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Oct 4

Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, John Buchan, Fatima Kyari, Tunde Peto, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in people of African descent. Minimal data is available from African population-based cohort studies. The primary aims of this study were to describe the normative distribution of glaucoma features to enable glaucoma classification and to assess risk factors for those with glaucoma at follow-up among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Random cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size was used to select a representative cross-sectional sample of adults aged ≥50 years in 2007-8 in Nakuru District, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Masashi Sakuma, Takahisa Nasuno, Shichiro Abe, Syotaro Obi, Shigeru Toyoda, Isao Taguchi, Ryoichi Sohma, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Setsu Nishino, Koichi Node, Guiherme Attizzani, Hiram Bezerra, Marco Costa, Daniel Simon, Teruo Inoue
Background: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells likely contribute to both endothelial- and smooth muscle cell-dependent healing responses in stent-injured vessel sites. This study aimed to assess mobilization of progenitor cells and vessel healing after zotarolimus-eluting (ZES) and everolimus-eluting (EES) stents. Methods and results: In 63 patients undergoing coronary stent implantation, we measured circulating CD34 + CD133 + CD45low cells and serum levels of biomarkers relevant to stem cell mobilization...
March 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
Katherine Shirley, Marie O'Neill, Rachel Gamble, Anne Ramsey, Eibhlin McLoone
PURPOSE: Torpedo maculopathy is a rare lesion of the retinal pigment epithelium. This study set out to look at these lesions in the paediatric population and determine the spectrum and features of the disease. METHODS: The paediatric ophthalmology database was used to identify eight children with torpedo maculopathy between 2012 and 2017. Fundal images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to analyse the cases. RESULTS: Eight patients with torpedo maculopathy were identified, making the prevalence approximately 2 per 100,000 population under 16 years old...
March 20, 2018: Eye
Hatim Batawi, Ivonne Valentina Lollett, Cima Maliakal, Sarah R Wellik, Michael Anderson, William Feuer, Carol L Karp, Anat Galor
PURPOSE: To compare the central corneal epithelial thickness (CET), stromal thickness (CST), and total thickness (CCT) in males with and without primary open-angle glaucoma and to determine the factors associated with corneal thickness. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to evaluate 116 male patients at the Miami Veterans Affair Medical Center. Subjects with available anterior segment optical coherence tomography images (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA) were retrospectively classified into 2 groups by glaucoma status...
March 16, 2018: Cornea
Jennifer R Brown, Mehdi Hamadani, John Hayslip, Ann Janssens, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Oliver Ottmann, Jon Arnason, Hervé Tilly, Michael Millenson, Fritz Offner, Nashat Y Gabrail, Siddhartha Ganguly, Sikander Ailawadh, Siddha Kasar, Arnon P Kater, Jeanette K Doorduijn, Lei Gao, Joanne J Lager, Bin Wu, Coumaran Egile, Marie José Kersten
BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have a poor prognosis. Therapies targeting more than one isoform of PI3K, as well as mTOR, might increase antitumour activity. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of voxtalisib (also known as XL765 or SAR245409), a pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. METHODS: We did a non-randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial at 30 oncology clinics in the USA, Belgium, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Australia...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Aisha Mansoor Ali, Abdulaziz Alobaid, Tasnim Nidal Malhis, Ahmad Fawzi Khattab
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays pivotal role in decidualization and implantation of the placenta. Recent researches have shown that low level of vitamin D3 "25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)" in serum is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. Latest evidence supports role of vitamin D3 deficiency treatment in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of antenatal supplementation of vitamin D3 on the risk of pre-eclampsia and to explore the dose effect in attaining the vitamin D3 normal level...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Stephen J Vincent, David Alonso-Caneiro, Michael J Collins
PURPOSE: To examine the magnitude and time course of central epithelial, stromal and total corneal thickness changes during sealed miniscleral contact lens wear and the influence of initial central corneal clearance upon these thickness changes. METHODS: High-resolution OCT images were captured over an 8 h period of miniscleral contact lens wear (using a rotationally symmetric 16.5 mm diameter lens) in 15 young, healthy participants with normal corneae. Corneal thickness data were derived from OCT images using semi-automated image processing techniques over the central 4 mm...
March 13, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Nadine Reichhart, Sergej Skosyrski, Marco Foddis, Jim Wu, Aleksandar Figura, Christina Herrspiegel, Martina Füchtemeier, Celeste Sassi, Ulrich Dirnagl, Antonia M Joussen, Olaf Strauss
Animal models of disease are an indispensable element in our quest to understand pathophysiology and develop novel therapies. Ex vivo studies have severe limitations, in particular their inability to study individual disease progression over time. In this respect, non-invasive in vivo technologies offer multiple advantages. We here used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice, an established model for ischemic retinopathy, and performed a multimodal in vivo and ex vivo follow-up. We used scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), ocular coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography (ERG) over 6 weeks followed by ex vivo analyses...
2018: PloS One
James C Jackson, Dariush Mozaffarian, Amy J Graves, Nancy J Brown, Roberto Marchioli, Amy L Kiehl, E Wesley Ely
Background: Cognitive decline has been reported following cardiac surgery, leading to great interest in interventions to minimize its occurrence. Long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with less cognitive decline in observational studies, yet no trials have tested the effects of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive decline after surgery. Objective: We sought to determine whether perioperative n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative cognitive decline in patients postcardiac surgery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
John K Fallon, Nicole Houvig, Catherine L Booth-Genthe, Philip C Smith
Information is needed on the expression of transporters in lung to inform drug development and therapeutic decisions. Much of the information currently available is from semiquantitative gene expression or immunometric densitometry studies reported in the literature. NanoLC-MS/MS (MRM mode) isotope dilution targeted quantitative proteomics was used here to quantify twelve selected transporters in fresh human lung membrane fraction samples and in the membrane fraction of selected immortalized human lung epithelial cell line samples...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
A Ya Supin, D I Nechaev, V V Popov, E V Sysueva
The spectrum contrast threshold for the comb-filtered signal was measured at various ripple densities in listeners with normal hearing. The lowest spectrum contrast thresholds of less than 0.1 appeared at a ripple density of 3-4 oct-1 . With the ripple density falling down to 1 oct-1 , the threshold increased to 0.17. At the ripple density higher than 4 oct-1 , the threshold was also growing to achieve 1.0 at a density of 7-8 oct-1 . An increase of threshold at high ripple densities can be explained by integration within critical bands...
