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Circulating tumour cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133857/pdgfr-modulated-mir-23b-cluster-and-mir-125a-5p-suppress-lung-tumorigenesis-by-targeting-multiple-components-of-kras-and-nf-kb-pathways
#1
Srivatsava Naidu, Lei Shi, Peter Magee, Justin D Middleton, Alessandro Laganá, Sudhakar Sahoo, Hui Sun Leong, Melanie Galvin, Kristopher Frese, Caroline Dive, Vincenza Guzzardo, Matteo Fassan, Michela Garofalo
In NSCLC alterations in PDGF receptors are markers of worst prognosis and efficient targeting of these receptors is yet to be achieved. In this study, we explored PDGFR-regulated microRNAs demonstrating that miR-23b cluster and miR-125a-5p are downregulated by increased expression of PDGFR-α or PDGFR-β in NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, the expression of these microRNAs is positively regulated by p53 and negatively modulated by NF-kB p65. Forced expression of miR-23b cluster or miR-125a-5p enhanced drug sensitivity and suppressed invasiveness of NSCLC cells by silencing several genes involved in oncogenic KRAS and NF-kB pathways, including SOS1, GRB2, IQGAP1, RALA, RAF-1, IKKβ, AKT2, ERK2 and KRAS itself...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132146/identification-of-unique-neoantigen-qualities-in-long-term-survivors-of-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Vinod P Balachandran, Marta Łuksza, Julia N Zhao, Vladimir Makarov, John Alec Moral, Romain Remark, Brian Herbst, Gokce Askan, Umesh Bhanot, Yasin Senbabaoglu, Daniel K Wells, Charles Ian Ormsby Cary, Olivera Grbovic-Huezo, Marc Attiyeh, Benjamin Medina, Jennifer Zhang, Jennifer Loo, Joseph Saglimbeni, Mohsen Abu-Akeel, Roberta Zappasodi, Nadeem Riaz, Martin Smoragiewicz, Z Larkin Kelley, Olca Basturk, Mithat Gönen, Arnold J Levine, Peter J Allen, Douglas T Fearon, Miriam Merad, Sacha Gnjatic, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Jedd D Wolchok, Ronald P DeMatteo, Timothy A Chan, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Taha Merghoub, Steven D Leach
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with fewer than 7% of patients surviving past 5 years. T-cell immunity has been linked to the exceptional outcome of the few long-term survivors, yet the relevant antigens remain unknown. Here we use genetic, immunohistochemical and transcriptional immunoprofiling, computational biophysics, and functional assays to identify T-cell antigens in long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer. Using whole-exome sequencing and in silico neoantigen prediction, we found that tumours with both the highest neoantigen number and the most abundant CD8(+) T-cell infiltrates, but neither alone, stratified patients with the longest survival...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127370/exosomal-mir-126-as-a-circulating-biomarker-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-regulating-cancer-progression
#3
Franco Grimolizzi, Federica Monaco, Francesca Leoni, Massimo Bracci, Sara Staffolani, Cristiana Bersaglieri, Simona Gaetani, Matteo Valentino, Monica Amati, Corrado Rubini, Franca Saccucci, Jiri Neuzil, Marco Tomasetti, Lory Santarelli
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. It is diagnosed mostly at the locally advanced or metastatic stage. Recently, micro RNAs (miRs) and their distribution in circulation have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, miR-126 was evaluated in serum, exosome and exosome-free serum fractions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at early and advanced stages, and compared with healthy controls. Down-regulation of miR-126 was found in serum of advanced stage NSCLC patients...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123264/neutrophils-driving-progression-and-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Jane Margetts, Laura F Ogle, Stephen L Chan, Anthony W H Chan, K C Allen Chan, David Jamieson, Catherine E Willoughby, Derek A Mann, Caroline L Wilson, Derek M Manas, Winnie Yeo, Helen L Reeves
BACKGROUND: Irrespective of the underlying aetiology, 90% of hepatocellular carcinomas arise and progress on a background of chronic inflammation. We have explored the independent prognostic value of circulating inflammatory cells. METHODS: Peripheral blood count data sets from 583 consecutive patients presenting to a single UK centre (2000-2010) were analysed for associations with tumour stage, liver function, performance status (PST) and survival. Validation was in an independent Hong Kong cohort (585 patients; 2007-2013)...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116117/circulating-microrna-92b-3p-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-monitoring-of-synovial-sarcoma
#5
