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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903276/accurate-prediction-of-response-to-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-current-and-future-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Cigdem Selli, J Michael Dixon, Andrew H Sims
Approximately 70% of patients have breast cancers that are oestrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and are therefore candidates for endocrine treatment. Many of these patients relapse in the years during or following completion of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Thus, many ER+ cancers have primary resistance or develop resistance to endocrine therapy during treatment. Recent improvements in our understanding of how tumours evolve during treatment with endocrine agents have identified both changes in gene expression and mutational profiles, in the primary cancer as well as in circulating tumour cells...
December 1, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901069/molecular-profiling-of-circulating-tumour-cells-identifies-notch1-as-a-principal-regulator-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Javier Mariscal, Marta Alonso-Nocelo, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Jorge Barbazan, Maria Vieito, Alicia Abalo, Antonio Gomez-Tato, Casares de Cal Maria de Los Angeles, Tomas Garcia-Caballero, Carmela Rodriguez, Elena Brozos, Francisco Baron, Rafael Lopez-Lopez, Miguel Abal
Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis colonization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains incomplete. A complete overview integrating driver mutations, primary tumour heterogeneity and overt metastasis lacks the dynamic contribution of disseminating metastatic cells due to the inaccessibility to the molecular profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). By combining immunoisolation and whole genome amplification, we performed a global gene expression analysis of EpCAM positive CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899993/predictive-value-of-microparticle-associated-tissue-factor-activity-for-permeability-glycoprotein-mediated-multidrug-resistance-in-cancer
#3
Antonio Angelini, Sebastiano Miscia, Maria Antonietta Centurione, Roberta Di Pietro, Lucia Centurione
Multidrug resistance (MDR) protein 1, which is also known as permeability glycoprotein (Pgp), and tissue factor (TF) are recurrently overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, likely in response to stimuli such as chemotherapy. Microparticles (MPs) released from cancer cells into the bloodstream express tumour markers on their surface that may be useful as predictive biomarkers for evaluating disease progression. The present study measured the level of TF/factor VII (FVII)-dependent coagulation of MPs isolated from the plasma of cancer patients with various tumours, who were undergoing chemotherapy...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899805/circulating-tumour-dna-analysis-demonstrates-spatial-mutational-heterogeneity-that-coincides-with-disease-relapse-in-myeloma
#4
S Mithraprabhu, T Khong, M Ramachandran, A Chow, D Klarica, L Mai, S Walsh, D Broemeling, A Marziali, M Wiggin, J Hocking, A Kalff, B Durie, A Spencer
Mutational characterisation in multiple myeloma (MM) currently relies on bone marrow (BM) biopsy, which fails to capture the putative spatial and genetic heterogeneity of this multi-focal disease. Analysis of plasma (PL)-derived circulating free tumour DNA (ctDNA) as an adjunct to BM biopsy, for mutational characterisation and tracking disease progression, was evaluated. Paired BM MM cell DNA and ctDNA from 33 relapsed [RR] and 15 newly diagnosed [ND] patients were analysed for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and TP53 mutations using the OnTarget™ Mutation Detection (OMD) platform...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897412/systemic-inflammation-body-composition-and-physical-performance-in-old-community-dwellers
#5
Riccardo Calvani, Federico Marini, Matteo Cesari, Thomas W Buford, Todd M Manini, Marco Pahor, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, changes in body composition, and declining physical function are hallmarks of the ageing process. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of the relationship among these age-related phenomena via multivariate modelling. METHODS: Thirty-five old adults (OAs) and 17 young adults (YAs) were enrolled. The volume of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of the thigh was quantified by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893842/t-cell-receptor-v%C3%AE-staining-identifies-the-malignant-clone-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-and-reveals-killing-of-leukemia-cells-by-autologous-cd8-t-cells