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Rania M Fahmy, Ramesa S Bhat, Manar Al-Mutairi, Feda S Aljaser, Afaf El-Ansary
Objective: To evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic retinopathy, and degree of glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) using optical coherence tomography. Methods: The study included 126 eyes of healthy controls (n=32) and diabetics patients (n=31), whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 years. The diabetic group was divided into: Subgroup 1: with HbA1c <7% and Subgroup 2: with HbA1c ≥7%...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Toni K Choueiri, James Larkin, Mototsugu Oya, Fiona Thistlethwaite, Marcella Martignoni, Paul Nathan, Thomas Powles, David McDermott, Paul B Robbins, David D Chism, Daniel Cho, Michael B Atkins, Michael S Gordon, Sumati Gupta, Hirotsugu Uemura, Yoshihiko Tomita, Anna Compagnoni, Camilla Fowst, Alessandra di Pietro, Brian I Rini
BACKGROUND: The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma...
March 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Merete Osler, Maarten Pieter Rozing, Gunhild Tidemann Christensen, Per Kragh Andersen, Martin Balslev Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe episodes of mood disorders. Temporary memory loss is a common side-effect, but ongoing discussions exist regarding potential long-term adverse cognitive outcomes. Only a few studies have examined the frequency of dementia in patients after ECT. The aim of this study was to examine the association between ECT and risk of subsequent dementia in patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of affective disorder...
March 6, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Chau-Yin Chen, Evelyn Jou-Chen Huang, Chien-Neng Kuo, Pei-Lun Wu, Ching-Lung Chen, Pei-Chen Wu, Shin-Hua Wu, Yin-Chi King, Chien-Hsiung Lai
AIMS: To interpret how the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) changes with increasing age, axial length, or anterior chamber depth as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the normal elderly population in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 82 volunteers (143 eyes) were enrolled. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation. RESULTS: The RNFL was significantly thinner in the superonasal (p = 0...
2018: PloS One
Sobha Sivaprasad, Joana C Vasconcelos, A Toby Prevost, Helen Holmes, Philip Hykin, Sheena George, Caroline Murphy, Joanna Kelly, Geoffrey B Arden
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess 24-month outcomes of wearing an organic light-emitting sleep mask as an intervention to treat and prevent progression of non-central diabetic macular oedema. METHODS: CLEOPATRA was a phase 3, single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial undertaken at 15 ophthalmic centres in the UK. Adults with non-centre-involving diabetic macular oedema were randomly assigned (1:1) to wearing either a light mask during sleep (Noctura 400 Sleep Mask, PolyPhotonix Medical, Sedgefield, UK) or a sham (non-light) mask, for 24 months...
March 5, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Kyle T Lewis, John R Bullock, Ryan T Drumright, Matthew J Olsen, Alan D Penman
The purpose is to evaluate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in the evaluation of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and response to orbital decompression in patients with and without dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). This was a single-center, prospective case series in a cohort of 12 patients (24 orbits) with GO and ±DON, (6 orbits) who underwent bilateral orbital decompression. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative OCT angiography of the peripapillary area. Vessel density indices were calculated in a 4...
March 8, 2018: Orbit
Elizabeth A F Schaefer, Rebecca E H Whiting, Jacqueline W Pearce, Bruce H Grahn, Charles W Hamm, Cecil P Moore, Kristina L Narfström
A 11-year-old neutered male Labrador retriever-cross dog was presented to the University of Missouri-Columbia Veterinary Ophthalmology Service for subtle visual deficits. Indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed a smooth, bullous elevation in the superior-temporal retina OU. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) performed OU showed inner retinal separation consistent with retinoschisis. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed markedly reduced b-wave amplitudes in the more severely affected eye (OD) compared with the less severely affected eye (OS)...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Tomoaki Kanaya, Teruo Noguchi, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Yasuhide Asaumi, Yu Kataoka, Yoshiaki Morita, Hiroyuki Miura, Kazuhiro Nakao, Masashi Fujino, Tomohiro Kawasaki, Kunihiro Nishimura, Teruo Inoue, Jagat Narula, Satoshi Yasuda
Aims: Coronary high-intensity plaques (HIPs) with a high plaque-to-myocardial signal intensity ratio (PMR) on non-contrast T1-weighted imaging in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with future coronary events. To characterize the morphological substrate of HIP, we performed a correlative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study. Methods and results: We examined 137 lesions in 105 patients with stable angina pectoris or silent myocardial ischaemia scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner...
March 5, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Taiki Kokubun, Satoru Tsuda, Hiroshi Kunikata, Noriko Himori, Yu Yokoyama, Shiho Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To determine whether anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) can be used to predict post-trabeculectomy bleb outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided 58 eyes of 47 trabeculectomy patients into success or failure groups based on their status at 12 months after surgery. We then compared various AS-OCT measurement parameters between the two groups at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. We also analyzed the early post-trabeculectomy bleb parameters with multiple logistic regression, stepwise multiple regression, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, to evaluate the power of these parameters to predict long-term outcomes...
March 7, 2018: Current Eye Research
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