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(Synthetic biology)

Xiaoting Zhang, Daijun Zhang, Yongkui Huang, Kai Zhang, Peili Lu
The high volume of flowback water (FW) generated during shale gas exploitation is highly saline, and contains complex organics, iron, heavy metals, and sulfate, thereby posing a significant challenge for the environmental management of the unconventional natural gas industry. Herein, the treatment of FW in a sulfur-cycle-mediated microbial fuel cell (MFC) is reported. Simultaneous removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total iron from a synthetic FW was achieved, at 72 ± 7% and 90.6 ± 8...
October 8, 2018: Water Research
M Shanmugavadivu, Bharath Kumar Velmurugan
Antrodia camphorata is an expensive mushroom that grows on the inner cavity of an endangered native tree of Taiwan namely Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata. It is used as a traditional medicine in Taiwan and has several health benefits including free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, and free radical-induced DNA damage protecting activities. Antroquinonol is a tetrahydro ubiquinone derivative found predominately in the mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, and is characterized by numerous biological and pharmacological activities...
October 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Ruijie K Zhang, Xiongyi Huang, Frances H Arnold
CH functionalization is an attractive strategy to construct and diversify molecules. Heme proteins, predominantly cytochromes P450, are responsible for an array of CH oxidations in biology. Recent work has coupled concepts from synthetic chemistry, computation, and natural product biosynthesis to engineer heme protein systems to deliver products with tailored oxidation patterns. Heme protein catalysis has been shown to go well beyond these native reactions and now accesses new-to-nature CH transformations, including CN and CC bond forming processes...
October 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Abhijit Mukherjee, Suvranil Ghosh, Rudraditya Sarkar, Satyajit Samanta, Sudipta Ghosh, Mahadeb Pal, Adinath Majee, Sukanta Kumar Sen, Bula Singh
In the progress of small molecule as drug candidates, 4-hydroxycoumarin based compounds bearing a crucial place as potent antibiotic agents with appreciable safety in drug invention. Being synthetically and easily obtainable, 4-hydroxycoumarin related compounds with planar structure have been promoted predominantly as DNA targeting agent. Nevertheless, here we elucidate the synthesis, characterization and theoretical study of bio-active small molecule 4-hydroxy-3,4'-bichromenyl-2,2'-dione (4HBD). Then we have illuminated the binding interactions of 4HBD with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA), which is particularly designed for biological application...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Maarten L De Mol, Nico Snoeck, Sofie L De Maeseneire, Wim K Soetaert
The struggle of humans versus pathogens is a never ending battle. Since the discovery of antibiotics humans have tipped the scales in their favour, but today bacteria are nullifying this advantage by developing resistance mechanisms against these molecules. The plethora of different antibiotics active against pathogens is shrinking while the discovery of new molecules is arduous. Especially the development of drugs active against Gram- pathogens continues slowly. New strategies to discover novel, potent antibiotics are hence needed...
October 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Yi Shang, Sanwen Huang
A vast majority of structurally diverse metabolites play essential roles in mediating the interactions between plants and environments, and constitute a valuable resource for industrial applications. Recent breakthroughs in sequencing technology have greatly accelerated metabolic studies of plant natural products, providing opportunities to investigate the molecular basis underlying the diversity of plant specialized metabolites through large-scale analysis. Here, we focus on the biosynthesis of plant triterpenoids, especially the three diversifying reactions (cyclization, oxidation, and glycosylation) that largely contribute to the structural diversity of triterpenoids...
October 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wanderson M Silva, Cassiana S Sousa, Leticia C Oliveira, Siomar C Soares, Gustavo F M H Souza, Guilherme C Tavares, Cristiana P Resende, Edson L Folador, Felipe L Pereira, Henrique Figueiredo, Vasco Azevedo
Lactococcus lactis is a bacteria with high biotechnological potential, where is frequently used in the amino acid production and production of fermented dairy products, as well as drug delivery systems and mucosal vaccine vector. The knowledge of a functional core proteome is important extremely for both fundamental understanding of cell functions and for synthetic biology applications. In this study, we characterized the L. lacits proteome from proteomic analysis of four biotechnological strains L. lactis: L...
