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Li Ping Chung, Mark Hew, Philip Bardin, Vanessa M McDonald, John W Upham
Severe asthma leads to debilitating symptoms for patients and excessive socioeconomic burden for the community. Comprehensive models of care are required to address complex issues, risk factors and comorbidities in patients with severe asthma, and to identify patients most appropriate for specialised treatments. Dedicated severe asthma services improve asthma control, reduce asthma exacerbations and hospital admissions, and improve quality of life. Currently, diverse models of care exist for managing severe asthma across Australia...
December 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
James Anderson, George Tay, George Denby, Jan Robinson, James Douglas, Peter Robinson, Deanne Curtin
Patients with neuromuscular diseases benefit from coordinated multidisciplinary care to achieve best outcomes. The integration of multi-specialty healthcare delivered in a single clinic can be challenging for service providers due to cost and resource limitation. Our cross-sectional survey of 53 adult patients with neuromuscular disease across Queensland revealed only 27% support the introduction of an integrated multidisciplinary clinic. The most cited reason for opposition to a multidisciplinary clinic was a perceived loss of contact with one's usual doctor...
December 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav, Jaivik V Shah, Archana George
A single LC-MS/MS assay is developed and validated for simultaneous determination of metformin and dapagliflozin in human plasma using ion-pair solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and their internal standards was carried out on a reversed-phase ACE 5CN (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-15 mM ammonium acetate, pH 4.5 (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. To achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity for the analytes, mass spectrometric analysis was performed using polarity switching approach...
December 5, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jeany Q Li, Jan Henrik Terheyden, Thomas Welchowski, Matthias Schmid, Julia Letow, Caroline Wolpers, Frank G Holz, Robert P Finger
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of retinal vein occlusions (RVO) in Europe. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and incidence of RVO in Europe according to the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Based on Eurostat data, the total number of affected individuals in the EU was calculated and projected to the year 2050...
December 5, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Frank M van der Sande, Karlien J A Ter Meulen, Peter Kotanko, Jeroen P Kooman
BACKGROUND: Calcium (Ca) is an essential element that plays a critical role in many biological processes. In dialysis patients, the regulation of Ca balance is highly complex, given the absence of kidney function, endocrine disturbances and the use of drugs such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics. Also, the use of different dialysate Ca (DCa) baths has profound effect on Ca balance, which depends both on the difference between the Ca concentration in the bath and the serum of the patients, as on the ultrafiltration volume...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
Jonathan M Zuidema, Ryan J Gilbert, Manoj K Gottipati
Over several decades, biomaterial scientists have developed materials to spur axonal regeneration and limit secondary injury and tested these materials within preclinical animal models. Rarely, though, are astrocytes examined comprehensively when biomaterials are placed into the injury site. Astrocytes support neuronal function in the central nervous system. Following an injury, astrocytes undergo reactive gliosis and create a glial scar. The astrocytic glial scar forms a dense barrier which restricts the extension of regenerating axons through the injury site...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Melissa B Uccellini, Adolfo García-Sastre
Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are critical for controlling viral infections. However, the precise dynamics of the IFN response have been difficult to define in vivo. Signaling through type I IFN receptors leads to interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-dependent gene expression and an antiviral state. As an alternative to tracking IFN, we used an ISRE-dependent reporter mouse to define the cell types, localization, and kinetics of IFN responding cells during influenza virus infection. We find that measurable IFN responses are largely limited to hematopoietic cells, which show a high sensitivity to IFN...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Fei Chen, Wenhui Wu, Lianhua Jin, Ariel Millman, Mark Palma, Darine W El-Naccache, Katherine E Lothstein, Chen Dong, Karen L Edelblum, William C Gause
Emphysema results in destruction of alveolar walls and enlargement of lung airspaces and has been shown to develop during helminth infections through IL-4R-independent mechanisms. We examined whether interleukin 17A (IL-17A) may instead modulate development of emphysematous pathology in mice infected with the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. We found that transient elevations in IL-17A shortly after helminth infection triggered subsequent emphysema that destroyed alveolar structures. Furthermore, lung B cells, activated through IL-4R signaling, inhibited early onset of emphysematous pathology...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Julia Flis, Mikael Holm, Emily J Rundlet, Justus Loerke, Tarek Hilal, Marylena Dabrowski, Jörg Bürger, Thorsten Mielke, Scott C Blanchard, Christian M T Spahn, Tatyana V Budkevich
Translocation moves the tRNA2 ⋅mRNA module directionally through the ribosome during the elongation phase of protein synthesis. Although translocation is known to entail large conformational changes within both the ribosome and tRNA substrates, the orchestrated events that ensure the speed and fidelity of this critical aspect of the protein synthesis mechanism have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present three high-resolution structures of intermediates of translocation on the mammalian ribosome where, in contrast to bacteria, ribosomal complexes containing the translocase eEF2 and the complete tRNA2 ⋅mRNA module are trapped by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GMPPNP...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Rui Feng, Liyang Wang, Zhonguang Li, Rong Yang, Yu Liang, Yuting Sun, Qiuxia Yu, George Ghartey-Kwansah, Yanping Sun, Yajun Wu, Wei Zhang, Xin Zhou, Mengmeng Xu, Joseph Bryant, Guifang Yan, William Isaacs, Jianjie Ma, Xuehong Xu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global cause of mortality, which has prompted numerous studies seeking to reduce the risk of heart failure and sudden cardiac death. While regular physical activity is known to improve CVD associated morbidity and mortality, the optimal duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise remains unclear. To address this uncertainty, various animal models have been used to study the cardioprotective effects of exercise and related molecular mechanism such as the mice training models significantly decrease size of myocardial infarct by affecting Kir6...
