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cell markers

Chitra Joseph, Maariya Arshad, Sasagu Kurozomi, Maryam Althobiti, Islam M Miligy, Sara Al-Izzi, Michael S Toss, Fang Qin Goh, Simon J Johnston, Stewart G Martin, Ian O Ellis, Nigel P Mongan, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha
PURPOSE: CD133/ prominin 1 is a cancer stem cell marker associated with cancer progression and patient outcome in a variety of solid tumours, but its role in invasive breast cancer (BC) remains obscure. The current study aims to assess the prognostic value of CD133 expression in early invasive BC. METHODS: CD133 mRNA was assessed in the METABRIC cohort and at the proteomic level using immunohistochemistry utilising a large well-characterised BC cohort. Association with clinicopathological characteristics, expression of other stem cell markers and patient outcome were evaluated...
December 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
G Elia
The importance of the Type-1 helper immune response in the development of Vitiligo (Vit), and of chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 receptor and its chemokine monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-γ(MIG) has been shown by several studies. MIG/ interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10) /CXCR3 axis mediated T-cell recruitment into the skin in Vit is an early event in the progression of the disease. MIG and IP10 circulating levels are increased in progressive Vit. It has been suggested that MIG and CXCR3 could be novel targets of future therapeutical approaches...
November 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
G Elia
Monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-γ (MIG) / chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL)9 is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). It was demonstrated that both blood plasma-derived dendritic cells (pDCs) and pDCs isolated from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and PsA synovial fluid (SF), expressed CXC receptor (R) 3 and CXCR4, and that the chemotaxis of blood-derived pDCs is stimulated by MIG, (IFN)-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10, IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) )/CXCL11 and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/ CXCL12, present in RA and PsA SF...
November 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
Paula Perez-Pardo, Hemraj B Dodiya, Phillip A Engen, Christopher B Forsyth, Andrea M Huschens, Maliha Shaikh, Robin M Voigt, Ankur Naqib, Stefan J Green, Jeffrey H Kordower, Kathleen M Shannon, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld, Ali Keshavarzian
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggesting an important role of gut-derived inflammation in brain disorders has opened up new directions to explore the possible role of the gut-brain axis in neurodegenerative diseases. Given the prominence of dysbiosis and colonic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we propose that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal dysfunction could contribute to intestinal and central inflammation in PD-related neurodegeneration. DESIGN: To test this hypothesis we performed studies in both human tissue and a murine model of PD...
December 15, 2018: Gut
Benjamin E Garfield, Alexi Crosby, Dongmin Shao, Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Steven Sawiak, Stephen Moore, Lisa Parfitt, Carl Harries, Martin Rice, Richard Paul, Mark L Ormiston, Nicholas W Morrell, Michael I Polkey, Stephen John Wort, Paul R Kemp
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a clinically important complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a prognostic marker in PAH, has been associated with muscle loss in other conditions. We aimed to define the associations of GDF-15 and muscle wasting in PAH, to assess its utility as a biomarker of muscle loss and to investigate its downstream signalling pathway as a therapeutic target. METHODS: GDF-15 levels and measures of muscle size and strength were analysed in the monocrotaline (MCT) rat, Sugen/hypoxia mouse and in 30 patients with PAH...
December 15, 2018: Thorax
Timo Ditz, Lydia Schnapka-Hille, Nicole Noack, Juliane Dorow, Uta Ceglarek, Dieter Niederwieser, Jürgen Schiller, Beate Fuchs, Michael Cross
Horse serum is commonly used as an additive to support the maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cells in culture. However, the wide variability in the performance of different lots calls for parallel testing of multiple batches over extended periods of culture. Identification of the serum components that determine hematopoietic support would therefore save considerable time and effort and would help to standardize culture procedures. We report here that the ability of horse serum to support the self-renewal of multipotent murine hematopoietic progenitor FDCP-Mix cells is correlated to the concentration of specific fatty acid products of phospholipase A2 and more closely to the spectrum of eicosanoids generated by their further processing through cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways...
