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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929731/autophagic-homeostasis-is-required-for-the-pluripotency-of-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Tanveer Sharif, Emma Martell, Cathleen Dai, Barry E Kennedy, Patrick Murphy, Derek Clements, Youra Kim, Patrick W K Lee, Shashi Gujar
Pluripotency is an important feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contributes to self-renewal and chemoresistance. The maintenance of pluripotency of CSCs under various pathophysiological conditions requires a complex interaction between various cellular pathways including those involved in homeostasis and energy metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms that maintain the CSC pluripotency remain poorly understood. In this report, using both human and murine models of CSCs, we demonstrate that basal levels of autophagy are required to maintain the pluripotency of CSCs, and that this process is differentially regulated by the rate limiting enzyme in the NAD(+) synthesis pathway NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) and the transcription factor POU5F1/OCT4 (POU class 5 homeobox 1)...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924227/otx2-impedes-self-renewal-of-porcine-ips-cells-through-downregulation-of-nanog-expression
#2
Ning Wang, Yaxian Wang, Youlong Xie, Huayan Wang
The transcription factor Otx2 acts as a negative switch in the regulation of transition from naive to primed pluripotency in mouse pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular features and function of porcine OTX2 have not been well elucidated in porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs). By studying high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and interfering endogenous OTX2 expression, we demonstrate that OTX2 is able to downgrade the self-renewal of piPSCs. OTX2 is highly expressed in porcine brain, reproductive tissues, and preimplantation embryos, but is undetectable in fibroblasts and most somatic tissues...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919958/dietary-flavonoids-luteolin-and-quercetin-suppressed-cancer-stem-cell-properties-and-metastatic-potential-of-isolated-prostate-cancer-cells
#3
Pei-Hsun Tsai, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Chun-Yu Lin, Ying-Tang Huang, Lung-Ta Lee, Chithan C Kandaswami, Yo-Chuen Lin, Kevin Po-Hao Lee, Chin-Chun Hung, Jiuan-Jiuan Hwang, Ferng-Chun Ke, Geen-Dong Chang, Ming-Ting Lee
A highly invasive Du145-III subline was isolated by three successive passages of the parental Du145 prostate tumor cell line (Du145-P) through a Boyden chamber with matrigel-coated membrane support. Du145-III cells showed great invasion potential based on their increased ability to spread/migrate and enhanced expression/secretion of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Du145-III cells exerted vasculogenic mimicry (VM) properties, reminiscent of endothelial cell characteristics and expressed elevated levels of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers, including Nanog, Sox2, CD44 and ABCG2 and ability to self-renew...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917123/mir-150-suppresses-the-proliferation-and-tumorigenicity-of-leukemia-stem-cells-by-targeting-the-nanog-signaling-pathway
#4
Dan-Dan Xu, Peng-Jun Zhou, Ying Wang, Yi Zhang, Rong Zhang, Li Zhang, Su-Hong Chen, Wu-Yu Fu, Bi-Bo Ruan, Hai-Peng Xu, Chao-Zhi Hu, Lu Tian, Jin-Hong Qin, Sheng Wang, Xiao Wang, Qiu-Ying Liu, Zhe Ren, Xue-Kui Gu, Yao-He Li, Zhong Liu, Yi-Fei Wang
Proliferation, a key feature of cancer cells, accounts for the majority of cancer-related diseases resulting in mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) plays important post-transcriptional modulation roles by acting on multiple signaling pathways, but the underlying mechanism in proliferation and tumorigenicity is unclear. Here, we identified the role of miR-150 in proliferation and tumorigenicity in leukemia stem cells (LSCs; CD34+CD38- cells). miR-150 expression was significantly down-regulated in LSCs from leukemia cell lines and clinical samples...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915972/resistance-to-cell-death-and-its-modulation-in-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Ahmad R Safa
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that human cancers arise from various tissues of origin that initiate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer-initiating cells. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are dysregulated in CSCs, and these cells play crucial roles in tumor initiation, progression, cell death resistance, chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, and tumor recurrence. Understanding CSC-specific signaling proteins and pathways is necessary to identify specific therapeutic targets that may lead to the development of more efficient therapies selectively targeting CSCs...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911272/foxo4-expression-is-related-to-stem-cell-like-properties-and-resistance-to-treatment-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#6
Kyung Ju Ryu, Chaehwa Park, Mineui Hong, Young Hyeh Ko, Won Seog Kim, Seok Jin Kim
Cancer stem cells are proposed to be responsible for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, including doxorubicin. As phenylbutyrate enhances cancer stem cell properties, we analyzed surviving lymphoma cells after treatment with doxorubicin and phenylbutyrate. Human B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including Toledo, BJAB, Daudi, and Raji were incubated with IC90 concentrations of doxorubicin (300 nM) or phenylbutyrate (8 mM). After 48 h, live cells were sorted and analyzed for their resistance to treatment by examining gene expression profiles using cDNA microarray and biological characteristics...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911270/saha-and-or-mg132-reverse-the-aggressive-phenotypes-of-glioma-cells-an-in-vitro-and-vivo-study
#7
Xue-Feng Yang, Zhi-Juan Zhao, Jia-Jie Liu, Xiang-Hong Yang, Yang Gao, Shuang Zhao, Shuai Shi, Ke-Qiang Huang, Hua-Chuan Zheng
To elucidate the anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms of SAHA (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) and MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells, we treated U87 and U251 cells with SAHA or/and MG132, and detected phenotypes' assays with phenotype-related molecules examined. It was found that SAHA or/and MG132 treatment suppressed proliferation in both concentration- and time-dependent manners, inhibited energy metabolism, migration, invasion and lamellipodia formation, and induced G2 arrest and apoptosis in the glioma cells...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906584/effects-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-pathway-on-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#8
