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Circulating tumour cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424486/meta-analysis-reveals-the-prognostic-value-of-circulating-tumour-cells-detected-in-the-peripheral-blood-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#1
Yan-Jun Lu, Peng Wang, Jing Peng, Xiong Wang, Yao-Wu Zhu, Na Shen
Detecting circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is considered as effective and minimally invasive technique to predict the prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), but its clinical validity is still conflicting in patients without metastasis. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate whether detection of CTCs in the peripheral blood can be used as a prognostic marker for patients with non-metastatic CRC. We performed a comprehensive search of the EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases (up to September 2016)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422972/challenges-in-enumeration-of-ctcs-in-breast-cancer-using-techniques-independent-of-cytokeratin-expression
#2
John Castle, Karen Morris, Susan Pritchard, Cliona C Kirwan
INTRODUCTION: Given the current postulated plasticity between epithelial and mesenchymal states of migratory cancer cells the detection of non-epithelial CTCs is an important scientific and clinical goal. METHODS: We used the filtration-based ISET technology to enrich circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in early breast cancer blood samples and identify them using a morphology-based immunocytochemistry (ICC) approach. RESULTS: We found greater numbers of putative CTCs by this approach than by the cytokeratin-based CellSearch technology, but a high number of CTC false positives were identified in healthy volunteer samples which were not reduced in successive blood draws...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420618/research-progress-on-liquid-biopsy-in-oncology-and-its-clinical-applications
#3
Wang Chen, Li Yanming, Fang Xiangdong
Liquid biopsy is an emerging and promising detection tool for cancer, with the benefit of being non-invasive and convenient. It analyzes tumor-derived information in the blood or other body fluids including circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes. Nowadays, with the expansion of liquid biopsy research contents and the development of capture and detection technologies, liquid biopsy is increasingly utilized in clinical applications, promoting the development of tumor precision medicine...
March 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419993/reduction-in-peripheral-cd19-cd24hcd27-b-cell-frequency-predicts-favourable-clinical-course-in-xelox-treated-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer
#4
Wei Li, Dongli Song, Hong Li, Li Liang, Naiqing Zhao, Tianshu Liu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that regulatory B cells (Bregs) play an important role in modulating the immune response to tumours. Our previous study indicated that a small percentage of peripheral CD19+CD24hCD27+ Breg cells slowed gastric cancer progression in XELOX-treated patients. Here, we further investigated the relationship between dynamic changes in circulating Breg cells and the clinical course in XELOX-treated gastric cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with advanced gastric cancer were enrolled in this study...
April 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416815/in-situ-programming-of-leukaemia-specific-t-cells-using-synthetic-dna-nanocarriers
#5
Tyrel T Smith, Sirkka B Stephan, Howell F Moffett, Laura E McKnight, Weihang Ji, Diana Reiman, Emmy Bonagofski, Martin E Wohlfahrt, Smitha P S Pillai, Matthias T Stephan
An emerging approach for treating cancer involves programming patient-derived T cells with genes encoding disease-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), so that they can combat tumour cells once they are reinfused. Although trials of this therapy have produced impressive results, the in vitro methods they require to generate large numbers of tumour-specific T cells are too elaborate for widespread application to treat cancer patients. Here, we describe a method to quickly program circulating T cells with tumour-recognizing capabilities, thus avoiding these complications...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397821/t-cell-invigoration-to-tumour-burden-ratio-associated-with-anti-pd-1-response
#6
Alexander C Huang, Michael A Postow, Robert J Orlowski, Rosemarie Mick, Bertram Bengsch, Sasikanth Manne, Wei Xu, Shannon Harmon, Josephine R Giles, Brandon Wenz, Matthew Adamow, Deborah Kuk, Katherine S Panageas, Cristina Carrera, Phillip Wong, Felix Quagliarello, Bradley Wubbenhorst, Kurt D'Andrea, Kristen E Pauken, Ramin S Herati, Ryan P Staupe, Jason M Schenkel, Suzanne McGettigan, Shawn Kothari, Sangeeth M George, Robert H Vonderheide, Ravi K Amaravadi, Giorgos C Karakousis, Lynn M Schuchter, Xiaowei Xu, Katherine L Nathanson, Jedd D Wolchok, Tara C Gangadhar, E John Wherry
Despite the success of monotherapies based on blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in human melanoma, most patients do not experience durable clinical benefit. Pre-existing T-cell infiltration and/or the presence of PD-L1 in tumours may be used as indicators of clinical response; however, blood-based profiling to understand the mechanisms of PD-1 blockade has not been widely explored. Here we use immune profiling of peripheral blood from patients with stage IV melanoma before and after treatment with the PD-1-targeting antibody pembrolizumab and identify pharmacodynamic changes in circulating exhausted-phenotype CD8 T cells (Tex cells)...