October 19, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jiao Liu, Yu Wang, Yujiao Lu, Xiaomeng Ni, Xuan Guo, Jing Zhao, Jiuzhou Chen, Taiwo Dele-Osibanjo, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
Corynebacterium glutamicum is frequently engineered to serve as a versatile platform and model microorganism. However, due to its complex cell wall structure, transformation of C. glutamicum with exogenous DNA is inefficient. Although efforts have been devoted to improve the transformation efficiency by using cell wall weakening agents, direct genetic engineering of cell wall synthesis for enhancing cell competency has not been explored thus far. Herein, we reported that engineering of peptidoglycan synthesis could significantly increase the transformation efficiency of C...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alexander A Spasov, Denis A Babkov, Dmitry V Osipov, Vladlen G Klochkov, Diana R Prilepskaya, Maxim R Demidov, Vitaly A Osyanin, Yuri N Klimochkin
Herein we report a study of novel arylchromene derivatives as analogs of naturally occurring flavonoids with prominent α-glucosidase inhibitory properties. Novel inhibitors were identified via simple stepwise in silico screening, efficient synthesis, and biological evaluation. It is shown that 2-aryl-4H-chromene core retains pharmacophore properties while being readily available synthetically. A lead compound identified through screening inhibits yeast α-glucosidase with IC50 of 62.26 µM and prevents postprandial hyperglycemia in rats at 2...
October 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Andreas Schinkovitz, Pierre Le Pogam, Séverine Derbré, Emilie Vessieres, Patricia Blanchard, Sangeetha-Laura Thirumaran, Dimitri Breard, Marie-Chistine Aumond, Martin Zehl, Ernst Urban, Amandeep Kaur, Nathalie Jäger, Stefanie Hofer, Brigitte Kopp, Hermann Stuppner, Isabelle Baglin, Denis Seraphin, Sophie Tomasi, Daniel Henrion, Joël Boustie, Pascal Richomme
Secondary metabolites from lichens are known for exhibiting various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Despite this wide range of reported biological effects, their impact on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) remains vastly unexplored. The latter are known contributors to lifestyle and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. Moreover, the development of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness is causally linked to the formation of AGEs...
October 16, 2018: Fitoterapia
Hao Xu, Yan Han, Xiaoxia Han, Junyu Xu, Shen Lin, Ray C C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Damage to the hippocampus will result in the loss of ability to form new long-term memories and cognitive disorders. At present, there is no effective medical treatment for this issue. Hippocampal cognitive prosthesis is proposed to replace damaged regions of the hippocampus to mimic the function of original biological tissue. This prosthesis requires a spike sorter to detect and classify spikes in the recorded neural signal. NEW METHOD: A 16-channel spike sorting processor is presented in this paper, where all channels are considered as independent...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Adam W Westbrook, Dragan Miscevic, Shane Kilpatrick, Mark R Bruder, Murray Moo-Young, C Perry Chou
While the widespread reliance on fossil fuels is driven by their low cost and relative abundance, this fossil-based economy has been deemed unsustainable and, therefore, the adoption of sustainable and environmentally compatible energy sources is on the horizon. Biorefinery is an emerging approach that integrates metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and systems biology principles for the development of whole-cell catalytic platforms for biomanufacturing. Due to the high degree of reduction and low cost, glycerol, either refined or crude, has been recognized as an ideal feedstock for the production of value-added biologicals, though microbial dissimilation of glycerol sometimes can be difficult particularly under anaerobic conditions...
October 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Sarah R Carter, Christopher M Warner
Recent developments in synthetic biology tools and techniques are driving commercialization of a wide range of products for human health, agriculture, environmental stewardship, and other purposes. This article reviews some of the trends in synthetic biology applications as well as some of the tools enabling these and future advances. These tools and capabilities are being developed in the context of a rapidly changing industry, which may have an impact on the rate and direction of progress. Final products are subject to a regulatory framework that is being challenged by the pace, scale, and novelty of this new era of biotechnology...
September 2018: Health Security
Manjeet Kumar, Liam Bromhead, Zoe Anderson, Alistair Overy, Jonathan W Burton
The inthomycins are a family of structurally and biologically rich natural products isolated from Streptomyces species. Herein the implementation of a modular synthetic route is reported that has enabled the enantioselective synthesis of all three inthomycins. Key steps include Suzuki and Sonogashira cross-couplings and an enantioselective Kiyooka aldol reaction.
