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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322406/a-comparative-study-of-endoderm-differentiation-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#1
Lauren E Blake, Samantha M Thomas, John D Blischak, Chiaowen Joyce Hsiao, Claudia Chavarria, Marsha Myrthil, Yoav Gilad, Bryan J Pavlovic
BACKGROUND: There is substantial interest in the evolutionary forces that shaped the regulatory framework in early human development. Progress in this area has been slow because it is difficult to obtain relevant biological samples. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide the ability to establish in vitro models of early human and non-human primate developmental stages. RESULTS: Using matched iPSC panels from humans and chimpanzees, we comparatively characterize gene regulatory changes through a four-day time course differentiation of iPSCs into primary streak, endoderm progenitors, and definitive endoderm...
October 15, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322398/regulation-of-sox2-and-stemness-by-nicotine-and-electronic-cigarettes-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Courtney M Schaal, Namrata Bora-Singhal, Durairaj Mohan Kumar, Srikumar P Chellappan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths and its incidence is highly correlated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, cannot initiate tumors, but can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells in vitro and promote tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. This nicotine-mediated tumor promotion is facilitated through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 subunit. More recently, nicotine has been implicated in promoting self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells from lung cancers...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322396/nr2f1-stratifies-dormant-disseminated-tumor-cells-in-breast-cancer-patients
#3
Elin Borgen, Maria C Rypdal, Maria Soledad Sosa, Anne Renolen, Ellen Schlichting, Per E Lønning, Marit Synnestvedt, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Bjørn Naume
BACKGROUND: The presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) is an independent prognostic factor in early breast cancer but does not uniformly predict outcome. Tumor cells can persist in a quiescent state over time, but clinical studies of markers predicting the awakening potential of DTCs are lacking. Recently, experiments have shown that NR2F1 (COUP-TF1) plays a key role in dormancy signaling. METHODS: We analyzed the NR2F1 expression in DTCs by double immunofluorescence (DIF) staining of extra cytospins prepared from 114 BM samples from 86 selected DTC-positive breast cancer patients...
October 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322389/mir-34c-disrupts-spermatogonial-stem-cell-homeostasis-in-cryptorchid-testes-by-targeting-nanos2
#4
Zhenyu Huang, Dongdong Tang, Jingjing Gao, Xianming Dou, Peng Cheng, Dangwei Peng, Yao Zhang, Jun Mao, Li Zhang, Xiansheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism as a common genitourinary malformation with the serious complication of male infertility draws widespread attention. With several reported miRNAs playing critical roles in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), we aimed to explore the fundamental function of the highly conserved miR-34c in cryptorchidism. METHODS: To explore whether miR-34c participates in spermatogenesis by regulating Nanos2, we examined the effect of overexpression and inhibition for miR-34c on Nanos2 expression in GC-1 cells...
October 15, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322257/functional-recovery-following-the-transplantation-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#5
Durai Murugan Muniswami, George Tharion
Study Design: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) from rat olfactory mucosa were cultured, characterized, and transplanted into a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose: To evaluate different doses of OECs in a rat model of SCI. Overview of Literature: SCI causes permanent functional deficit because the central nervous system lacks the ability to perform spontaneous repair. Cell therapy strategies are being explored globally. The clinical use of human embryonic stem cell is hampered by ethical controversies...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322151/chronic-upregulation-of-cleaved-caspase-3-associated-with-chronic-myelin-pathology-and-microvascular-reorganization-in-the-thalamus-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#6
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322122/hepatitis-c-virus-infected-apoptotic-hepatocytes-program-macrophages-and-hepatic-stellate-cells-for-liver-inflammation-and-fibrosis-development-role-of-ethanol-as-a-second-hit
#7
Murali Ganesan, Larisa Y Poluektova, Chijioke Enweluzo, Kusum K Kharbanda, Natalia A Osna
Hepatocyte apoptosis is a crucially important mechanism for liver disease pathogenesis, and the engulfment of apoptotic bodies (AB) by non-parenchymal cells serves as a leading mechanism of inflammation and fibrosis progression. Previously, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcohol metabolites induce massive apoptosis in hepatocytes and the spread of HCV-infection to the neighboring uninfected cells. Here, we hypothesize that the capturing of AB by non-parenchymal cells, macrophages and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) changes their phenotype to promote inflammation and fibrosis...
