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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467949/identification-and-characterisation-of-nanog-oct-4-high-sox2-doxorubicin-resistant-stem-like-cells-from-transformed-trophoblastic-cell-lines
#1
Reham M Balahmar, David J Boocock, Clare Coveney, Sankalita Ray, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Tarik Regad, Selman Ali, Shiva Sivasubramaniam
Treatment of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although, these therapeutic approaches are highly successful, drug resistance and toxicity remain a concern for high risk patients. This Chemoresistance has also been observed in the presence of cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for cases of cancer recurrence. In this study, we report the presence of previously unknown populations of trophoblastic stem-like cells (SLCs) that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466785/down-regulation-of-h3k4me3-by-mm-102-facilitates-epigenetic-reprogramming-of-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#2
Zhiren Zhang, Yanhui Zhai, Xiaoling Ma, Sheng Zhang, Xinglan An, Hao Yu, Ziyi Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aberrantly high levels of H3K4me3, caused by incomplete epigenetic reprogramming, likely cause a low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Smal molecule inhibitors aimed at epigenetic modification can be used to improve porcine SCNT embryo development. In this study, we examined the effects of MM-102, an H3K4 histone methyltransferase inhibitor, on porcine SCNT preimplantation embryos to investigate the mechanism by which H3K4 methylation regulated global epigenetic reprograming during SCNT...
February 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464039/high-rac3-expression-levels-are-required-for-induction-and-maintaining-of-cancer-cell-stemness
#3
Laura C Panelo, Mileni Soares Machado, María F Rubio, Felipe Jaworski, Cecilia V Alvarado, Leonardo A Paz, Alejandro J Urtreger, Elba Vazquez, Mónica A Costas
RAC3 is a transcription coactivator, usually overexpressed in several tumors and required to maintain the pluripotency in normal stem cells. In this work we studied the association between RAC3 overexpression on cancer cell stemness and the capacity of this protein to induce cancer stem properties in non tumoral cells. We performed in vitro and in vivo experiments using two strategies: by overexpressing RAC3 in the non tumoral cell line HEK293 and by silencing RAC3 in the human colorectal epithelial cell line HCT116 by transfection...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445146/dural-effects-of-oxidative-stress-on-cardiomyogenesis-via-gata4-transcription-and-protein-ubiquitination
#4
Tao Li, Xia Zhang, Kesheng Jiang, Jing Liu, Zhiqiang Liu
Oxidative stress generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can promote or inhibit cardiac differentiation of stem cells dependent on the intensity of stimuli as well as cellular context in redox and differentiation status. In the current study, we confirmed that suitable intensity of hydrogen peroxide at the formation stage of embryoid bodies (EBs) effectively favored the formation of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies implicated that extrinsic ROS enhanced the Caspase-mediated degradation of Oct4 and Nanog, two factors that governing pluripotent property...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442425/effect-of-co-culture-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells-with-porcine-oocytes-during-maturation-subsequent-embryo-development-of-parthenotes-in-vitro
#5
Seok Hee Lee, Hyun Ju Oh, Min Jung Kim, Erif Maha Nugraha Setyawan, Yoo Bin Choi, Byeong Chun Lee
Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been applied to regenerative medicine for their roles in angiogenesis as well as neovascularization, and these angiogenetic functions have beneficial effects on maturation of ovarian follicles. However, little information is available on whether EPCs on culture systems affect oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EPC co-culture on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development, and to examine gene expression in cumulus cells, oocytes and blastocysts...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442331/role-of-zic-family-proteins-in-transcriptional-regulation-and-chromatin-remodeling
#6
Minoru Hatayama, Jun Aruga
Proper functions of Zic proteins are essential for animals in health and disease. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the molecular properties and functions of the Zic family across animal species and paralog subtypes. Zics are basic proteins with some posttranslational modifications and can move to the cell nucleus via importin- and CRM1-based nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mechanisms. Degradation is mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Many Zic proteins are capable of binding to two types of target DNA sequences (CTGCTG-core-type and GC-stretch-type)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442322/zebrafish-zic-genes-mediate-developmental-signaling
#7
Cecilia Lanny Winata, Vladimir Korzh
