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Soyoun Um, Hui Young Kim, Byoung-Moo Seo
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of BMP-2 on bone-grafting procedures for treatment of fibrous dysplasia based on in vitro and in vivo experiments. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Proliferation of stem cells was determined by colony-forming assay, CCK-8 assay, and BrdU staining. OCT4 and NANOG expression was analyzed by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by measuring ALP activity, alizarin red S staining, and in vivo transplantation...
April 18, 2018: Oral Diseases
Na Jin, Xiaojian Zhu, Fanjun Cheng, Liling Zhang
Multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) have been considered as the major cause resulting in relapse. Eradicating MMSCs may be an effective strategy to improve the outcome of multiple myeloma (MM). Increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been found in MMSCs, but whether inhibiting ALDH activity can eliminate MMSCs remains unknown. Disulfiram (DS) has been reported as an inhibitor of ALDH, and increasing studies showed it has anti-cancer effects in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. In this study, we isolated ALDH+ cells of MM by Aldefluor assay and demonstrated they possessed tumorigenesis capacities in vitro and in vivo...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Lydia W S Finley, Santosha A Vardhana, Bryce W Carey, Direna Alonso-Curbelo, Richard Koche, Yanyang Chen, Duancheng Wen, Bryan King, Megan R Radler, Shahin Rafii, Scott W Lowe, C David Allis, Craig B Thompson
A robust network of transcription factors and an open chromatin landscape are hallmarks of the naive pluripotent state. Recently, the acetyllysine reader Brd4 has been implicated in stem cell maintenance, but the relative contribution of Brd4 to pluripotency remains unclear. Here, we show that Brd4 is dispensable for self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). When maintained in their ground state, ESCs retain transcription factor binding and chromatin accessibility independent of Brd4 function or expression...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Aleksandra Markiewicz, Anna Nagel, Jolanta Szade, Hanna Majewska, Jaroslaw Skokowski, Barbara Seroczynska, Tomasz Stokowy, Marzena Welnicka-Jaskiewicz, Anna J Zaczek
Intratumoral heterogeneity of breast cancer remains a major challenge in successful treatment. Failure of cancer therapies can also be accredited to inability to systemically eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent evidence points to the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in expanding the pool of tumor cells with CSCs features. Thus, we assessed expression level as well as heterogeneity of CSCs markers in primary tumors (PT), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-enriched blood fractions in order to correlate them with signs of EMT activation as well as clinicopathological data of breast cancer patients...
April 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
Chenjing Zhang, Huiqin Gao, Chao Li, Jiangfeng Tu, Zhihao Chen, Weiwei Su, Xiaoge Geng, Xiaojun Chen, Jingya Wang, Wensheng Pan
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the transforming growth factor β1 pathway plays an important role in breast cancer metastasis to the liver. However, the mechanism of this metastasis has not been fully clarified. Cancer stem cells are essential for the initiation and propagation of tumor metastasis. The objective of our current study was to define the role of cancer stem cells in transforming growth factor β1-mediated breast cancer hepatic metastases. METHOD: Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to assess the formation of breast cancer liver metastases and local invasion...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Binyamin Eisen, Ronen Ben Jehuda, Ashley J Cuttitta, Lucy N Mekies, Irina Reiter, Sindhu Ramchandren, Michael Arad, Daniel E Michele, Ofer Binah
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive muscle degenerative disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a 13-year-old male patient carrying a deletion mutation of exons 45-50; iPSCs were subsequently differentiated into cardiomyocytes. iPSCs exhibit expression of the pluripotent markers (SOX2, NANOG, OCT4), differentiation capacity into the three germ layers, normal karyotype, genetic identity to the skin biopsy dermal fibroblasts and the patient-specific dystrophin mutation...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Mohammad Reza Omrani, Moein Yaqubi, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia
Direct reprogramming of non-fibroblastic cells to the neuronal cell types including induced neurons (iNs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) has provided an alternative approach for the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to those cells. However, to increase the efficiency of the reprogramming process the underlaying mechanisms should be clarified. In the current study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of five different cellular conversions to understand the most significant molecular mechanisms and transcription factors (TFs) underlying each conversion...