Koji Uotani, Tomohiro Fujiwara, Aki Yoshida, Shintaro Iwata, Takuya Morita, Masahiro Kiyono, Suguru Yokoo, Toshiyuki Kunisada, Ken Takeda, Joe Hasei, Kunihiko Numoto, Yutaka Nezu, Tsukasa Yonemoto, Takeshi Ishii, Akira Kawai, Takahiro Ochiya, Toshifumi Ozaki
The lack of useful biomarkers is a crucial problem for patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Emerging evidence has suggested that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids have novel impact as biomarkers for patients with malignant diseases, but their significance in synovial sarcoma (SS) patients remains unknown. Initial global miRNA screening using SS patient serum and SS cell culture media identified a signature of four upregulated miRNAs. Among these candidates, miR-92b-3p secretion from SS cells was confirmed, which was embedded within tumour-derived exosomes rather than argonaute-2...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113334/exosomal-mir-665-as-a-novel-minimally-invasive-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#6
Zhen Qu, Junhua Wu, Junyi Wu, Anlai Ji, Guanghui Qiang, Yong Jiang, Chunping Jiang, Yitao Ding
Recent studies have shown that circulating microRNAs are potential biomarkers for various types of malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel serological biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis and prognosis. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles (30-100 nm). Exosomal miR-665 levels in HCC patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (P < 0.05), and exosomal miR-665 levels were significantly upregulated in tumours larger in size (> 5 cm), in tumours with local invasion and in those at an advanced clinical stage (stage III/IV) of HCC (P = 0...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113230/squamous-cell-transformation-and-egfr-t790m-mutation-as-acquired-resistance-mechanisms-in-a-patient-with-lung-adenocarcinoma-treated-with-a-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-a-case-report
#7
Rossella Bruno, Agnese Proietti, Greta Alì, Gianfranco Puppo, Alessandro Ribechini, Antonio Chella, Gabriella Fontanini
The present case report describes the infrequent coexistence of squamous cell transformation and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation as resistance mechanisms to first line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The patient was a 44-year-old female, diagnosed with a primitive advanced lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastases. The tumor was positive for the EGFR exon 19 deletion, therefore the patient was treated with afatinib (40 mg/day, orally) and radiotherapy for bone lesions. After 16 months, the patient developed resistance...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110846/egfr-mutation-prevalence-in-asia-pacific-and-russian-patients-with-advanced-nsclc-of-adenocarcinoma-and-non-adenocarcinoma-histology-the-ignite-study
#8
Baohui Han, Sergei Tjulandin, Koichi Hagiwara, Nicola Normanno, Laksmi Wulandari, Konstantin Laktionov, Achmad Hudoyo, Yong He, Yi-Ping Zhang, Meng-Zhao Wang, Chien Ying Liu, Marianne Ratcliffe, Rose McCormack, Martin Reck
OBJECTIVES: Limited understanding exists of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation frequency in less common subgroups of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]), and to what extent local practices exclude patients from EGFR testing based on their clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IGNITE (non-comparative/-interventional; NCT01788163) was conducted in 90 centres (Asia-Pacific/Russia). Eligible patients: local/metastatic aNSCLC; chemotherapy-naïve, newly-diagnosed/recurrent disease after resection; ineligible for curative treatment...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105994/selection-free-method-reveals-phenotypic-diversity-among-prostate-cancer-circulating-tumour-cells
#9
EDITORIAL
Heather J Chalfin, Kenneth J Pienta, Michael A Gorin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105742/enumeration-and-characterization-of-circulating-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-patients-with-plasma-cell-disorders
#10
Brad Foulk, Mike Schaffer, Steve Gross, Chandra Rao, Denis Smirnov, Mark C Connelly, Shalini Chaturvedi, Manjula Reddy, Greg Brittingham, Marielena Mata, Madeline Repollet, Claudia Rojas, Daniel Auclair, Mary DeRome, Brendan Weiss, Amy K Sasser
We have developed an automated assay to enumerate and characterize circulating multiple myeloma cells (CMMC) from peripheral blood of patients with plasma cell disorders. CMMC show expression of genes characteristic of myeloma and fluorescence in situ hybridisation results on CMMC correlated well with bone marrow results. We enumerated CMMC from over 1000 patient samples including separate cohorts of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and high/intermediate risk smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) with clinical follow-up data...