The introduction of genomics into the field of developmental biology led to a vast expansion of knowledge about developmental genes and signaling mechanisms they are involved in. Unlike mammals, the zebrafish features seven Zic genes. This provides an interesting insight into Zic gene evolution. In addition, an unprecedented bioimaging capability of semitransparent zebrafish embryos turns to be a crucial factor in medium- to large-scale analysis of the activity of potential regulatory elements. The Zic family of zinc finger proteins plays an important, relatively well-established, role in the regulation of stem cells and neural development and, in particular, during neural fate commitment and determination...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440295/microrna-203-inhibits-long-noncoding-rna-hotair-and-regulates-tumorigenesis-through-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-pathway-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Pritha Dasgupta, Priyanka Kulkarni, Shahana Majid, Shahryari Varahram, Yutaka Hashimoto, Nadeem S Bhat, Marisa Shiina, Guoren Deng, Sharanjot Saini, Z Laura Tabatabai, Soichiro Yamamura, Yuichiro Tanaka, Rajvir Dahiya
This study aims to investigate the role of miR-203-HOTAIR interaction in the suppression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We employed series of in vitro assays such as proliferation, invasion, migration and colony formation along with in vivo tumor xenograft model. Profiling of miR-203 and HOTAIR expression revealed that miR-203 was significantly under-expressed whereas HOTAIR was overexpressed in RCC cell-lines and clinical specimens compared to normal cell line and tissue. Both miR-203 and HOTAIR expression significantly distinguished malignant from normal tissues and significantly correlated with clinicopathological characteristics of patients...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437706/targeting-cyclin-d-cdk4-6-sensitizes-immune-refractory-cancer-by-blocking-the-scp3-nanog-axis
#9
Se Jin Oh, Hanbyoul Cho, Suhyun Kim, Kyung Hee Noh, Kwon-Ho Song, Hyo-Jung Lee, Seon Rang Woo, Suyeon Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M Hewitt, Jae-Hoon Kim, Seungki Baek, Kyung-Mi Lee, Cassian Yee, Hae-Chul Park, Tae Woo Kim
Immune editing caused by anti-tumor immunity drives tumor cells to acquire refractory phenotypes. We demonstrated previously that tumor antigen-specific T cells edit these cells such that they become resistant to CTL killing and enrich NANOGhigh cancer stem cell-like (CSC-like) cells. In the current study, we show that synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), a member of the Cor1 family, is overexpressed in immune-edited cells and upregulates NANOG by hyperactivating the Cyclin D1-CDK4/6 axis. The SCP3-Cyclin D1-CDK4/6 axis was preserved across various types of human cancer, and correlated negatively with progression-free survival of cervical cancer patients...
February 6, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434243/isolation-and-expansion-of-multipotent-progenitors-from-human-trabecular-meshwork
#10
Yuan Zhang, Subo Cai, Scheffer C G Tseng, Ying-Ting Zhu
To expand multi-potent progenitors from human trabecular meshwork (TM), we have created a new optimized method on two-dimensional (2D) followed by three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel in modified embryonic stem cell medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (MESCM + 5% FBS). The expanded TM cells were small cuboidal cells expressing TM markers such as AQP1, MGP, CHI3L1, and AnkG, embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and ABCG2, and neural crest (NC) markers such as p75NTR, FOXD3, Sox9, Sox10, and MSX1...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429957/a-non-apoptotic-function-of-mcl-1-in-promoting-pluripotency-and-modulating-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-stem-cells
#11
Megan L Rasmussen, Leigh A Kline, Kyungho P Park, Natalya A Ortolano, Alejandra I Romero-Morales, Christin C Anthony, Kathryn E Beckermann, Vivian Gama
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) maintain a highly fragmented mitochondrial network, but the mechanisms regulating this phenotype remain unknown. Here, we describe a non-cell death function of the anti-apoptotic protein, MCL-1, in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and promoting pluripotency of stem cells. MCL-1 is induced upon reprogramming, and its inhibition or knockdown induces dramatic changes to the mitochondrial network as well as loss of the key pluripotency transcription factors, NANOG and OCT4...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426374/ectopic-expression-of-mir-147-inhibits-stem-cell-marker-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-related-protein-expression-in-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Xiaofei Ning, Cong Wang, Meng Zhang, Kecheng Wang
Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in tumor progression and also involves in the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. Some miRNAs have been shown to function as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of miR-147 in the regulation of stem cell-like traits of colon cancer cells. We observed that miR-147 was down-regulated in several colon cancer cell lines and overexpressed miR-147 decreased the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG in colon cancer cells (HCT116, SW480)...
February 9, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423528/cellular-functions-of-stem-cell-factors-mediated-by-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#13
REVIEW
Jihye Choi, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Stem cells undergo partitioning through mitosis and separate into specific cells of each of the three embryonic germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Pluripotency, reprogramming, and self-renewal are essential elements of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and it is becoming evident that regulation of protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the key cellular mechanisms in ESCs. Although the framework of that mechanism may seem simple, it involves complicated proteolytic machinery...
