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epigenetic brain cognition

Renata H Bahous, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Liyuan Deng, Daniel Leclerc, Olga Malysheva, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Folate is an important B vitamin required for methylation reactions, nucleotide and neurotransmitter synthesis, and maintenance of homocysteine at nontoxic levels. Its metabolism is tightly linked to that of choline, a precursor to acetylcholine and membrane phospholipids. Low folate intake and genetic variants in folate metabolism, such as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T polymorphism, have been suggested to impact brain function and increase the risk for cognitive decline and late-onset Alzheimer's disease...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Francisco V Muñoz, Linda Larkey
Background: Biomarkers associated with inflammation and immune function are increasingly being used to examine mechanisms of the effects of mind-body therapies. Less researched are biomarkers associated with cognitive and executive functioning in the study of mind-body therapy mechanisms and effects. This study explored the feasibility of recruiting breast cancer patients (BCPs) and implementation fidelity of participation in a research project utilizing the 4-stage Creative Psychosocial Genomic Healing Experience (CPGHE), a mind-body protocol that is theorized to create epigenetic effects via targeted psychological change in emotional triggers in coping with cancer...
April 2018: Advances in Integrative Medicine
Georgina Askeland, Marie Rodinova, Hana Štufková, Zaneta Dosoudilova, Monika Baxa, Petra Smatlikova, Bozena Bohuslavova, Jiri Klempir, The Duong Nguyen, Anna Kuśnierczyk, Magnar Bjørås, Arne Klungland, Hana Hansikova, Zdenka Ellederova, Lars Eide
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with currently no available treatment. The Libechov transgenic minipig model for HD (TgHD) displays neuroanatomical similarities to humans and exhibits slow disease progression and therefore more powerful compared to available mouse models for the development of therapy. The phenotypic characterization of this model is still ongoing, and it is essential to validate biomarkers to monitor disease progression and intervention. In this study, the behavioral phenotype (cognitive, motor and behavior) of the TgHD model was assessed along with biomarkers for mitochondrial capacity, oxidative stress, DNA integrity and DNA repair at different ages (24, 36 and 48 months) and compared with age-matched controls...
September 26, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 h light (150 lux): 12 h darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eleonora Napoli, Andrea Schneider, Randi Hagerman, Gyu Song, Sarah Wong, Flora Tassone, Cecilia Giulivi
Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) has been identified in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and brain samples from adults carrying a 55-200 CGG expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 ( FMR1 ) gene (premutation; PM); however, limited data are available on the bioenergetics of pediatric carriers. Here we discuss a case report of three PM carriers: two monozygotic twins (aged 8 years) harboring an FMR1 allele with 150-180 CGG repeats, with no cognitive or intellectual issues but diagnosed with depression, mood instability and ADHD, and their mother (asymptomatic carrier with 78 CGG repeats)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Daria Tchessalova, Caitlin Kelly Posillico, Natalie Celia Tronson
Neuroimmune signaling is increasingly identified as a critical component of neuronal processes underlying memory, emotion and cognition. The interactions of microglia and astrocytes with neurons and synapses, and the individual cytokines and immune signaling molecules that mediate these interactions are a current focus of much research. Here, we discuss neuroimmune activation as a mechanism triggering different states that modulate cognitive and affective processes to allow for appropriate behavior during and after illness or injury...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Anna Maria Tartaglione, Chiara Cipriani, Flavia Chiarotti, Benedetta Perrone, Emanuela Balestrieri, Claudia Matteucci, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Gemma Calamandrei, Laura Ricceri
Prenatal treatment with the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with a significant risk of somatic anomalies, neurodevelopmental delays, and 7-10× increase in the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. Rodents exposed to VPA in pregnancy show birth defects, deficits in neurodevelopment, and cognitive/social anomalies resembling those of ASD children. Mechanisms of VPA neurobehavioral toxicity are still unclear but as VPA is a non-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases, epigenetic modifications are likely involved...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Christian Griñán-Ferré, Vanesa Izquierdo, Eduard Otero, Dolors Puigoriol-Illamola, Rubén Corpas, Coral Sanfeliu, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún, Mercè Pallàs
Cumulative evidence shows that modifications in lifestyle factors constitute an effective strategy to modulate molecular events related to neurodegenerative diseases, confirming the relevant role of epigenetics. Accordingly, Environmental Enrichment (EE) represents an approach to ameliorate cognitive decline and neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by specific neuropathological hallmarks, such as β-amyloid plaques and Neurofibrillary Tangles, which severely affect the areas of the brain responsible for learning and memory...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jeffrey J Moffat, Eui-Man Jung, Minhan Ka, Amanda L Smith, Byeong Tak Jeon, Gijs W E Santen, Woo-Yang Kim
Haploinsufficiency of the chromatin remodeling factor ARID1B leads to autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Several independent research groups, including our own, recently examined the effects of heterozygous deletion of Arid1b in mice and reported severe behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability as well as marked changes in gene expression and decreased body size. Arid1b heterozygous mice also display significant cortical excitatory/inhibitory imbalance due to altered GABAergic neuron numbers and impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission...