December 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Junyu Liang, Guanfeng Lin, Jianwei Tian, Jiejing Chen, Rongliang Liang, Zhenhua Chen, Qiaoting Deng, Zhining Dong, Tiancai Liu, Yingsong Wu
The morbidity and mortality associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) remain obstinately high. Early diagnosis is urgently required and should be pursued in at-risk populations. Recently, a newly validated biomarker, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), was reported as a novel indicator for early AKI prediction and a noninvasive surrogate biomarker of kidney function. Monitoring urinary MMP-7 (uMMP-7) levels fills the gaps in early diagnosis of AKI at early onset. However, the lack of available reagents for its rapid detection limits its use...
December 2, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Junpu Li, Shaoshen Li, Lunhui Huang, Yaqiong Cui, Tiantian She, Ying Bian, Huiqiang Li
BACKGROUND: An increase in allergen-specific IgG4 (sIgG4 ), which serves as a blocking antibody, is associated with acquisition of immune tolerance after immunotherapy. In this study, we developed a rapid, sensitive, and homogeneous immunoassay based on the light-initiated chemiluminescent assay (LICA) technology for quantifying allergen sIgG4 in serum samples. METHODS: Allergen sIgG4 was measured in vitro by incubating the sample with biotinylated allergens and chemiluminescent beads coated with anti-human IgG4 antibody, followed by the addition of streptavidin-coated sensitizer beads...
December 2, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Alisa K Zimmermann, Fiona Barnett
Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEPs) prescribe exercise and physical activity interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). During initial consultations, AEPs face the challenge of collecting enough information to facilitate behaviour change and adherence to treatment recommendations. The objective of this research is to explore the initial consultation practices of AEPs with clients living with T2DM and resultant recommendations provided to clients to promote long-term adherence...
December 6, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Amber M Brochetti, Steven W Brose, Angela M Kuemmel, David J Dang, Dennis J Bourbeau
OBJECTIVE: Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a higher prevalence of being overweight than the general population, which is thought to be due to a variety of metabolic, physiologic and psychological changes. The quality improvement project described in this work was designed to help overweight persons with SCI lose bodyweight through nutrition, exercise, and behavioral management strategies. METHODS: Eighteen persons with SCI who were overweight were enrolled in a 12-week interdisciplinary weight management program...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Ekp Jillings, R A Squires, S Azarpeykan, N Lopez-Villalobos
AIMS: To determine the effect of contamination of urine with 0-5% blood, varying in haematocrit and protein concentrations, on the urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) in dogs, and to determine whether the colour of urine can be used to aid interpretation of UPC results. METHODS: Urine samples were collected by free catch from 18 dogs, all of which had UPC <0.2. Venous blood samples were also collected from each dog, and the blood from each dog was added to its own urine to produce serial concentrations of 0...
December 5, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Florence Jeny, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Young-Wouk Kim, Olivia Freynet, Hilario Nunes, Dominique Valeyre
High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has revolutionized the diagnosis, prognosis, and in some cases the prediction of therapeutic response in interstitial lung disease (ILD). HRCT represents an essential second step to a patient's clinical history, before considering any other investigation, including lung biopsy. Areas covered: This review describes the current place of HRCT in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of ILD. It also lists some perspectives for the near future. Expert commentary: Since the 1980s, HRCT and its interpretation have improved, the diagnosis value of patterns, and the integration of bio-clinical elements to HRCT have been better standardized...
December 5, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Xin Wang, Jun Gao, Tianyu Wang, Zhimin Li, Yongning Li
OBJECTIVE: The literature on long-term outcome after resection of intraspinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors is limited. The purpose of this study was to review the progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and long-term outcome in a consecutive series of 57 patients with intraspinal dermoid and epidermoid tumors. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: A total of 57 patients who underwent surgery at our institution between 2002 and 2010 were reviewed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Xing Hu, Jiawei Du, Junhui Pan, Fengfeng Wang, Deming Gong, Guowen Zhang
A highly sensitive, selective and simple method was proposed for colorimetric detection of ractopamine on the basis of the interaction between ractopamine and sulfanilic acid-modified gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (AuAgNPs). The AuAgNPs were prepared by the reduction of HAuCl4 and AgNO3 with sodium citrate in aqueous medium and further modified by sulfanilic acid. The interaction of ractopamine with sulfanilic acid induced rapid aggregation of sulfanilic acid-modified AuAgNPs along with an optical colour change, leading to precise quantification which could be detected by absorptiometry...
December 5, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
David Cubero, Gordon R M Robb, Ferruccio Renzoni
The response of a linear system to an external perturbation is governed by the Fourier limit, with the inverse of the interaction time constituting a lower limit for the system bandwidth. This does not hold for nonlinear systems, which can thus exhibit sub-Fourier-behavior. The present Letter identifies a mechanism for sub-Fourier-sensitivity in driven quantum systems, which relies on avoided crossing between Floquet states. Features up to three orders of magnitude finer than the Fourier limit are presented...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
B Kamala Latha, V S S Sastry
The presence of stable topological defects in a two-dimensional (d=2) liquid crystal model allowing molecular reorientations in three dimensions (n=3) was largely believed to induce a defect-mediated Berzenskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type transition to a low temperature phase with quasi-long-range order. However, earlier Monte Carlo (MC) simulations could not establish certain essential signatures of the transition, suggesting further investigations. We study this model by computing its equilibrium properties through MC simulations, based on the determination of the density of states of the system...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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