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Circulating tumour cell

Duthika M Mallawaaratchy, Susannah Hallal, Ben Russell, Linda Ly, Saeideh Ebrahimkhani, Heng Wei, Richard I Christopherson, Michael E Buckland, Kimberley L Kaufman
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play key roles in glioblastoma (GBM) biology and represent novel sources of biomarkers that are detectable in the peripheral circulation. Despite this notionally non-invasive approach to assess GBM tumours in situ, a comprehensive GBM EV protein signature has not been described. Here, EVs secreted by six GBM cell lines were isolated and analysed by quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry. Overall, 844 proteins were identified in the GBM EV proteome, of which 145 proteins were common to EVs secreted by all cell lines examined; included in the curated EV compendium (Vesiclepedia_559; http://microvesicles...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
T Ni, X Sun, B Shan, J Wang, Y Liu, S-L Gu, Y-D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). STUDY DESIGN: This study included 40 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of high-risk EC between April 2015 and May 2016. Patients were further divided into high-risk (grade 3, non-endometrioid, myometrial invasion ≥1/2 and stage III-IV) and high-intermediate-risk (grade 2-3, endometrioid, myometrial invasion <1/2 and stage I-II) groups according to postoperative pathological results...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Matthew J Murray, Robert A Huddart, Nicholas Coleman
Testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common malignancy occurring in young adult men and the incidence of these tumours is increasing. Current research priorities in this field include improving overall survival for patients classified as being 'poor-risk' and reducing late effects of treatment for patients classified as 'good-risk'. Testicular GCTs are broadly classified into seminomas and nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). The conventional serum protein tumour markers α-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) show some utility in the management of testicular malignant GCT...
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Elena Trujillo-Arribas, Hada C Macher, Pilar Jiménez-Arriscado, Fernando de la Portilla, Patrocinio Molinero, Juan M Guerrero, Amalia Rubio
Genomic characterization of cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) may offer an opportunity to assess clonal dynamics throughout the course of a patient's illness. The existence of KRAS driver mutations in colon cancer patients is determinant to decide their treatment and to predict their outcome. DNA is extracted automatically from 400 μL of serum using the MagNa Pure Compact with the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I. DNA amplification, COLD-PCR and HRM were performed in the same run in the Light Cycler 480...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fanny Söderquist, Eva Tiensuu Janson, Annica J Rasmusson, Abir Ali, Mats Stridsberg, Janet L Cunningham
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are derived from enterochromaffin cells. After demonstrating melatonin in enterochromaffin cells, we hypothesized that SI-NETs may express and secrete melatonin, which may have an impact on clinical factors and treatment response. METHODS: Tumour tissue from 26 patients with SI-NETs, representing paired sections of primary tumour and metastasis, were immunohistochemically stained for melatonin and its receptors, MT1 and MT2...
2016: PloS One
Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Joan Riera, Franchek Drobnic, Josep Antoni Tur, Antoni Pons
n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation...
October 9, 2016: Nutrients
E Vandendriessche, G Van De Putte, R Van Den Broecke, Etm De Jonge
AIM: Intra and inter tumour heterogeneity is a known feature in cancer because tumour cells undergo changes at genetic and epigenetic level as they spread from their primary tumour site. Adjuvant treatment protocols in breast cancer are currently based on the biological characteristics of the primary tumour, which in most cases has been removed surgically. Considering tumour heterogeneity in metastases we examined the present status of knowledge regarding measurable differences in tumour profiling between the primary breast tumour and its synchronous axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) and if so whether adjuvant therapy directed towards the tumour characteristics of the ALNM instead of those of the primary tumour is more effective...
December 28, 2015: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Malay Patra, Kristof Zarschler, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch, Holger Stephan, Gilles Gasser
Tumour pretargeting is a promising strategy for cancer diagnosis and therapy allowing for the rational use of long circulating, highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for both non-invasive cancer radioimmunodetection (RID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). In contrast to conventional RID/RIT where the radionuclides and oncotropic vector molecules are delivered as presynthesised radioimmunoconjugates, the pretargeting approach is a multistep procedure that temporarily separates targeting of certain tumour-associated antigens from delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic radionuclides...