August 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Shinya Tasaki, Chris Gaiteri, Sara Mostafavi, Lei Yu, Yanling Wang, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Multiple aspects of molecular regulation, including genetics, epigenetics, and mRNA collectively influence the development of age-related neurologic diseases. Therefore, with the ultimate goal of understanding molecular systems associated with cognitive decline, we infer directed interactions among regulatory elements in the local regulatory vicinity of individual genes based on brain multi-omics data from 413 individuals. These local regulatory networks (LRNs) capture the influences of genetics and epigenetics on gene expression in older adults...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jie Jie, Xiaoyan Xu, Jinjun Xia, Zhe Tu, Yujie Guo, Chenmeng Li, Xiong Zhang, Haiyang Wang, Weihong Song, Peng Xie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) infection induces cognitive impairment in rodents. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that Chromatin remodeling through histone acetylation can regulate cognitive function. In the present study, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of chromatin that underlies BoDV-1-induced cognitive changes in the hippocampus. METHODS: Immunofluorescence assay was applied to detect BoDV-1 infection in hippocampal neurons and Sprague-Dawley rats models...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Julia Böck, Christian W Remmele, Marcus Dittrich, Tobias Müller, Ivanela Kondova, Stephan Persengiev, Ronald E Bontrop, Carsten P Ade, Theo F J Kraus, Armin Giese, Nady El Hajj, Eberhard Schneider, Thomas Haaf
Epigenetic changes have likely contributed to the large size and enhanced cognitive abilities of the human brain which evolved within the last 2 million years after the human-chimpanzee split. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we have compared the methylomes of neuronal and non-neuronal cells from 3 human and 3 chimpanzee cortices. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with genome-wide significance were enriched in specific genomic regions. Intraspecific methylation differences between neuronal and non-neuronal cells were approximately 3 times more abundant than interspecific methylation differences between human and chimpanzee cell types...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Claudine M Kraan, David E Godler, David J Amor
The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1)-related disorder fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable form of cognitive impairment and the second most common cause of comorbid autism. FXS usually results when a premutation trinucleotide CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene (CGG 55-200) expands over generations to a full mutation allele (CGG >200). This expansion is associated with silencing of the FMR1 promoter via an epigenetic mechanism that involves DNA methylation of the CGG repeat and the surrounding regulatory regions...
August 7, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Alessandra Mallei, Alessandro Ieraci, Stefano Corna, Daniela Tardito, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin highly expressed in the hippocampus, plays crucial roles in cognition, neuroplasticity, synaptic function and dendritic remodeling. The common human Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, and in the outcome of pro-adaptive and therapeutic treatments. Altered gene expression profile has been previously shown in BDNF Val66Met knock-in mice, which recapitulate the phenotypic hallmarks of individuals carrying the BDNF Met allele...
August 1, 2018: Hippocampus
Daniel Frías-Lasserre, Cristian A Villagra, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Despite current advances on the relevance of environmental cues and epigenetic mechanisms in biological processes, including behavior, little attention has been paid to the potential link between epigenetic influences and educational sciences. For instance, could the learning environment and stress determine epigenetic marking, affecting students' behavior development? Could this have consequences on educational outcomes? So far, it has been shown that environmental stress influences neurological processes and behavior both in humans and rats...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Guia Guffanti, Andrew Bartlett, Torsten Klengel, Claudia Klengel, Richard Hunter, Gennadi Glinsky, Fabio Macciardi
Expression of transposable elements (TE) is transiently activated during human preimplantation embryogenesis in a developmental stage- and cell type-specific manner and TE-mediated epigenetic regulation is intrinsically wired in developmental genetic networks in human embryos and embryonic stem cells. However, there are no systematic studies devoted to a comprehensive analysis of the TE transcriptome in human adult organs and tissues, including human neural tissues. To investigate TE expression in the human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC), we developed and validated a straightforward analytical approach to chart quantitative genome-wide expression profiles of all annotated TE loci based on unambiguous mapping of discrete TE-encoded transcripts using a de novo assembly strategy...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Riley M Bove, Ellis Patrick, Cristin McCabe Aubin, Gyan Srivastava, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Lori B Chibnik
PURPOSE: Human females have a unique duration of post-reproductive longevity, during which sex-specific mechanisms ma influence later-life mechanisms of neuronal resilience and vulnerability. The maintenance of energy metabolism, through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) apparatus, is essential for brain health. Given the known association between reproductive period (years from menarche to menopause) and cognitive aging, we examined the hypothesis that cumulative estrogen exposure across the lifetime may be associated with differential methylation of genes in the OXPHOS pathway...
2018: PloS One
Hiroshi Maejima, Shuta Ninuma, Akane Okuda, Takahiro Inoue, Masataka Hayashi
Aerobic exercise is known to increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and to improve cognitive function. The inhibition of GABAergic synapses enhances hippocampal plasticity as well as learning and memory. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactive effect of low-level GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise on behavior tests (cognitive function and locomotor activity), expression of BDNF and epigenetic regulations including the activity levels of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the hippocampus...
July 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Lars Nyberg, Sara Pudas
For more than 50 years, psychologists, gerontologists, and, more recently, neuroscientists have considered the possibility of successful aging. How to define successful aging remains debated, but well-preserved age-sensitive cognitive functions, like episodic memory, is an often-suggested criterion. Evidence for successful memory aging comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that some older individuals display high and stable levels of performance. Successful memory aging may be accomplished via multiple paths...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Aline Pertile Remor, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Filipe José de Matos, Viviane Glaser, Roberta de Paula Martins, Karina Ghisoni, Débora da Luz Scheffer, Denise Carleto Andia, Daniele Portinho, Ana Paula de Souza, Paulo Alexandre de Oliveira, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alicia I Torres, Rose Marie Mueller Linhares, Roger Walz, Marcelo Fernando Ronsoni, Alexandre Hohl, Alex Rafacho, Aderbal Silva Aguiar, Ana Lucia De Paul, Alexandra Latini
Chronic metabolic alterations may represent a risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases. Hyperglycemia and obesity are known to imprint epigenetic markers that compromise the proper expression of cell survival genes. Here, we showed that chronic hyperglycemia (60 days) induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin compromised cognition by reducing hippocampal ERK signaling and by inducing neurotoxicity in rats. The mechanisms appear to be linked to reduced active DNA demethylation and diminished expression of the neuroprotective transcription factor REST...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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