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Chao Lian, Beibei Tang, Tianrong Xiao, Man Wang, Kehua Wang, Bichun Li
The objectives of the present study were to screen for key gene and signaling pathways involved in the production of male germ cells in poultry and to investigate the effects of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into male germ cells. The ESCs, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were sorted using flow cytometry for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Male chicken ESCs were induced using 40 ng/mL of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905446/genomic-evolution-and-chemoresistance-in-germ-cell-tumours
#9
Amaro Taylor-Weiner, Travis Zack, Elizabeth O'Donnell, Jennifer L Guerriero, Brandon Bernard, Anita Reddy, G Celine Han, Saud AlDubayan, Ali Amin-Mansour, Steven E Schumacher, Kevin Litchfield, Clare Turnbull, Stacey Gabriel, Rameen Beroukhim, Gad Getz, Scott L Carter, Michelle S Hirsch, Anthony Letai, Christopher Sweeney, Eliezer M Van Allen
Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are derived from germ cells and occur most frequently in the testes. GCTs are histologically heterogeneous and distinctly curable with chemotherapy. Gains of chromosome arm 12p and aneuploidy are nearly universal in GCTs, but specific somatic genomic features driving tumour initiation, chemosensitivity and progression are incompletely characterized. Here, using clinical whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of precursor, primary (testicular and mediastinal) and chemoresistant metastatic human GCTs, we show that the primary somatic feature of GCTs is highly recurrent chromosome arm level amplifications and reciprocal deletions (reciprocal loss of heterozygosity), variations that are significantly enriched in GCTs compared to 19 other cancer types...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902770/mitochondrial-targeted-decyl-triphenylphosphonium-enhances-2-deoxy-d-glucose-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-clonogenic-killing-of-multiple-myeloma-cells
#10
Jeanine Schibler, Ann M Tomanek-Chalkley, Jessica L Reedy, Fenghuang Zhan, Douglas R Spitz, Michael K Schultz, Apollina Goel
Therapeutic advances have markedly prolonged overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM) but the disease currently remains incurable. In a panel of MM cell lines (MM.1S, OPM-2, H929, and U266), using CD138 immunophenotyping, side population staining, and stem cell-related gene expression, we demonstrate the presence of stem-like tumor cells. Hypoxic culture conditions further increased CD138low stem-like cells with upregulated expression of OCT4 and NANOG. Compared to MM cells, these stem-like cells maintained lower steady-state pro-oxidant levels with increased uptake of the fluorescent deoxyglucose analog...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895551/oct4-methylation-mediated-silencing-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-preventing-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-dedifferentiation-in-a-murine-model-of-retinal-injury
#11
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Monica Lamas
Müller glia (MG) is the most abundant glial type in the vertebrate retina. Among its many functions, it is capable of responding to injury by dedifferentiating, proliferating, and differentiating into every cell types lost to damage. This regenerative ability is notoriously absent in mammals. We have previously reported that cultured mammalian MG undergoes a partial dedifferentiation, but fails to fully acquire a progenitor phenotype and differentiate into neurons. This might be explained by a mnemonic mechanism comprised by epigenetic traits, such as DNA methylation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886571/apigenin-inhibited-hypoxia-induced-stem-cell-marker-expression-in-a-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-line
#12
Yuwaporn Ketkaew, Thanaphum Osathanon, Prasit Pavasant, Sireerat Sooampon
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells contribute to tumor recurrence, and a hypoxic environment is critical for maintaining cancer stem cells. Apigenin is a natural product with anticancer activity. However, the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cells remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cell marker expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells under hypoxia. DESIGN: We used three head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines; HN-8, HN-30, and HSC-3...
November 15, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886188/the-deubiquitinase-usp21-maintains-the-stemness-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-stabilization-of-nanog
#13
Jiali Jin, Jian Liu, Cong Chen, Zhenping Liu, Cong Jiang, Hongshang Chu, Weijuan Pan, Xinbo Wang, Lingqiang Zhang, Bin Li, Cizhong Jiang, Xin Ge, Xin Xie, Ping Wang
Nanog is a master pluripotency factor of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Stable expression of Nanog is essential to maintain the stemness of ESCs. However, Nanog is a short-lived protein and quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system. Here we report that the deubiquitinase USP21 interacts with, deubiquitinates and stabilizes Nanog, and therefore maintains the protein level of Nanog in mouse ESCs (mESCs). Loss of USP21 results in Nanog degradation, mESCs differentiation and reduces somatic cell reprogramming efficiency...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884977/nanog-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#14
Shan Qin, Yanfang Li, Xuexia Cao, Jiexian Du, Xianghua Huang
A key transcription factor associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is NANOG. However, the mechanism by which NANOG functions remains undefined. It has been suggested that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) also contributes to development of drug resistance in different cancers. We thus determined whether NANOG expression was associated with EMT and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. NANOG expression was increased in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines compared with its expression in normal epithelial ovarian cell lines...