October 13, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321995/mir-371a-3p-serum-levels-are-increased-in-recurrence-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumor-patients
#8
Angelika Terbuch, Jan B Adiprasito, Verena Stiegelbauer, Maximilian Seles, Christiane Klec, Georg P Pichler, Margit Resel, Florian Posch, Anna L Lembeck, Herbert Stöger, Joanna Szkandera, Karl Pummer, Thomas Bauernhofer, Georg C Hutterer, Armin Gerger, Michael Stotz, Martin Pichler
Metastatic testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are a potentially curable disease by administration of risk-adapted cytotoxic chemotherapy. Nevertheless, a disease-relapse after curative chemotherapy needs more intensive salvage chemotherapy and significantly worsens the prognosis of TGCT patients. Circulating tumor markers (β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP), and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)) are frequently used for monitoring disease recurrence in TGCT patients, though they lack diagnostic sensitivity and specificity...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321860/the-stresses-of-allelochemicals-isolated-from-culture-solution-of-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-bohlin-on-growth-and-physiology-of-two-marine-algae
#9
Qiaona Xue, Rui Wang, Wenjing Xu, Jiangtao Wang, Liju Tan
The allelopathic effects of extracts isolated from the culture filtrate of diatom Phaeodactylum triconutum Bohlin on typical marine microalgae Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu and Dunaliella salina Teodoresco were investigated by determining different physiological and biochemical parameters, such as growth rate, membrane systems and esterase activity under controlled laboratory conditions. The growth of P. donghaiense was significantly inhibited immediately after exposure to the allelochemicals, while the algae density of D...
October 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321831/controlled-release-of-dextrin-conjugated-growth-factors-to-support-growth-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#10
Elaine L Ferguson, Sameza Naseer, Lydia C Powell, Joseph Hardwicke, Fraser I Young, Bangfu Zhu, Qian Liu, Bing Song, David W Thomas
An essential aspect of stem cell in vitro culture and in vivo therapy is achieving sustained levels of growth factors to support stem cell survival and expansion, while maintaining their multipotency and differentiation potential. This study investigated the ability of dextrin (~74,000 g/mol; 27.8 mol% succinoylation) conjugated to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; or FGF-2) (3.9 and 6.7% w/w protein loading, respectively) to support the expansion and differentiation of stem cells in vitro via sustained, controllable growth factor release...
October 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321797/polydimethylsiloxanes-biocompatibility-in-pc12-neuronal-cell-line
#11
Edi Simoni, Erica Gentilin, Mariarita Candito, Alessandro Martini, Laura Astolfi
Cochlear implants, the only way to recover from severe/profound hearing loss, may cause adverse effects, among which reactions to silicone materials coating implant electrodes, leading to apoptosis and necrosis of spiral ganglion cells. Our aim was to evaluate whether three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compounds (hexadimethylsiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) used in silicone rods could exert toxic effects on an in vitro neuronal cell model (PC12). Cell viability, morphology and mRNA expression levels of apoptotic markers were evaluated on PC12 cells at different PDMS dilutions up to 6 days of exposure...
October 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321764/asymmetrical-proliferative-pattern-loss-linked-to-cyclin-d1-overexpression-in-adjacent-non-tumour-epithelium-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Pablo Ramos-García, Miguel Ángel González-Moles, Ángela Ayén, Lucía González-Ruiz, Isabel Ruiz-Ávila, Daniel Lenouvel, José Antonio Gil-Montoya, Manuel Bravo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cyclin D1 overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent non-tumour epithelium as a biomarker of premalignant fields and a risk factor for multiple tumour development. DESIGN: We studied cyclin D1 expression in 54 patients with 68 oral squamous cell carcinomas plus adjacent non-tumour epithelia characterized as close (n = 58) or distant (n = 41) from the invasion point. Randomized 40x fields were evaluated (4 in tumour tissue and 1 each in close and distant non-tumour epithelium)...
October 9, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321549/an-optimized-protocol-to-quantify-signaling-in-human-transitional-b-cells-by-phospho-flow-cytometry
#13
Nicholas A Zwang, Balaji B Ganesh, Kim T Cardenas, Anita S Chong, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phospho flow cytometry is a powerful technique to analyze signaling in rare cell populations. This technique, however, requires harsh conditions for cell fixation and permeabilization, which can denature surface antigens or antibody-conjugated fluorochromes. These are among several technical limitations which have been a barrier to quantify signaling in unique B cell subsets. One such immature subset, transitional B cells (TrBs), may play a role in suppressing solid organ transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease, autoimmunity, and even the immune response to malignancy...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321514/gli1-promotes-cancer-stemness-through-intracellular-signaling-pathway-pi3k-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Zhaoting Yang, Chengye Zhang, Wenbo Qi, Yanhua Xuan, Yan Cui
The role of Hedgehog (HH)/ glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) pathway has been implicated in a variety of cancer entities, and the targeted pathway inhibition mediated by GLI1 is of therapeutic relevance. However, its oncogenicity and cross-talks with other cancer pathways including PI3K/Akt/NFκB, which modulates the HH/GLI1 signal strength, have rarely been explored in colorectal adenocarcinoma. We assessed the expression of GLI1 and its relationship with other cancer stemness genes, cell cycle markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), PI3K/Akt/NFκB signaling pathway genes, and HIF1α in 100 paraffin-embedded colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples using immunohistochemistry...