February 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423117/oxidative-stress-promotes-exit-from-the-stem-cell-state-and-spontaneous-neuronal-differentiation
#14
Qidong Hu, Puja Khanna, Belinda Shu Ee Wong, Zealyn Shi Lin Heng, Charannya Sozheesvari Subhramanyam, Lal Zo Thanga, Sharon Wui Sing Tan, Gyeong Hun Baeg
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation and survival. Here we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on stem cell maintenance and neuronal differentiation in a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) model, Ntera2 (NT2). CM-H2DCFDA and DHE assays confirmed that the oxidizing agent paraquat could induce a high level of ROS in NT2 cells. Quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry showed that paraquat-induced oxidative stress suppressed the expression of stemness markers, including NANOG, OCT4 and TDGF1, whereas it enhanced the spontaneous expression of neuronal differentiation markers such as PAX6, NEUROD1, HOXA1, NCAM, GFRA1 and TUJ1...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422613/cx26-drives-self-renewal-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-via-interaction-with-nanog-and-focal-adhesion-kinase
#15
Praveena S Thiagarajan, Maksim Sinyuk, Soumya M Turaga, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, James S Hale, Vinay Rao, Abeba Demelash, Caner Saygin, Arnab China, Tyler J Alban, Masahiro Hitomi, Luke A Torre-Healy, Alvaro G Alvarado, Awad Jarrar, Andrew Wiechert, Valery Adorno-Cruz, Paul L Fox, Benjamin C Calhoun, Jun-Lin Guan, Huiping Liu, Ofer Reizes, Justin D Lathia
Tumors adapt their phenotypes during growth and in response to therapies through dynamic changes in cellular processes. Connexin proteins enable such dynamic changes during development, and their dysregulation leads to disease states. The gap junction communication channels formed by connexins have been reported to exhibit tumor-suppressive functions, including in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, we find that connexin 26 (Cx26) is elevated in self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) and is necessary and sufficient for their maintenance...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421658/polyene-phosphatidylcholine-overcomes-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-human-gastric-cancer-bgc823-cells
#16
Hongjun Zhang, Hao Song, Ronghui Yuan, Xianxiang Zhang, Hongsheng Yu, Yuanyuan Zhao, Tao Jiang
Intrinsic or acquired resistance to oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a major reason of treatment failure in gastric cancer and limits therapeutic success. Here we generated an oxaliplatin resistant gastric cancer cell line, BGC823/L-OHP, to investigate the effect of a hepatoprotective compound, polyene phosphatidylcholine (PPC), on conquest of oxaliplatin resistance. BGC823/L-OHP cells showed less sensitive to L-OHP directed growth inhibition than the parental BGC823 cells. PPC treatment significantly increased anti-proliferative activity of L-OHP on resistant cells and promoted L-OHP triggered apoptosis, indicating that drug resistance was overcome...
February 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420637/isolation-and-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-fetus-heart
#17
Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Saurabh Pratap Singh, Yamuna Mohanram, Ashwani Kumar Gupta, Deepa Kapoor, Soniya Nityanand
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising cells for cardiovascular regenerative medicine. However, their potential may be limited, because of their restricted cardiovascular differentiation potential and decline in their number and functional characteristics with increasing donor age. We have previously shown that rat fetus heart harbors primitive MSCs and administration of these cells improved left ventricular (LV) function after ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. To evaluate their potential as a new cell type for clinical cardiovascular cell therapy, we have undertaken this study on the isolation and characterization of human fetal cardiac MSCs (hfC-MSCs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416638/nicotine-enhanced-stemness-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-tumor-formation-and-growth-in-nude-mice
#18
Tao Li, Jun Zhang, Jiahui Zhang, Nannan Zhang, Yang Zeng, Shengnan Tang, Zehua Tao, Xiying Qu, Jue Jia, Wei Zhu, Xiaochun Sun, Huabiao Chen
Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor in the development and progression of malignant diseases. Nicotine, the major constituent in cigarette smoke, has also shown negative effects on stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely demonstrated to migrate into tumors and play key roles in cancer progression. However, the mechanisms by which nicotine impacts MSCs and tumorigenesis of lung cancer are still undetermined. In this study we investigated the effects of nicotine on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) and the impacts of nicotine-treated hUC-MSCs on tumor formation and progression...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414604/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-husti001-a-from-a-40-year-old-patient-with-idiopathic-infertility
#19
Fang Fang, Zili Li, Qian Zhao, Zhen Ye, Kai Zhao, Xiuli Gu, Shiliang Shen, Renee A Reijo Pera, Chengliang Xiong
Human fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin of a clinically diagnosed 40-year old patient with idiopathic infertility. The fibroblasts were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KOSM transcriptional factors using the retroviral vectors. The obtained induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line showed pluripotency verified by the expression of pluripotency markers, NANOG, SOX2, OCT4, TRA-1-60, and SSEA-4. And the iPSC line was demonstrated to have the three germ layers differentiation capacity in vivo by teratoma assay...
January 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414416/imatinib-mesylate-enhances-the-maintenance-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cell-potential-in-the-absence-of-glucose
#20
Silvia Bono, Persio Dello Sbarba, Matteo Lulli
The introduction of BCR/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as imatinib-mesylate (IM), has revolutioned the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, although extremely effective in inducing CML remission, IM is unable to eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC). This is largely due to the suppression of BCR/Abl protein, driven by the reduction of energy supply due to oxygen or glucose shortage, in stem cell niches of bone marrow. Here, we investigated whether, in K562 and KCL22 CML cell cultures, glucose shortage induces refractoriness of stem cell potential to IM...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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