September 27, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Alex F Herrera, Haesook T Kim, Katherine A Kong, Malek Faham, Heather Sun, Aliyah R Sohani, Edwin P Alyea, Victoria E Carlton, Yi-Bin Chen, Corey S Cutler, Vincent T Ho, John Koreth, Chitra Kotwaliwale, Sarah Nikiforow, Jerome Ritz, Scott J Rodig, Robert J Soiffer, Joseph H Antin, Philippe Armand
Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) detection is a promising monitoring tool for lymphoid malignancies. We evaluated whether the presence of ctDNA was associated with outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in lymphoma patients. We studied 88 patients drawn from a phase 3 clinical trial of reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT in lymphoma. Conventional restaging and collection of peripheral blood samples occurred at pre-specified time points before and after HSCT and were assayed for ctDNA by sequencing of the immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Ana Vila, Miguel Abal, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Carlos Rodriguez-Abreu, José Rivas, Rafael López-López, Clotilde Costa
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) play a key role in the metastasis process, as they are responsible for micrometastasis and are a valuable tool for monitoring patients in real-time. Moreover, efforts to develop new strategies for CTCs isolation and characterisation, and the translation of CTCs into clinical practice needs to overcome the limitation associated with the sole use of Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) expression to purify this tumour cell subpopulation. CTCs are rare events in the blood of patients and are believed to represent the epithelial population from a primary tumour of epithelial origin, thus EpCAM immunoisolation is considered an appropriate strategy...
2016: PloS One
Malcolm Boyce, Andrew R Moore, Liv Sagatun, Bryony N Parsons, Andrea Varro, Fiona Campbell, Reidar Fossmark, Helge L Waldum, David M Pritchard
AIMS: Netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, once daily for 12 weeks reduced the number of tumours and size of the largest one in 16 patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), achlorhydria, hypergastrinaemia and multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs), and normalised circulating chromogranin A (CgA) produced by enterochromaffin-like cells, the source of the tumours. The aim was to assess whether longer-term netazepide treatment can eradicate type 1 gastric NETs...
October 4, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Henri Schmidt, Arutha Kulasinghe, Liz Kenny, Chamindie Punyadeera
Developing non-invasive diagnostic tools in the field of head and neck oncology has been a challenge. Analysis of circulating tumour derivatives in a patient's blood has been explored in other solid cancers. This includes analysis of circulating tumour DNA, intact circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and exosomes. These circulating tumour derivatives provide avenues of investigation which can be representative of a patient's primary tumour signature and can be assessed from a patient's blood sample. In advanced stage cancer patients, these tumour derivatives are found in higher amounts, attributed to higher cellular turnover (apoptosis, autophagy), lysed CTCs and sloughing from necrotic tumours...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
Lydia Dyck, Mieszko M Wilk, Mathilde Raverdeau, Alicja Misiak, Louis Boon, Kingston H G Mills
The co-inhibitory molecule PD-1 suppresses T cell responses and has been targeted in the treatment of cancer. Here, we examined the role of PD-1 in regulating the balance between regulatory and effector T cells and whether blocking PD-1 could enhance tumour vaccine-induced protective immunity. A significantly higher proportion of tumour-resident T cells expressed PD-1 and Foxp3 compared with T cells in the tumour circulation or draining lymph nodes, and this correlated with a lower frequency of IFN-γ- and TNF-secreting CD8 T cells...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Glenn Heller, Karim Fizazi, Robert T McCormack, Arturo Molina, David MacLean, Iain J Webb, Fred Saad, Johann S de Bono, Howard I Scher
