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epigenetic brain cognition

Christiano Spindler, Ethiane Segabinazi, André Luís Ferreira de Meireles, Francele Valente Piazza, Filipe Mega, Gabriela Dos Santos Salvalaggio, Matilde Achaval, Viviane Rostirola Elsner, Simone Marcuzzo
It is widely known that maternal physical exercise is able to induce beneficial improvements in offspring cognition; however, the effects of paternal exercise have not been explored in detail. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity and DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus of male offspring. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sedentary or exercised fathers. The paternal preconception exercise protocol consisted of treadmill running, 20 minutes daily, 5 consecutive days per week for 22 days, while the mothers were not trained...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Natalia N Nalivaeva, Anthony J Turner, Igor A Zhuravin
This review focuses on the role of prenatal hypoxia in the development of brain functions in the postnatal period and subsequent increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that prenatal hypoxia in critical periods of brain formation results in significant changes in development of cognitive functions at various stages of postnatal life which correlate with morphological changes in brain structures involved in learning and memory. Prenatal hypoxia also leads to a decrease in brain adaptive potential and plasticity due to the disturbance in the process of formation of new contacts between cells and propagation of neuronal stimuli, especially in the cortex and hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
G C Sartor, A M Malvezzi, A Kumar, N S Andrade, H J Wiedner, S J Vilca, K J Janczura, A Bagheri, H Al-Ali, S K Powell, P T Brown, C H Volmar, T C Foster, Z Zeier, C Wahlestedt
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have therapeutic utility in multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify BRD4, a BET bromodomain reader of acetyl-lysine histones, as an essential component involved in potentiated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and memory following HDAC inhibition. In in vitro studies, we reveal that pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 reversed the increase in BDNF mRNA induced by the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Debora Cutuli, Erica Berretta, Daniela Laricchiuta, Paola Caporali, Francesca Gelfo, Laura Petrosini
While the positive effects of environmental enrichment (EE) applied after weaning, in adulthood, during aging, or even in the presence of brain damage have been widely described, the transgenerational effects of pre-reproductive EE have been less examined. And yet, this issue is remarkable given that parental environmental experience may imprint offspring's phenotype over generations through many epigenetic processes. Interactions between individual and environment take place lifelong even before conception...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rafael Barra, Carlos Morgan, Patricio Sáez-Briones, Miguel Reyes-Parada, Héctor Burgos, Bernardo Morales, Alejandro Hernández
Studies in rats have shown that a decrease in either protein content or total dietary calories results in molecular, structural, and functional changes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, among other brain regions, which lead to behavioral disturbances, including learning and memory deficits. The neurobiological bases underlying those effects depend at least in part on fetal programming of the developing brain, which in turn relies on epigenetic regulation of specific genes via stable and heritable modifications of chromatin...
November 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Eamon Fitzgerald, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm Birth (PTB) accounts for approximately 11% of all births worldwide each year and is a profound physiological stressor in early life. The burden of neuropsychiatric and developmental impairment is high, with severity and prevalence correlated with gestational age at delivery. PTB is a major risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy, lower educational attainment and deficits in cognitive functioning, and individuals born preterm have higher rates of schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
November 2018: Current Genomics
Stefano L Sensi, Alberto Granzotto, Mariacristina Siotto, Rosanna Squitti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia. Despite a wealth of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in AD, current treatments have mainly focused on targeting amyloid β (Aβ) production, but have failed to show significant effects and efficacy. Therefore, a critical reconsideration of the multifactorial nature of the disease is needed. AD is a complex multifactorial disorder in which, along with Aβ and tau, the convergence of polygenic, epigenetic, environmental, vascular, and metabolic factors increases the global susceptibility to the disease and shapes its course...
October 20, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Juan Li, Dong-Dong Zhang, Chao-Qing Wang, Miao Shi, Liang-Liang Wang
In consider of its noninvasive administration and endogenous stimulation property, the enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) could be a novel strategy for aluminum overload-induced cerebral damage. LIPUS was pretreated 7 days before concomitantly given with aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) daily for a period of 42 days. Morris water maze and elevated plus maze were performed to analyze spatial learning and memory. Western Blot and immunoprecipitation were used to detect BDNF and histone acetylation of H3K9 and H4K12 in the hippocampus...
October 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Alejandro Medrano-Fernández, Jose M Delgado-Garcia, Beatriz Del Blanco, Marián Llinares, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano, Román Olivares, Agnès Gruart, Angel Barco
The development of inhibitory circuits depends on the action of a network of transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that are critical for interneuron specification and differentiation. Although the identity of many of these transcription factors is well established, much less is known about the specific contribution of the chromatin-modifying enzymes that sculpt the interneuron epigenome. Here, we generated a mouse model in which the lysine acetyltransferase CBP is specifically removed from neural progenitors at the median ganglionic eminence (MGE), the structure where the most abundant types of cortical interneurons are born...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Steven Schepanski, Claudia Buss, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz, Petra C Arck
Milestones of brain development in mammals are completed before birth, which provide the prerequisite for cognitive and intellectual performances of the offspring. Prenatal challenges, such as maternal stress experience or infections, have been linked to impaired cognitive development, poor intellectual performances as well as neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring later in life. Fetal microglial cells may be the target of such challenges and could be functionally modified by maternal markers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Renata H Bahous, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Liyuan Deng, Daniel Leclerc, Olga Malysheva, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Folate is an important B vitamin required for methylation reactions, nucleotide and neurotransmitter synthesis, and maintenance of homocysteine at nontoxic levels. Its metabolism is tightly linked to that of choline, a precursor to acetylcholine and membrane phospholipids. Low folate intake and genetic variants in folate metabolism, such as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T polymorphism, have been suggested to impact brain function and increase the risk for cognitive decline and late-onset Alzheimer's disease...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Francisco V Muñoz, Linda Larkey
Background: Biomarkers associated with inflammation and immune function are increasingly being used to examine mechanisms of the effects of mind-body therapies. Less researched are biomarkers associated with cognitive and executive functioning in the study of mind-body therapy mechanisms and effects. This study explored the feasibility of recruiting breast cancer patients (BCPs) and implementation fidelity of participation in a research project utilizing the 4-stage Creative Psychosocial Genomic Healing Experience (CPGHE), a mind-body protocol that is theorized to create epigenetic effects via targeted psychological change in emotional triggers in coping with cancer...