April 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379317/circulating-pancreatic-stellate-stromal-cells-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-fertile-area-for-novel-research
#7
Tony Cy Pang, Zhihong Xu, Srinivasa Pothula, Therese Becker, David Goldstein, Romano C Pirola, Jeremy S Wilson, Minoti V Apte
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is known to play an important role in facilitating pancreatic cancer progression - both in terms of local tumour growth as well as the establishment of metastases. We have previously demonstrated that PSCs from the primary cancer seed to distant metastatic sites. We therefore hypothesise that PSCs circulate along with pancreatic cancer cells (circulating tumour cells - CTCs) to help create a growth permissive microenvironment at distant metastatic sites. This review aims to explore the concept of circulating PSCs in pancreatic cancer and suggests future directions for research in this area...
April 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369376/association-of-circulating-tumour-cells-with-early-relapse-and-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-uptake-in-resected-non-small-cell-lung-cancers%C3%A2
#8
Clara I Bayarri-Lara, Diego de Miguel Pérez, Antonio Cueto Ladrón de Guevara, Antonio Rodriguez Fernández, Jose L Puche, Abel Sánchez-Palencia Ramos, Javier Ruiz Zafra, Carlos F Giraldo Ospina, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Manuela Expósito Ruiz, Maria José Moyano Rodriguez, Jose A Lorente, Maria José Serrano
OBJECTIVES: More than 20% of lung cancer patients develop a recurrence, even after curative resection. We hypothesized that relapse may arise from the dissemination of circulating tumour cells (CTCs). This study evaluates the significance of CTC detection as regards the recurrence of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in surgically resected patients. Secondly, we investigated the association between CTCs and the uptake of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by the primary tumour on a positron emission tomographic (PET) scan...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368340/comparisons-of-the-postprandial-inflammatory-and-endotoxaemic-responses-to-mixed-meals-in-young-and-older-individuals-a-randomised-trial
#9
Amber M Milan, Shikha Pundir, Chantal A Pileggi, James F Markworth, Paul A Lewandowski, David Cameron-Smith
Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20-25 and 60-75 years (n = 15/group) consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
April 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341420/brain-metastasization-of-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Tânia Custódio-Santos, Mafalda Videira, Maria Alexandra Brito
Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340615/glucocorticoids-induce-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-reactive-nitrogen-species-and-dna-damage-through-an-inos-mediated-pathway-in-breast-cancer
#11
Renée L Flaherty, Matthew Owen, Aidan Fagan-Murphy, Haya Intabli, David Healy, Anika Patel, Marcus C Allen, Bhavik A Patel, Melanie S Flint
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress increases the circulating levels of the stress hormones cortisol and norepinephrine (NE). Chronic exposure to elevated stress hormones has been linked to a reduced response to chemotherapy through induction of DNA damage. We hypothesize that stress hormone signalling may induce DNA damage through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and interference in DNA repair processes, promoting tumourigenesis. METHODS: Breast cancer cell lines were incubated with physiological levels of cortisol and NE in the presence and absence of receptor antagonists and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitors and DNA damage measured using phosphorylated γ-H2AX...
March 24, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332571/profiling-protein-expression-in-circulating-tumour-cells-using-microfluidic-western-blotting
#12
Elly Sinkala, Elodie Sollier-Christen, Corinne Renier, Elisabet Rosàs-Canyelles, James Che, Kyra Heirich, Todd A Duncombe, Julea Vlassakis, Kevin A Yamauchi, Haiyan Huang, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Amy E Herr
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are rare tumour cells found in the circulatory system of certain cancer patients. The clinical and functional significance of CTCs is still under investigation. Protein profiling of CTCs would complement the recent advances in enumeration, transcriptomic and genomic characterization of these rare cells and help define their characteristics. Here we describe a microfluidic western blot for an eight-plex protein panel for individual CTCs derived from estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329770/antigen-presentation-profiling-reveals-recognition-of-lymphoma-immunoglobulin-neoantigens
#13
Michael S Khodadoust, Niclas Olsson, Lisa E Wagar, Ole A W Haabeth, Binbin Chen, Kavya Swaminathan, Keith Rawson, Chih Long Liu, David Steiner, Peder Lund, Samhita Rao, Lichao Zhang, Caleb Marceau, Henning Stehr, Aaron M Newman, Debra K Czerwinski, Victoria E H Carlton, Martin Moorhead, Malek Faham, Holbrook E Kohrt, Jan Carette, Michael R Green, Mark M Davis, Ronald Levy, Joshua E Elias, Ash A Alizadeh
Cancer somatic mutations can generate neoantigens that distinguish malignant from normal cells. However, the personalized identification and validation of neoantigens remains a major challenge. Here we discover neoantigens in human mantle-cell lymphomas by using an integrated genomic and proteomic strategy that interrogates tumour antigen peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. We applied this approach to systematically characterize MHC ligands from 17 patients...