#6
Aileen G Rowan, Aviva Witkover, Anat Melamed, Yuetsu Tanaka, Lucy B M Cook, Paul Fields, Graham P Taylor, Charles R M Bangham
There is growing evidence that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses can contribute to long-term remission of many malignancies. The etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), contains highly immunogenic CTL epitopes, but ATL patients typically have low frequencies of cytokine-producing HTLV-1-specific CD8+ cells in the circulation. It remains unclear whether patients with ATL possess CTLs that can kill the malignant HTLV-1 infected clone. Here we used flow cytometric staining of TCRVβ and cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) to identify monoclonal populations of HTLV-1-infected T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with ATL...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882929/soluble-il-33-receptor-sst2-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-malignant-growth-by-modifying-the-tumour-microenvironment
#7
Miho Akimoto, Riruke Maruyama, Hiroyuki Takamaru, Takahiro Ochiya, Keizo Takenaga
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) was recently shown to be involved in the inflammatory tumour microenvironment and the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We report here that the expression level of sST2, a soluble form of the IL-33 receptor (ST2L), is inversely associated with the malignant growth of CRC. sST2 is downregulated in high-metastatic cells compared with low-metastatic human and mouse CRC cells. Knockdown of sST2 in low-metastatic cells enhances tumour growth, metastasis and tumour angiogenesis, whereas its overexpression in high-metastatic cells suppresses these processes...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878261/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-in-syngeneic-tumour-cell-lysate-based-anticancer-vaccination-in-a-murine-lung-carcinoma-model
#8
Jan Aleksander Kraśko, Karolina Žilionytė, Adas Darinskas, Marius Strioga, Svetlana Rjabceva, Iosif Zalutsky, Marina Derevyanko, Vladimir Kulchitsky, Werner Lubitz, Pavol Kudela, Edita Miseikyte-Kaubriene, Olha Karaman, Hennadii Didenko, Hryhorii Potebnya, Vasyl Chekhun, Vita Pašukonienė
Instead of relying on external anticancer factors for treatment, immunotherapy utilizes the host's own immune system and directs it against given tumour antigens. This study demonstrated that it is possible to overcome the documented immunosuppressive properties of tumour cell lysate by supplementing it with appropriate adjuvant. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)‑challenged C57BL/6 mice were treated with LLC cryo‑lysate mixed with either bacterial ghosts (BGs) generated from E. coli Nissle 1917 or B. subtilis 70 kDa protein as adjuvants...
November 16, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875519/expression-of-somatostatin-receptors-2-and-5-in-circulating-tumour-cells-from-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumours
#9
Alexa Childs, Clare Vesely, Leah Ensell, Helen Lowe, Tu Vinh Luong, Martyn E Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis, Christina Thirlwell, John A Hartley, Tim Meyer
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTR) that can be targeted for therapy. Somatostatin receptor expression is routinely measured by molecular imaging but the resolution is insufficient to define heterogeneity. We hypothesised that SSTR expression could be measured on circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and used to investigate heterogeneity of expression and track changes during therapy. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were transfected with SSTR2 or 5 and spiked into donor blood for analysis by CellSearch...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872478/circulating-tumour-cells-as-biomarkers-of-prostate-bladder-and-kidney-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Michael A Gorin, James E Verdone, Emma van der Toom, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Mohamad E Allaf, Kenneth J Pienta
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been studied as biomarkers of a number of solid malignancies. Potential clinical applications for CTC analysis include early cancer detection, disease staging, monitoring for recurrence, prognostication, and to aid in the selection of therapy. In the field of urologic oncology, CTCs have been most widely studied as prognostic biomarkers of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Additionally, emerging data support a role for CTCs to help identify which patients are most likely to respond to novel androgen-pathway targeted therapies, such as abiraterone and enzalutamide...