December 6, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Zhihao Liu, Jinli Liao, Hongyan Wei, Zhen Yang, Jingjing Liu, Jia Xu, Xinlin Wu, Hong Zhan
Protein kinase RNA-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK) is an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor that possesses pro-survival capability and contributes to cell homeostasis and survival. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) has been recognized as a stem cell marker in intestinal epithelial cells. To determine whether PERK modulates the proliferation of intestinal stem cells, we investigated the effects of PERK knock-down on intestinal Lgr5-positive stem cells in mice. Lgr5-EGFP knock-in mice were fed with lentivirus-PERK shRNA twice a day for three days...
December 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Massimiliano Cadamuro, Simone Brivio, Joachim Mertens, Marta Vismara, Anja Moncsek, Chiara Milani, Christian Fingas, Maria Cristina Malerba, Giorgia Nardo, Luigi Dall'Olmo, Eleonora Milani, Valeria Mariotti, Tommaso Stecca, Marco Massani, Carlo Spirli, Romina Fiorotto, Stefano Indraccolo, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
BACKGROUND: /Aims. In cholangiocarcinoma, early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels often precludes curative therapies. Cholangiocarcinoma invasiveness is fostered by an extensive stromal reaction, enriched in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). Cholangiocarcinoma cells recruit and activate CAF by secreting PDGF-D. Here we investigated the role of PDGF-D and liver myofibroblasts in promoting lymphangiogenesis in cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Human cholangiocarcinoma specimens were immunostained for podoplanin (LEC marker), α-SMA (CAF), VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and their cognate receptors (VEGFR2, VEGFR3)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Limin Liu, Ping Xie, Wen Li, Yuan Wu, Wei An
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and treatment options are limited to date. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) may protect against hepatic injury caused by chemical poisons, including ethanol. Autophagy appears to positively influence survival in cases of liver dysfunction, though the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the impact of ALR-induced autophagy in vitro and in vivo in an ethanol-induced model of acute liver injury. Decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and reduced histological lesions revealed that mice overexpressing ALR experienced less liver damage than wild-type mice...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Olivia Davis, Erika Polgár, Mahvish Shahzad, Keila Navarro-Batista, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, David I Hughes, Andrew J Todd
Around 75% of neurons in laminae I-II of the mouse dorsal horn are excitatory interneurons, and these are required for normal pain perception. We have shown that four largely non-overlapping excitatory interneuron populations can be defined by expression of the neuropeptides neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and substance P. In addition, we recently identified a population of excitatory interneurons in glabrous skin territory that express dynorphin. The calcium-binding protein calretinin is present in many excitatory neurons in this region, but we know little about its relation to these neuropeptide markers...
December 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Ian-James Malm, Lisa M Rooper, Justin A Bishop, Selmin Karatayli Ozgursoy, Alexander T Hillel, Lee M Akst, Simon R Best
BACKGROUND: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is strongly associated with tobacco use, but recent reports suggest an increasing incidence of LSCC in patients without traditional risk factors, suggesting an alternative etiology of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study is to characterize this non-smoking population and to compare immunohistochemical markers in tumor specimens from non-smokers and smokers with LSCC. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with LSCC at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) was performed...
November 22, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Megan L Sierant, Scott K Davey
The human RAD9A protein is required for successful execution of the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. Along with RAD1 and HUS1, RAD9A exists in a heterotrimeric ring-shaped complex which is necessary for activation of the CHK1 checkpoint kinase. RAD9A is also required for proper localization of both TopBP1 and the Claspin adaptor protein during the DNA damage response. We have shown large, RAD9A-dense nuclear foci containing several members of the homologous recombination pathway as well as BRCA1 and the DNA damage marker γH2AX...
December 2018: Cancer Genetics
Francesca Magnoli, Barbara Bernasconi, Lisa Vivian, Ilaria Proserpio, Graziella Pinotti, Leonardo Campiotti, Luca Mazzucchelli, Fausto Sessa, Maria Grazia Tibiletti, Silvia Uccella
We analyzed the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of 106 extranodal (EN) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) from stomach (34 cases), intestine (10), cervico-cephalic region (11), central nervous system (13), testes (21), skin (8), and miscellaneous sites (9). Hans' algorithm and the immunohistochemical double expressor score (DES) for MYC and BCL2 were applied to all cases. A subset of fifty-eight cases were analyzed with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific break apart probes for BCL6, MYC, BCL2, CCND1, BCL10 and MALT1 genes...