November 5, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102858/weekly-cabazitaxel-plus-prednisone-is-effective-and-less-toxic-for-unfit-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-phase-ii-spanish-oncology-genitourinary-group-sogug-trial
#11
Miguel Ángel Climent, Begoña Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña Mellado, Eva María Fernández Parra, Ovidio Fernández Calvo, María Ochoa de Olza, Laura Muinelo Romay, Urbano Anido, Montserrat Domenech, Susana Hernando Polo, José Ángel Arranz Arija, Cristina Caballero, María José Juan Fita, Daniel Castellano
AIM: Cabazitaxel (CBZ), a novel tubulin-binding taxane, improves overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that progresses during or after docetaxel treatment. We have designed a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CBZ as a weekly schedule for 'unfit' mCRPC patients after docetaxel failure. METHODS: In this single arm phase II study. CBZ was weekly administered in 1-hour infusion on days 1, 8, 15 and 22, every 5 weeks at 10 mg/m(2) to eligible 'unfit' patients; oral prednisone (5 mg) was administered twice a day...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089667/inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-equilibrium-proliferative-and-antiproliferative-balance-the-role-of-cytokines-in-multiple-myeloma
#12
REVIEW
Caterina Musolino, Alessandro Allegra, Vanessa Innao, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
Multiple myeloma (MM) is typically exemplified by a desynchronized cytokine system with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. We focused on the contrast between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory systems by assessing the role of cytokines and their influence on MM. The aim of this review is to summarize the available information to date concerning this equilibrium to provide an overview of the research exploring the roles of serum cytokines in MM. However, the association between MM and inflammatory cytokines appears to be inadequate, and other functions, such as pro-proliferative or antiproliferative effects, can assume the role of cytokines in the genesis and progression of MM...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078173/very-early-response-of-circulating-tumour-derived-dna-in-plasma-predicts-efficacy-of-nivolumab-treatment-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Yuki Iijima, Yosuke Hirotsu, Kenji Amemiya, Yoshihiko Ooka, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Toshio Oyama, Takahiro Nakagomi, Yoshinori Uchida, Yoichi Kobayashi, Toshiharu Tsutsui, Yumiko Kakizaki, Taichiro Goto, Yoshihiro Miyashita, Masao Omata
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has become a treatment option for lung cancer. The utility of nivolumab as second-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer has been proven, but predictive biomarkers influencing its efficacy remain unknown. METHODS: This study involved 14 patients who were treated with nivolumab from February 1 to September 30, 2016. The early response of the level of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) after starting nivolumab was evaluated to ascertain whether it could predict treatment outcome...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072078/integrated-multifunctional-electrochemistry-microchip-for-highly-efficient-capture-release-lysis-and-analysis-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#14
Shuangqian Yan, Peng Chen, Xuemei Zeng, Xian Zhang, Yiwei Li, Yun Xia, Jie Wang, Xiaofang Dai, Xiaojun Feng, Wei Du, Bi-Feng Liu
The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood allow the noninvasive analysis of metastatic mechanisms, cancer diagnosis, prognosis, disease monitoring, and precise therapy through "liquid biopsies". However, there is no integrated and robust multifunctional microchip, which not only could highly efficient capture CTCs, but also fast release and lyse cells on one single chip without using other biochemical agents for downstream biomedical analysis. In this work, we integrated the three functions in one electrochemical microchip (echip) by intentionally designing a cactus-like, topologically structured conductive array consisted of a PDMS micropillar-array core and an electroconductive gold coating layer with hierarchical structure...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069768/direct-comparison-study-of-dna-methylation-markers-in-epcam-positive-circulating-tumour-cells-corresponding-circulating-tumour-dna-and-paired-primary-tumours-in-breast-cancer
#15
Maria Chimonidou, Areti Strati, Nikos Malamos, Sophia Kouneli, Vassilis Georgoulias, Evi Lianidou
Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) represent a non-invasive liquid biopsy approach for the follow-up and therapy management of cancer patients. We evaluated whether DNA methylation status in CTCs and ctDNA is comparable and whether it reflects the status of primary tumours. We compared the methylation status of three genes, SOX17, CST6 and BRMS1 in primary tumours, corresponding CTCs and ctDNA in 153 breast cancer patients and healthy individuals, by using real time methylation specific PCR...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061138/the-evidence-base-for-circulating-tumour-dna-blood-based-biomarkers-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer-a-systematic-mapping-review
#16
Ian A Cree, Lesley Uttley, Helen Buckley Woods, Hugh Kikuchi, Anne Reiman, Susan Harnan, Becky L Whiteman, Sian Taylor Philips, Michael Messenger, Angela Cox, Dawn Teare, Orla Sheils, Jacqui Shaw
BACKGROUND: The presence of circulating cell-free DNA from tumours in blood (ctDNA) is of major importance to those interested in early cancer detection, as well as to those wishing to monitor tumour progression or diagnose the presence of activating mutations to guide treatment. In 2014, the UK Early Cancer Detection Consortium undertook a systematic mapping review of the literature to identify blood-based biomarkers with potential for the development of a non-invasive blood test for cancer screening, and which identified this as a major area of interest...