November 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870841/tracking-the-dynamics-of-circulating-tumour-cell-phenotypes-using-nanoparticle-mediated-magnetic-ranking
#11
Mahla Poudineh, Peter M Aldridge, Sharif Ahmed, Brenda J Green, Leyla Kermanshah, Vivian Nguyen, Carmen Tu, Reza M Mohamadi, Robert K Nam, Aaron Hansen, Srikala S Sridhar, Antonio Finelli, Neil E Fleshner, Anthony M Joshua, Edward H Sargent, Shana O Kelley
Profiling the heterogeneous phenotypes of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in whole blood is critical to unravelling the complex and dynamic properties of these potential clinical markers. This task is challenging because these cells are present at parts per billion levels among normal blood cells. Here we report a new nanoparticle-enabled method for CTC characterization, called magnetic ranking cytometry, which profiles CTCs on the basis of their surface expression phenotype. We achieve this using a microfluidic chip that successfully processes whole blood samples...
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868150/clinical-efficiency-of-topical-calcipotriol-betamethasone-treatment-in-psoriasis-relies-on-suppression-of-the-inflammatory-tnf%C3%AE-il-23-il-17-axis
#12
Minna E Kubin, Nina Kokkonen, Riitta Palatsi, Päivi M Hägg, Juha P Väyrynen, Virpi Glumoff, Kirsi-Maria Haapasaari, Tiina Hurskainen, Kaisa Tasanen
The effects of topical calcipotriol/betamethasone combination therapy and betamethasone monotherapy on inflammatory T cell numbers and molecular markers were compared in patients with psoriasis. Combination therapy down-regulated the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-23A, IL-17A, S100A7, CCL-20 and interferon (IFN)-γ in skin and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23A, T-bet and IFN-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Betamethasone monotherapy had less effect. Expression of FoxP3 in both skin and PBMCs was down-regulated by calcipotriol/betamethasone, but not by betamethasone...
November 21, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866095/continuing-egfr-inhibition-beyond-progression-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Timothy A Yap, Aislinn Macklin-Doherty, Sanjay Popat
The majority of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but nearly all inevitably acquire resistance and develop disease progression. Conventional practice would be to switch treatments to second-line therapy. However, continuing TKIs beyond progression is becoming increasingly commonplace in patients with indolent, small volume asymptomatic growth, who may potentially continue to derive ongoing clinical benefit and to avoid a 'withdrawal tumour flare'...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843628/recent-advances-in-the-biology-of-human-circulating-tumour-cells-and-metastasis
#14
REVIEW
Sofia Gkountela, Barbara Szczerba, Cinzia Donato, Nicola Aceto
The development of a metastatic disease is recognised as the cause of death of over 90% of patients diagnosed with cancer. Understanding the biological features of metastasis has been hampered for a long time by the difficulties to study widespread cancerous lesions in patients, and by the absence of reliable methods to isolate viable metastatic cells during disease progression. These difficulties negatively impact on our ability to develop new agents that are tailored to block the spread of cancer. Yet, recent advances in specialised devices for the isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), hand-in-hand with technologies that enable single cell resolution interrogation of their genome and transcriptome, are now paving the way to understanding those molecular mechanisms that drive the formation of metastasis...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827359/vasculogenic-mimicry-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Stuart C Williamson, Robert L Metcalf, Francesca Trapani, Sumitra Mohan, Jenny Antonello, Benjamin Abbott, Hui Sun Leong, Christopher P E Chester, Nicole Simms, Radoslaw Polanski, Daisuke Nonaka, Lynsey Priest, Alberto Fusi, Fredrika Carlsson, Anders Carlsson, Mary J C Hendrix, Richard E B Seftor, Elisabeth A Seftor, Dominic G Rothwell, Andrew Hughes, James Hicks, Crispin Miller, Peter Kuhn, Ged Brady, Kathryn L Simpson, Fiona H Blackhall, Caroline Dive
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by prevalent circulating tumour cells (CTCs), early metastasis and poor prognosis. We show that SCLC patients (37/38) have rare CTC subpopulations co-expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and cytokeratins consistent with vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process whereby tumour cells form 'endothelial-like' vessels. Single-cell genomic analysis reveals characteristic SCLC genomic changes in both VE-cadherin-positive and -negative CTCs. Higher levels of VM are associated with worse overall survival in 41 limited-stage patients' biopsies (P<0...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813080/protein-content-and-functional-characteristics-of-serum-purified-exosomes-from-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-revealed-by-quantitative-proteomics