December 2018: Cancer Genetics
Hemani Jain, Dhanlaxmi Shetty, Hasmukh Jain, Manju Sengar, Navin Khattry, P G Subramanian
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma predominantly seen in young males. This disease presents with isolated hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopenia with sinusoidal infiltration of liver and sinusal infiltration of spleen. Immunophenotype shows positivity for CD3, CD7, TCRγδ or TCRαβ, CD38 and double negative for CD4, CD8, TdT, CD5, and CD56. Isochromosome 7q with or without trisomy 8 is seen in HSTL. Recently, ring chromosome 7 has also been identified as a new abnormality...
December 2018: Cancer Genetics
Yuhua Ding, Huihui Xu, Luyang Li, Yibiao Yuan, Yong Xu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus. When exposed to high glucose (HG), retinal epithelial cells undergo profound alterations both morphologically and functionally in a well-conserved process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mechanism governing HG-induced EMT in retinal epithelial cells is not completely understood. Here we report that treatment with 25 mM glucose led to EMT in retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) characterized by a simultaneous down-regulation of E-Cadherin (encoded by CDH1) and up-regulation of alpha smooth muscle actin (encoded by ACTA2)...
December 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karen L Posey, Francoise Coustry, Alka C Veerisetty, Mohammad G Hossain, Michael J Gambello, Jacqueline T Hecht
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a large, multifunctional extracellular protein that, when mutated, is retained in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This retention elicits ER stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in dysfunction and death of growth plate chondrocytes. While identifying the cellular pathologic mechanisms underlying the murine mutant (MT)-COMP model of pseudoachondroplasia, increased midline-1 (MID1) expression and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was found...
December 7, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Xu Yan, Yingpan Song, Jiameng Liu, Nan Zhou, Chunlin Zhang, Linghao He, Zhihong Zhang, Zhongyi Liu
A porphyrin-based covalent organic framework (denoted as p-COF) was synthesized by a simple oil-bath method and exploited as a novel sensing layer for immobilizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting aptamer strands to detect trace EGFR and living michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells for the first time. p-COF presented a nanosheet-like structure, large cavities, rich nitrogen-bearing groups, high electrochemical activity, excellent bioaffinity, low toxicity, and good stability in aqueous solution; the microstructural features of this material enabled strong immobilization of the aptamer strands...
December 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ann-Kathrin Vlacil, Jutta Schuett, Bernhard Schieffer, Karsten Grote
Monocytes are important mediators of the innate immunity by recognizing and attacking especially bacterial pathogens but also play crucial roles in various inflammatory diseases, including vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Maturation, differentiation and function of monocytes have been intensively explored for a long time in innumerable experimental and clinical studies. Monocytes do not represent a uniform cell type but could be further subdivided into subpopulations with distinct features and functions...
December 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Vikram Paranjpe, Jeremy Tan, Jason Nguyen, John Lee, Jeremy Allegood, Anat Galor, Nawajes Mandal
PURPOSE: Sphingolipids (SPL) play roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and apoptosis. Changes in SPL composition have been reported in individuals with MGD, but associations between clinical signs of MGD and compositional changes in meibum SPLs have not been examined. METHODS: Forty-three individuals underwent a tear film assessment. Groups were split into those with good or poor quality meibum. Meibum was collected then analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy to quantify SPL classes...
December 12, 2018: Ocular Surface
Rafieh Alizadeh, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Zohreh Bagher, Mohammad Farhadi, Masoumeh Falah, Fatemeh Moradi, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Maryam Soleimani, Ahmadreza Kamyab, Ali Komeili
The production of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from stem cells holds a great promise for future clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) derived from the adult human olfactory mucosa can be easily isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their immense plasticity. In addition to reduced ethical concerns, OE-MSCs could be transplanted across allogeneic barriers, making them desirable stem cells for clinical applications...
December 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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