PURPOSE: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a heterogeneous disease for which better prognostic models for survival are needed. We examined the added value of circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration relative to common prognostic laboratory measures from CRPC patients. Experimental Technique: Utility of CTC enumeration as a baseline and postbaseline prognostic biomarker was examined using data from two prospective randomized registration-directed trials (COU-AA-301 and ELM-PC4) within statistical models used to estimate risk for survival...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Victor Hugo Perez-Gonzalez, Roberto Carlos Gallo-Villanueva, Sergio Camacho-Leon, Jose Isabel Gomez-Quiñones, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Delgado, Sergio Omar Martinez-Chapa
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are active participants in the metastasis process and account for ∼90% of all cancer deaths. As CTCs are admixed with a very large amount of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets in blood, CTCs are very rare, making their isolation, capture, and detection a major technological challenge. Microfluidic technologies have opened-up new opportunities for the screening of blood samples and the detection of CTCs or other important cancer biomarker-proteins. In this study, the authors have reviewed the most recent developments in microfluidic devices for cells/biomarkers manipulation and detection, focusing their attention on immunomagnetic-affinity-based devices, dielectrophoresis-based devices, surface-plasmon-resonance microfluidic sensors, and quantum-dots-based sensors...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
E G Seviour, V Sehgal, D Mishra, R Rupaimoole, C Rodriguez-Aguayo, G Lopez-Berestein, J-S Lee, A K Sood, M P Kim, G B Mills, P T Ram
KRas is mutated in a significant number of human cancers and so there is an urgent therapeutic need to target KRas signalling. To target KRas in lung cancers we used a systems approach of integrating a genome-wide miRNA screen with patient-derived phospho-proteomic signatures of the KRas downstream pathway, and identified miR-193a-3p, which directly targets KRas. Unique aspects of miR-193a-3p biology include two functionally independent target sites in the KRas 3'UTR and clinically significant correlation between miR-193a-3p and KRas expression in patients...
September 26, 2016: Oncogene
He Cheng, Guopei Luo, Yu Lu, Kaizhou Jin, Meng Guo, Jin Xu, Jiang Long, Liang Liu, Xianjun Yu, Chen Liu
BACKGROUND: The systemic inflammation response and immune impairment are closely related to the development and progression of various tumours, such as pancreatic cancer. In this study, we evaluated circulating inflammation factors and circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) as markers of immunosuppression in a cohort of Chinese patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Samples were retrospectively collected from a series of 195 pathological stage I/II pancreatic cancer patients who underwent potentially curative surgery between June 2010 and April 2014...
September 16, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Zhichen Xing, Junyan Han, Xing Hao, Jinhong Wang, Chunjing Jiang, Yu Hao, Hong Wang, Xueying Wu, Liwei Shen, Xiaojun Dong, Tong Li, Guoli Li, Jianping Zhang, Xiaotong Hou, Hui Zeng
BACKGROUND: As immune regulatory and effector cells, monocytes play an important role in the blood-extracorporeal circuit contact-related acute lung injury in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, circulating monocytes are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, so we characterised how immature monocytes affect acute lung injury induced by CPB. METHODS: The identification and dynamic changes in monocyte subsets were monitored by flow cytometry in patients undergoing CPB and in a rat model of CPB...
September 22, 2016: Thorax
Malte Mohme, Sabine Riethdorf, Klaus Pantel
Metastatic spread of tumour cells is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Understanding the mechanisms of tumour-cell dissemination has, therefore, become an important focus for cancer research. In patients with cancer, disseminated cancer cells are often detectable in the peripheral blood as circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and in the bone marrow or lymph nodes as disseminated tumour cells (DTCs). The identification and characterization of CTCs and DTCs has yielded important insights into the mechanisms of metastasis, resulting in a better understanding of the molecular alterations and profiles underlying drug resistance...
September 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Diana Braunholz, Mohammad Saki, Franziska Niehr, Merve Öztürk, Berta Borràs Puértolas, Robert Konschak, Volker Budach, Ingeborg Tinhofer
In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix...
2016: PloS One
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