April 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Jae Yong Han, Hyo Gun Lee, Young Hyun Park, Young Sun Hwang, Sang Kyung Kim, Deivendran Rengaraj, Byung Wook Cho, Jeong Mook Lim
Background: Acquisition of pluripotency by transcriptional regulatory factors is an initial developmental event that is required for regulation of cell fate and lineage specification during early embryonic development. The evolutionarily conserved core transcriptional factors regulating the pluripotency network in fishes, amphibians, and mammals have been elucidated. There are also species-specific maternally inherited transcriptional factors and their intricate transcriptional networks important in the acquisition of pluripotency...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Koji Umata, Mohamed Elbadawy, Takashi Ohama, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroko Takenouchi, Masao Nakajima, Ryouichi Tsunedomi, Nobuaki Suzuki, Hiroaki Nagano, Koichi Sato, Masahiro Kaneda, Kazuaki Sasaki
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, combination treatment with several anti-cancer drugs is employed and improves overall survival in some patients. Nevertheless, most patients with metastatic disease are not cured owing to the drug resistance. Cancer stem cells are known to regulate resistance to chemotherapy. In the previous study, we established a novel three-dimensional organoid culture model from tumor colorectal tissues of human patients using an air-liquid interface (ALI) method, which contained numerous cancer stem cells and showed resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Irinotecan...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhengwei Leng, Qinghua Xia, Jinhuang Chen, Yong Li, Jiqian Xu, Ende Zhao, Hai Zheng, Walden Ai, Jiangchuan Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although EpCAM+CD44+ cells exhibit more stem-like properties than did EpCAM-CD44- cells, the specificity of EpCAM combined with CD44 in defining CSCs needs further improvement. Lgr5 is used as a biomarker to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear whether Lgr5, along with EpCAM and CD44, can further identify and define CSCs in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Lgr5+CD44+EpCAM+, Lgr5+CD44+EpCAM-, Lgr5+CD44-EpCAM+, Lgr5-CD44+EpCAM+, and Lgr5-CD44-EpCAM-cells were separately isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Fang Wei, Tong Zhang, Zhi Yang, Jian-Chang Wei, Hong-Fen Shen, Dong Xiao, Qiang Wang, Ping Yang, Hua-Cui Chen, He Hu, Zhuan-Peng Chen, Qing Huang, Wang-Lin Li, Jie Cao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported to be a potential novel antitumor drug. Whether GA inhibits putative cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are considered to be the major cause of cancer treatment failure, remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether GA inhibits the CSCs of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: We performed CCK8 and tumor sphere formation assays, percentage analysis of both side population and CD133+CD44+ cells, and the detection of stem cells markers, in order to assess the role of GA in inhibiting the stem celllike features of CRC...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Stefanie Bressan Werle, Pedro Chagastelles, Patricia Pranke, Luciano Casagrande
OBJECTIVES: Cultivation under hypoxia promotes different responses in the mesenchymal stem cells and it has been producing promising results for clinical applications. Pulp tissue from deciduous teeth is a source of stem cells which has a high proliferative potential but this is usually discarded. This study has evaluated the effects of hypoxia on proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of the pluripotency-related genes of the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
José Salvador Vicente, María Pilar Viudes-de-Castro, José Isaí Cedano-Castro, Francisco Marco-Jiménez
The efficiency of an embryo bank depends on provision of optimal conditions for recovery, cryopreservation and transfer to a breed or strain. In this sense, increasing the number of embryos available using superovulation should improve the cryobank efficiency. However, vagueness of response to conventional protocols to control or increase ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos and their cryotolerance remain a challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of corifollitropin alpha (CTP) and a recombinant human FSH (rhFSH), alone or supplemented with rhLH, on embryo cryosurvival by in vitro development and OCT4 and NANOG mRNA abundance at blastocyst stage and offspring rate...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Katarzyna Stadnicka, Anna Sławińska, Aleksandra Dunisławska, Bertrand Pain, Marek Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: In this work we have determined molecular signatures of oviduct epithelial and progenitor cells. We have proposed a panel of selected marker genes, which correspond with the phenotype of oviduct cells of a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) and quail (Coturnix japonica). We demonstrated differences in characteristics of those cells, in tissue and in vitro, with respect to different anatomical and functional parts of the oviduct (infundibulum (INF), distal magnum (DM, and proximal magnum (PM))...
