richetto
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), master regulator of higher-order cognitive functions, is the only brain region that matures until late adolescence. During this period, the mPFC is sensitive to stressful events or suboptimal nutrition. For instance, high-fat diet (HFD) feeding during adolescence markedly impairs prefrontal-dependent cognition. It also provokes multiple changes at the cellular and synaptic scales within the mPFC, suggesting that major transcriptional events are elicited by HFD during this maturational period...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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