October 12, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321496/fgf-represses-metastasis-of-neuroblastoma-regulated-by-mycn-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-lmo1-via-control-of-let-7-expression
#15
Xiao-Hui Wang, Hai-Ying Wu, Jian Gao, Xu-Hui Wang, Tian-Hui Gao, Shu-Feng Zhang
BACKGROUND: MYCN and LMO1 amplification are commonly observed in neuroblastoma (NB), which was often accompanied by genetic loss of let-7 microRNA (miRNA). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) was found to regulate let-7 miRNA expression via FGF receptor substrate 2 (FRS2), which then activates transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling. METHODS: Expression of MYCN, LMO1, FRS2, let-7, and TGF-β receptor I (TGFβRI) was selectively knocked-down or enhanced in NB cells...
October 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321484/p53-dependent-induction-of-ferroptosis-is-required-for-artemether-to-alleviate-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-fibrosis-and-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#16
Ling Wang, Zili Zhang, Mengmeng Li, Feixia Wang, Yan Jia, Feng Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Ferroptosis is recently reported as a new mode of regulated cell death. Its essential characteristics are disturbed redox homeostasis, overloaded iron, and increased lipid peroxidation. However, the role of ferroptosis in liver fibrosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of artemether (ART) on ferroptosis in hepatic fibrosis and to further clarify the possible mechanisms. Our data showed that ART treatment markedly attenuated liver injury and reduced fibrotic scar formation in the mouse model of liver fibrosis...
October 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321232/circulating-angiogenic-stem-cells-in-type-2-diabetes-are-associated-with-glycemic-control-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#17
Nagma Zafar, Sathya S Krishnasamy, Jasmit Shah, Shesh N Rai, Daniel W Riggs, Aruni Bhatnagar, Timothy E O'Toole
Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) of various described phenotypes participate in the regeneration of the damaged endothelium, but the abundance of these cells is highly influenced by external cues including diabetes. It is not entirely clear which CAC populations are most reflective of endothelial function nor which are impacted by diabetes. To answer these questions, we enrolled a human cohort with variable CVD risk and determined relationships between stratified levels of CACs and indices of diabetes and vascular function...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320930/promoting-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-releasing-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-activator-from-the-nanofibers
#18
Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Fatemeh Soleimanifar, Arash Khojasteh, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Implants that can enhance the stem cells differentiation in the absence of the chemical osteogenic growth factors will attract the great interest of orthopedic scientists. Inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P), as a ubiquitous biological polymer, is one of the factors that can be an alternative for osteogenic growth factors via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In this study, poly-P was incorporated at the blend of polycaprolactone (PCL)/poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun nanofibers and then osteogenic differentiation potential of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was investigated by the important bone markers...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320929/a-novel-rhein-derivative-modulates-bone-formation-and-resorption-and-ameliorates-oestrogen-dependent-bone-loss
#19
Min Jiang, Tianqi Wang, Xueming Yan, Zhuochao Liu, Yufei Yan, Kai Yang, Jin Qi, Hanbing Zhou, Niandong Qian, Qi Zhou, Bo Chen, Xing Xu, Xiaobing Xi, Chunhao Yang, Lianfu Deng
Osteoporosis, an osteolytic disease that affects millions of people worldwide, features a bone remodelling imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Identifying dual target-directed agents that inhibit excessive bone resorption and increase bone formation is considered an efficient strategy for developing new osteoporosis treatments. Rhein, a natural anthraquinone, can be isolated from various Asian herbal medicines. Rhein and its derivatives have been reported to have various beneficial pharmacological effects, especially their bone-targeting ability and anti-osteoclastogenesis activity...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320905/cell-free-microrna-148a-is-associated-with-renal-allograft-dysfunction-implication-for-biomarker-discovery
#20
Ziba Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Milad Bastami, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Simin Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi Hosseinian Khatib, Sepideh Zununi Vahed
BACKGROUND: Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD), the foremost cause of renal graft loss worldwide, is a serious challenge for most of the recipients. As the epigenetic era is emerging, epigenetic biomarkers especially microRNAs (miRNAs) may reflect the current stage of the disease and patient's therapy response. The current study investigated the potential significance of circulating miRNA-148a in predicting the renal graft function. DESIGN AND METHODS: Circulating miRNAs were isolated from 53 plasma samples of recipients with histologically validated interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA, n = 26), and recipients with stable graft function (SGF, n = 27), and also healthy individuals ( n = 15)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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