April 4, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro Rodrigues, Flávia Caló de Aquino Xavier, Nathália Paiva Andrade, Camila Lopes, Lucyene Miguita Luiz, Bruno Tavares Sedassari, Ana Melissa Ccopa Ibarra, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Claudia Kliemann Schmerling, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Eloiza Elena Tajara da Silva, Fabio Daumas Nunes
BACKGROUND: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) contains a cell subpopulation referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The CSC markers have been used to isolate these cells and as biomarkers to predict overall survival. METHODS: The CSC markers CD44, NANOG, OCT4, and BMI1 were investigated using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters...
April 1, 2018: Head & Neck
A Soancă, M Lupse, M Moldovan, E Pall, M Cenariu, A Roman, O Tudoran, P Surlin, O Șorițău
BACKGROUND: Normal or inflamed gingival tissues are regarded as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) abundant and easily accessible through minimally invasive dental procedures. Due to the proximity of dental resin composites to gingival tissues and to the possible local cytotoxic effect of the eluted components, gingiva-derived MSCs could be used to investigate the biocompatibility of dental biomaterials. PURPOSE: The present research aimed to isolate (MSCs) from inflamed and normal gingiva, to fully characterize them and to observe their behavior in relation with some commercial resin composite materials and one experimental material...
March 28, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Caroline Amalie Brunbjerg Hey, Katarina Beata Saltoõkova, Hanne Cathrine Bisgaard, Lisbeth Birk Møller
Different culture-systems for derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in vitro from human fibroblasts have been established. Here we compared the efficacy of two different feeder-free culture-systems; Matrigel-coated surfaces in combination with mTeSR1 medium versus Vitronectin-coated surfaces in combination with Essential 8 (E8) medium. The comparison was performed by counting the number of emerging iPSC-looking colonies of re-programmed fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were re-programmed using episomal plasmids expressing OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28 and a p53 knock down shP53...
March 30, 2018: Cell Biology International
Soraia Martins, Hatice Yigit, Martina Bohndorf, Nina Graffmann, Aurelian Robert Fiszl, Wasco Wruck, Kristel Sleegers, Christine Van Broeckhoven, James Adjaye
Human lymphoblast cells from a male diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) expressing the TREM2 p.R47H variant were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by over-expressing episomal-based plasmids harbouring OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and L-MYC. AD-TREM2-1 was defined as pluripotent based on (i) expression of pluripotency-associated markers (ii) embryoid body-based differentiation into cell types representative of the three germ layers and (iii) the similarity between the transcriptome of the iPSC line and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 with a Pearson correlation of 0...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Chaojie Liang, Tuanjie Zhao, Hua Ge, Yingchen Xu, Shulin Ren, Chaosen Yue, Guangming Li, Jixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that the over-expression of Nanog contributes to the progression of various malignant tumors. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic role of Nanog in gastrointestinal luminal cancer remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the role of Nanog in gastrointestinal luminal cancer. METHODS: An electronic search for relevant literature was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Ilya R Akberdin, Nadezda A Omelyanchuk, Stanislav I Fadeev, Natalya E Leskova, Evgeniya A Oschepkova, Fedor V Kazantsev, Yury G Matushkin, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Nikolay A Kolchanov
Multiple experimental data demonstrated that the core gene network orchestrating self-renewal and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells involves activity of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog genes by means of a number of positive feedback loops among them. However, recent studies indicated that the architecture of the core gene network should also incorporate negative Nanog autoregulation and might not include positive feedbacks from Nanog to Oct4 and Sox2. Thorough parametric analysis of the mathematical model based on this revisited core regulatory circuit identified that there are substantial changes in model dynamics occurred depending on the strength of Oct4 and Sox2 activation and molecular complexity of Nanog autorepression...
2018: PloS One
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