October 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chicora F Oliver, Joseph J Palamar, Alberto Salomone, Steven J Simmons, Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Nick Stokes-McCloskey, Scott M Rawls
RATIONALE: Current prevalence estimates of synthetic cathinone ("bath salt") use may be underestimates given that traditional metrics (e.g., surveys, urinalysis) often fail to capture the emergent issue of synthetic cathinone adulteration of more common illegal drugs, such as ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). OBJECTIVES: This review examines the evolution of synthetic cathinones and prevalence of use over the past decade in the United States...
October 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Leonardo Martins-Santana, Luisa C Nora, Ananda Sanches-Medeiros, Gabriel L Lovate, Murilo H A Cassiano, Rafael Silva-Rocha
Since the advent of systems and synthetic biology, many studies have sought to harness microbes as cell factories through genetic and metabolic engineering approaches. Yeast and filamentous fungi have been successfully harnessed to produce fine and high value-added chemical products. In this review, we present some of the most promising advances from recent years in the use of fungi for this purpose, focusing on the manipulation of fungal strains using systems and synthetic biology tools to improve metabolic flow and the flow of secondary metabolites by pathway redesign...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Laiyou Wang, Aihua Deng, Yun Zhang, Shuwen Liu, Yong Liang, Hua Bai, Di Cui, Qidi Qiu, Xiuling Shang, Zhao Yang, Xiuping He, Tingyi Wen
Background: The thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Ogataea polymorpha has been regarded as an important organism for basic research and biotechnological applications. It is generally recognized as an efficient and safe cell factory in fermentative productions of chemicals, biofuels and other bio-products. However, it is difficult to genetically engineer for the deficiency of an efficient and versatile genome editing technology. Results: In this study, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9-assisted multiplex genome editing (CMGE) approach including multiplex genes knock-outs, multi-locus (ML) and multi-copy (MC) integration methods in yeasts...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Thilo Hetzke, Marc Vogel, Dnyaneshwar B Gophane, Julia E Weigand, Beatrix Suess, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Thomas F Prisner
The tetracycline-binding RNA aptamer (TC-aptamer) is a synthetic riboswitch that binds the antibiotic tetracycline (TC) with exceptionally high affinity. Although a crystal structure exists of the TC-bound state, little is known about the conformational dynamics and changes upon ligand binding. In this study, pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance techniques for measuring distances (PELDOR) in combination with rigid nitroxide spin labels (Çm spin label), was used to investigate the conformational flexibility of the TC aptamer in the presence and absence of TC at different Mg2+ concentrations...
October 18, 2018: RNA
Vandita Dwivedi, Pratima Saini, Anam Tasneem, Kavita Agarwal, Srinivasa-Gopalan Sampathkumar
Investigations on the structure and functional roles of glycosylation - an intricate, complex, and dynamic post translational modification on proteins - in biological processes has been a challenging task. Glycan modifications vary depending on the specific cell type, its developmental stage, and resting or activated state. In the present study, we aim to understand the differences between the mucin-type O-glycosylation (MTOG) of two functionally divergent human cell lines, K562 (chronic myeloid leukemia) and U937 (histiocytic lymphoma), having myeloid origins...
October 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gianmarco Di Mauro, Ambra Dondi, Giovanni Giangreco, Alexander Hogrebe, Elja Louer, Elisa Magistrati, Meeli Mullari, Gemma Turon, Wouter Verdurmen, Helena Xicoy Cortada, Sanja Zivanovic
The European Academy for Biomedical Science (ENABLE) is an initiative funded by the European Union Horizon 2020 program involving four renowned European Research Institutes (Institute for Research in Biomedicine-IRB Barcelona, Spain; Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences-RIMLS, The Netherlands; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research-NNF CPR, Denmark; European School of Molecular Medicine-SEMM, Italy) and an innovative science communication agency (Scienseed). With the aim of promoting biomedical science of excellence in Europe, ENABLE organizes an annual three-day international event...
October 17, 2018: Biomolecules
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