March 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327598/global-dna-methylation-analysis-identifies-two-discrete-clusters-of-pheochromocytoma-with-distinct-genomic-and-genetic-alterations
#14
Samuel Backman, Rajani Maharjan, Alberto Falk-Delgado, Joakim Crona, Kenko Cupisti, Peter Stålberg, Per Hellman, Peyman Björklund
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare and frequently heritable neural-crest derived tumours arising from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal chromaffin cells respectively. The majority of PPGL tumours are benign and do not recur with distant metastases. However, a sizeable fraction of these tumours secrete vasoactive catecholamines into the circulation causing a variety of symptoms including hypertension, palpitations and diaphoresis. The genetic landscape of PPGL has been well characterized and more than a dozen genes have been described as recurrently mutated...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322181/epithelial-mesenchymal-and-hybrid-epithelial-mesenchymal-phenotypes-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-cancer-metastasis
#15
Minal Garg
Cancer metastasis occurs through local invasion of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), intravasation, transportation to distant sites, and their extravasation followed by colonisation at secondary sites. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal developmental phenomenon, but its aberrant activation confers tumour cells with enhanced cell motility, metastatic properties, resistant to therapies and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in epithelium-derived carcinoma. Experimental studies from various research papers have been reviewed to determine the factors, which interlink cancer stemness and cellular plasticity with EMT...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321147/detection-of-circulating-tumour-cells-in-urothelial-cancers-and-clinical-correlations-comparison-of-two-methods
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Emanuela Fina, Andrea Necchi, Stefano Bottelli, Carolina Reduzzi, Sara Pizzamiglio, Chiara Iacona, Maria Grazia Daidone, Paolo Verderio, Vera Cappelletti
Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are identified exploiting their protein/gene expression patterns or distinct size compared to blood cells. Data on CTC in bladder cancer (BC) are still scarce. We comparatively analyzed CTC enrichment by AdnaTest ProstateCancerSelect (AT) and ScreenCell®Cyto (SC) kits, combined with identification by EPCAM, MUC1, and ERBB2 expression and by cytological criteria, respectively, in 19 nonmetastatic (M0) and 47 metastatic (M+) BC patients, at baseline (T0) and during treatment (T1)...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321130/effective-combinatorial-immunotherapy-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#17
Xin Lu, James W Horner, Erin Paul, Xiaoying Shang, Patricia Troncoso, Pingna Deng, Shan Jiang, Qing Chang, Denise J Spring, Padmanee Sharma, John A Zebala, Dean Y Maeda, Y Alan Wang, Ronald A DePinho
A significant fraction of patients with advanced prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy experience relapse with relentless progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies against cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) or programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD1/PD-L1) generates durable therapeutic responses in a significant subset of patients across a variety of cancer types. However, mCRPC showed overwhelming de novo resistance to immune checkpoint blockade, motivating a search for targeted therapies that overcome this resistance...
March 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317839/polymeric-mechanical-amplifiers-of-immune-cytokine-mediated-apoptosis
#18
Michael J Mitchell, Jamie Webster, Amanda Chung, Pedro P G Guimarães, Omar F Khan, Robert Langer
Physical forces affect tumour growth, progression and metastasis. Here, we develop polymeric mechanical amplifiers that exploit in vitro and in vivo physical forces to increase immune cytokine-mediated tumour cell apoptosis. Mechanical amplifiers, consisting of biodegradable polymeric particles tethered to the tumour cell surface via polyethylene glycol linkers, increase the apoptotic effect of an immune cytokine on tumour cells under fluid shear exposure by as much as 50% compared with treatment under static conditions...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306358/the-genetics-of-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-the-use-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-for-disease-detection-and-monitoring
#19
Mark R Openshaw, Catherine J Richards, David S Guttery, Jacqueline A Shaw, Anne L Thomas
Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GOA) is a frequently occurring cancer worldwide with a poor clinical outcome. Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have shown a recent increase in frequency, therefore there is need to increase our understanding of GOA in order to improve our ability to detect, monitor and treat the disease. Areas covered: The authors discuss the current classification of GOA in the context of recent changes in incidence. The authors also discuss developments in the understanding of disease biology and recent discoveries from whole genome and whole exome sequencing, and studies in immunotherapy...
March 30, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303905/pre-metastatic-niches-organ-specific-homes-for-metastases
#20
REVIEW
Héctor Peinado, Haiying Zhang, Irina R Matei, Bruno Costa-Silva, Ayuko Hoshino, Goncalo Rodrigues, Bethan Psaila, Rosandra N Kaplan, Jacqueline F Bromberg, Yibin Kang, Mina J Bissell, Thomas R Cox, Amato J Giaccia, Janine T Erler, Sachie Hiratsuka, Cyrus M Ghajar, David Lyden
It is well established that organs of future metastasis are not passive receivers of circulating tumour cells, but are instead selectively and actively modified by the primary tumour before metastatic spread has even occurred. Sowing the 'seeds' of metastasis requires the action of tumour-secreted factors and tumour-shed extracellular vesicles that enable the 'soil' at distant metastatic sites to encourage the outgrowth of incoming cancer cells. In this Review, we summarize the main processes and new mechanisms involved in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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