November 24, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883891/analysis-of-cell-lineage-trees-by-exact-bayesian-inference-identifies-negative-autoregulation-of-nanog-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Justin Feigelman, Stefan Ganscha, Simon Hastreiter, Michael Schwarzfischer, Adam Filipczyk, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr, Manfred Claassen
Many cellular effectors of pluripotency are dynamically regulated. In principle, regulatory mechanisms can be inferred from single-cell observations of effector activity across time. However, rigorous inference techniques suitable for noisy, incomplete, and heterogeneous data are lacking. Here, we introduce stochastic inference on lineage trees (STILT), an algorithm capable of identifying stochastic models that accurately describe the quantitative behavior of cell fate markers observed using time-lapse microscopy data collected from proliferating cell populations...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881153/verification-of-trex1-as-a-promising-indicator-of-judging-the-prognosis-of-osteosarcoma
#16
Jinyi Feng, Ruilong Lan, Guanxiong Cai, Jinluan Lin, Xinwen Wang, Jianhua Lin, Deping Han
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to explore the correlation between the expression of TREX1 and the metastasis and the survival time of patients with osteosarcoma as well as biological characteristics of osteosarcoma cells for the prognosis judgment of osteosarcoma. METHOD: The correlation between the expression of TREX1 protein and the occurrence of pulmonary metastasis in 45 cases of osteosarcoma was analyzed. The CD133(+) and CD133(-) cell subsets of osteosarcoma stem cells were sorted by the flow cytometry...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880719/inhibition-of-5-lipoxygenase-downregulates-stemness-and-kills-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-by-triggering-apoptosis-via-activation-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase
#17
Sivalokanathan Sarveswaran, Nadimpalli Varma, Shravan Morisetty, Jagadananda Ghosh
The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare group of cells possessed with stem cell properties. CSCs are characterized by features that include self-renewal, pluripotency and tumorigenicity, and are thought to be solely responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. A hierarchically organized CSC model is becoming increasingly evident for various types of cancer, including prostate cancer. The CD44 (+), CD133 (+) cell subpopulations were isolated from human prostate tumors which exhibit stem-like properties showing therapeutic-resistance, capacity of self-renewal, and exact recapitulation of the original tumor in vivo...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879222/an-integration-free-virus-free-rhesus-macaque-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-ripsc89-from-embryonic-fibroblasts
#18
Enrique Sosa, Rachel Kim, Ernesto J Rojas, Linzi Hosohama, Jon D Hennebold, Kyle E Orwig, Amander T Clark
We generated a rhesus macaque induced pluripotent stem cell (riPSC) line, riPSC89, from rhesus embryonic fibroblasts (REFs). Fibroblasts were expanded from the skin of a rhesus macaque embryo at embryonic day 47. REFs and riPSCs had a normal male (42, XY) karyotype. The riPSC89 line was positive for markers of self-renewal including OCT4, NANOG, TRA-1-81 and SSEA4. Pluripotency was demonstrated through the generation of teratomas using transplantation into immunocompromised mice. The riPSC89 line may be a useful non-human primate resource to uncover developmental origins of disease, or used as a basic model to understand lineage specification in the primate embryo...
September 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879213/generation-of-hexa-deficient-hipscs-from-fibroblasts-of-a-tay-sachs-disease-patient
#19
Zhong Liu, Rui Zhao
Human iPSC line TSD-01-hiPSC was generated from fibroblasts of a patient with infantile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD). The patient is compound heterozygous at the HEXA gene by carrying a 1278insTATC allele and an IVS12+1G>C allele. STEMCCA lentivirus, which expresses OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC from a polycistronic transcript, were used for reprogramming. TSD-01-hiPSC express pluripotency markers such as OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, Tra-1-60, and alkaline phosphatase, and can differentiate into tissues from all the three embryonic germ layers...
September 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879208/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-from-a-retinoblastoma-patient-carrying-a-c-2663g-a-mutation-in-rb1-gene
#20
Sicong Zeng, Lvjun Liu, Qi Ouyang, Yan Zhao, Ge Lin, Liang Hu, Wen Li
Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a male patient diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB) carrying a c.2663G>A mutation in the 25 exon of RB1 gene. RB-iPS cells was generated via delivered four reprogramming factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and LIN28) into these skin fibroblasts. The RB-iPS cells retained the RB1 heterozygous mutation resulted in a truncated RB1 mRNA. Characteristic tests proved that the iPSC line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers in vitro...
September 2016: Stem Cell Research
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