October 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057681/liquid-biopsy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-key-role-in-the-future-of-personalized-medicine
#17
Can Pi, Ming-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Xiao Peng, Yi-Chen Zhang, Chong-Rui Xu, Qing Zhou
Liquid biopsies, especially the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), as a novel and non-invasive method for the diagnosis and monitoring of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have already been implemented in clinical settings. The majority of ctDNA is released from apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells, thus reflecting the genetic profile of a tumor. Numerous studies have reported a high concordance in mutation profiles derived from liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy, especially in driver genes. Liquid biopsy could overcome the clonal heterogeneity of tumour biopsy, as it provides a single snapshot of a tumour tissue...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053456/localized-electroporation-with-dielectrophoretic-field-flow-fractionation-towards-removal-of-circulating-tumour-cells-from-human-blood
#18
Steven Kinio, James K Mills
This paper presents the design and experimental performance of a microelectrode-based device to selectively lyse cells in a flow in a microfluidic channel. Localized cell lysis is achieved by utilizing "irreversible electroporation", in which cells are exposed to high magnitude electric pulses. Localized cell lysis in a flow has research applications and may allow for removal of harmful cells such as circulating tumor cells from blood. Due to the dependence of this technique on the magnitude of the applied electric field, lethal electric field regions can be localized in the channel by calibration of the applied voltage...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050295/a-comprehensive-study-of-circulating-tumour-cells-at-the-moment-of-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-biological-and-clinical-implications-of-egfr-ar-and-snps
#19
Ignacio Puche-Sanz, María J Alvarez-Cubero, Manrique Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodríguez-Martínez, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, José L García-Puche, José Expósito, Inmaculada Robles-Fernández, Carmen Entrala-Bernal, José A Lorente, José M Cózar-Olmo, María J Serrano
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been recently accepted as prognostic markers in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, very few studies have analyzed their role in early-stage PCa. The aim of this research is to study the value of CTCs at the moment of PCa diagnosis and to identify different subpopulations of CTCs. Patients with PSA value > 4 ng/ml and clinical suspicion of PCa were included. Samples were collected immediately before prostatic biopsy. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic technique using a multi-CK specific antibody...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047105/%C3%AE-secretase-inhibitor-reduces-immunosuppressive-cells-and-enhances-tumour-immunity-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Liang Mao, Zhi-Li Zhao, Guang-Tao Yu, Lei Wu, Wei-Wei Deng, Yi-Cun Li, Jian-Feng Liu, Lin-Lin Bu, Bing Liu, Ashok B Kulkarni, Wen-Feng Zhang, Lu Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
Immune evasion is a hallmark feature of cancer, and it plays an important role in tumour initiation and progression. In addition, tumour immune evasion severely hampers the desired antitumour effect in multiple cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the Notch pathway in immune evasion in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) microenvironment. We first demonstrated that Notch1 signalling was activated in a Tgfbr1/Pten-knockout HNSCC mouse model. Notch signalling inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI-IX, DAPT) decreased tumour burden in the mouse model after prophylactic treatment...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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