April 2018: Advances in Integrative Medicine
Georgina Askeland, Marie Rodinova, Hana Štufková, Zaneta Dosoudilova, Monika Baxa, Petra Smatlikova, Bozena Bohuslavova, Jiri Klempir, The Duong Nguyen, Anna Kuśnierczyk, Magnar Bjørås, Arne Klungland, Hana Hansikova, Zdenka Ellederova, Lars Eide
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with currently no available treatment. The Libechov transgenic minipig model for HD (TgHD) displays neuroanatomical similarities to humans and exhibits slow disease progression, and is therefore more powerful than available mouse models for the development of therapy. The phenotypic characterization of this model is still ongoing, and it is essential to validate biomarkers to monitor disease progression and intervention. In this study, the behavioral phenotype (cognitive, motor and behavior) of the TgHD model was assessed, along with biomarkers for mitochondrial capacity, oxidative stress, DNA integrity and DNA repair at different ages (24, 36 and 48 months), and compared with age-matched controls...
October 24, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 hr light (150 lux): 12 hr darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eleonora Napoli, Andrea Schneider, Randi Hagerman, Gyu Song, Sarah Wong, Flora Tassone, Cecilia Giulivi
Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) has been identified in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and brain samples from adults carrying a 55-200 CGG expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 ( FMR1 ) gene (premutation; PM); however, limited data are available on the bioenergetics of pediatric carriers. Here we discuss a case report of three PM carriers: two monozygotic twins (aged 8 years) harboring an FMR1 allele with 150-180 CGG repeats, with no cognitive or intellectual issues but diagnosed with depression, mood instability and ADHD, and their mother (asymptomatic carrier with 78 CGG repeats)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Daria Tchessalova, Caitlin Kelly Posillico, Natalie Celia Tronson
Neuroimmune signaling is increasingly identified as a critical component of neuronal processes underlying memory, emotion and cognition. The interactions of microglia and astrocytes with neurons and synapses, and the individual cytokines and immune signaling molecules that mediate these interactions are a current focus of much research. Here, we discuss neuroimmune activation as a mechanism triggering different states that modulate cognitive and affective processes to allow for appropriate behavior during and after illness or injury...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Anna Maria Tartaglione, Chiara Cipriani, Flavia Chiarotti, Benedetta Perrone, Emanuela Balestrieri, Claudia Matteucci, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Gemma Calamandrei, Laura Ricceri
Prenatal treatment with the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with a significant risk of somatic anomalies, neurodevelopmental delays, and 7-10× increase in the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. Rodents exposed to VPA in pregnancy show birth defects, deficits in neurodevelopment, and cognitive/social anomalies resembling those of ASD children. Mechanisms of VPA neurobehavioral toxicity are still unclear but as VPA is a non-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases, epigenetic modifications are likely involved...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Christian Griñán-Ferré, Vanesa Izquierdo, Eduard Otero, Dolors Puigoriol-Illamola, Rubén Corpas, Coral Sanfeliu, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún, Mercè Pallàs
Cumulative evidence shows that modifications in lifestyle factors constitute an effective strategy to modulate molecular events related to neurodegenerative diseases, confirming the relevant role of epigenetics. Accordingly, Environmental Enrichment (EE) represents an approach to ameliorate cognitive decline and neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by specific neuropathological hallmarks, such as β-amyloid plaques and Neurofibrillary Tangles, which severely affect the areas of the brain responsible for learning and memory...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jeffrey J Moffat, Eui-Man Jung, Minhan Ka, Amanda L Smith, Byeong Tak Jeon, Gijs W E Santen, Woo-Yang Kim
Haploinsufficiency of the chromatin remodeling factor ARID1B leads to autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Several independent research groups, including our own, recently examined the effects of heterozygous deletion of Arid1b in mice and reported severe behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability as well as marked changes in gene expression and decreased body size. Arid1b heterozygous mice also display significant cortical excitatory/inhibitory imbalance due to altered GABAergic neuron numbers and impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission...
March 8, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Shinya Tasaki, Chris Gaiteri, Sara Mostafavi, Lei Yu, Yanling Wang, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Multiple aspects of molecular regulation, including genetics, epigenetics, and mRNA collectively influence the development of age-related neurologic diseases. Therefore, with the ultimate goal of understanding molecular systems associated with cognitive decline, we infer directed interactions among regulatory elements in the local regulatory vicinity of individual genes based on brain multi-omics data from 413 individuals. These local regulatory networks (LRNs) capture the influences of genetics and epigenetics on gene expression in older adults...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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