#16
Yanyu Chen, Yong Xie, Lai Xu, Shaohua Zhan, Yi Xiao, Yanpan Gao, Bin Wu, Wei Ge
Tumour cells of colorectal cancer (CRC) release exosomes into the circulation. These exosomes can mediate communication between cells and affect various tumour-related processes in their target cells. We present a quantitative proteomics analysis of the exosomes purified from serum of patients with CRC and normal volunteers; data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003875. We identified 918 proteins with an overlap of 725 Gene IDs in the Exocarta proteins list. Compared with the serum-purified exosomes (SPEs) of normal volunteers, we found 36 proteins upregulated and 22 proteins downregulated in the SPEs of CRC patients...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812894/breast-cancer-risk-assessment-a-non-invasive-multiparametric-approach-to-stratify-patients-by-mmp-9-serum-activity-and-rhoa-expression-patterns-in-circulating-leucocytes
#17
Olga Golubnitschaja, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Jella-Andrea Abraham, Hans H Schild, Vincenzo Costigliola, Manuel Debald, Walther Kuhn
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease classified by several sub-types which differ from each other by risk factors, specific molecular promoters and severity of outcomes. Tumour aggressiveness and metastatic disease are the key determinants of breast cancer outcomes. Tumour cell ability to degrade the extracellular matrix and to be motile is the hallmark of invasion and essential step in a development of breast cancer metastatic disease. Therefore, a coordinated action between cell motility and ability to degrade the extracellular matrix is currently under extensive investigation focused on molecular targets for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes...
November 3, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798883/influence-of-circulating-tumour-cells-on-production-of-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-12-in-sera-of-patients-with-primary-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-before-treatment
#18
Theresa Vilsmaier, Brigitte Rack, Alexander König, Klaus Friese, Wolfgang Janni, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been found to be a prognostic marker for reduced disease-free survival (DFS), distant DFS, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) before the start of systemic treatment. Determination of CTCs with the CellSearch System (Veridex, Raritan, NJ, USA) is a valuable but time-consuming and costly method. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine profiles as a marker for CTC involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients chosen for this study were defined as women with breast cancer who agreed to participate in the phase I SUCCESS study...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786338/coagulation-factor-xii-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-in-macrophages-and-promotes-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#19
Sandra Vorlova, Miriam Koch, Helga D Manthey, Clement Cochain, Martin Busch, Sweena M Chaudhari, David Stegner, Manuel Yepes, Kristina Lorenz, Marc W Nolte, Bernhard Nieswandt, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall. Coagulation pathways and immune responses contribute to disease development. The role of coagulation factor XII (FXII) in vascular inflammation, however, remains controversial. We here investigated the function of FXII in atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E and FXII-deficient (F12(-/-)Apoe(-/-)) mice. Compared to F12(+/+)Apoe(-/-) controls, atherosclerotic lesion formation was reduced in F12(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. This was associated with a decrease in serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-12 levels and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the aorta in atherosclerotic F12(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice, as well as diminished Th1-cell differentiation in the aorta, blood, and lymphoid organs...
October 27, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776557/mammographically-dense-human-breast-tissue-stimulates-mcf10dcis-com-progression-to-invasive-lesions-and-metastasis
#20
Cecilia W Huo, Mark Waltham, Christine Khoo, Stephen B Fox, Prue Hill, Shou Chen, Grace L Chew, John T Price, Chau H Nguyen, Elizabeth D Williams, Michael Henderson, Erik W Thompson, Kara L Britt
BACKGROUND: High mammographic density (HMD) not only confers a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (BC) but also is associated with BCs of more advanced stages. However, it is unclear whether BC progression and metastasis are stimulated by HMD. We investigated whether patient-derived HMD breast tissue could stimulate the progression of MCF10DCIS.com cells compared with patient-matched low mammographic density (LMD) tissue. METHODS: Sterile breast specimens were obtained immediately after prophylactic mastectomy from high-risk women (n = 10)...
October 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
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