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Public Health and Psychology

Mariana Angélica Peixoto de Souza, Jane Fonseca Dias, Fabiane Ribeiro Ferreira, Marisa Cotta Mancini, Renata Noce Kirkwood, Rosana Ferreira Sampaio
The cross sectional study aims to create the patients' profile and understand their demands for seeking public rehabilitation services from Belo Horizonte. Data were analyzed from 516 patients who gained entry into the health care system by means of the Protocol for Identification of Problems for Rehabilitation (PLPR). It allows for gathering information related to one's health and the social context, including a brief functional description (BFD) with 25 items. Most patients were females, mean age of 57 years, and 54% declared to be responsible for the family income...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Laura McGowan, Gerda K Pot, Alison M Stephen, Fiona Lavelle, Michelle Spence, Monique Raats, Lynsey Hollywood, Dawn McDowell, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Martin Caraher, Moira Dean
BACKGROUND: Interventions to increase cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) as a route to improving overall diet are popular within public health. This study tested a comprehensive model of diet quality by assessing the influence of socio-demographic, knowledge- and psychological-related variables alongside perceived CS and FS abilities. The correspondence of two measures of diet quality further validated the Eating Choices Index (ECI) for use in quantitative research. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a quota-controlled nationally representative sample of 1049 adults aged 20-60 years drawn from the Island of Ireland...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Kate E Mulgrew, Lee Kannis-Dymand, Emily Hughes, Janet D Carter, Sherrie Kaye
We modified the Weight Control Behaviours scale to explore unhealthy/healthy behaviours to increase, decrease or maintain weight in young adults (N = 1082) and associations with body mass index, depression and body image. Females reported more use of all strategies except those which increase body size or exercising to exhaustion. Although the sample reported more use of healthy weight management strategies, the use of dangerous ones warrants attention by healthcare professionals. Feelings of fatness was an important predictor of weight management behaviours...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Andrzej Brodziak, Alicja Różyk-Myrta, Agnieszka Wolińska
BACKGROUND: The authors postulate that the recent intensification of the nationalist and xenophobic attitude in Poland and other Eastern European countries is detrimental to public mental health. The xenophobic attitude is accompanied by a higher incidence of anxiety and depression, disputes due to the polarization of opinions, a sense of embarrassment and a sense of contradictions with so-called Christian values, unfavorable demographic predictions and reduced life satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The authors attempt to describe the sequence of adverse events that led to the intensification of xenophobia and characterize the current state of public mental health in European countries...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Thanh Tam Tran, Joel Adams-Bedford, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
INTRODUCTION: Injury and psychological distress are public health priorities because of their high occurrence in the population. This study examines the longitudinal effects of injury characteristics on psychological distress. METHODS: Study participants were enrolled distance learning Thai adults (N = 42,785 at 2013 follow-up) residing nationwide. We analysed 2009 and 2013 data. Injury questions included injury prevalence, causes and levels of severity. Distress was measured using the standard Kessler-6...
2016: PloS One
Richard D Holmes
Data sourcesAMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX, ASSIA, Social Policy and Practice, HMIC (Health Management Information Consortium), The Knowledge Network, Intute, MedNar, Copac, EPPI-Centre, EThOS, OpenGrey and TRIP databases. Searches were limited to publications in the English language published after 1994.Study selectionStudies set in general practice that investigated promoting good oral health in adult or child patients were considered. Study quality was assessed using NICE public health guidance checklists...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Lorna Awo Renner, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. AIM: To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Isabel Rossen, Mark J Hurlstone, Carmen Lawrence
Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Zeynep Sofuoğlu, Görkem Sarıyer, M Gökalp Ataman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Jennifer Jao, Rohan Hazra, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. DISCUSSION: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Allison R Heid, Seran Schug, Francine P Cartwright, Rachel Pruchno
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative physical and psychological outcomes. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable; however, social support can act as a resource to help individuals respond to severe stressors. This study explored the challenges older people faced before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and the people they turned to for support. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older adults in New Jersey drawn from the ORANJ BOWL (Ongoing Research on Aging in New Jersey - Bettering Opportunities for Wellness in Life) research panel, who experienced high levels of primary home damage during Hurricane Sandy...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Imelda K Moise, Marilyn O Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. METHODS: We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina)...
October 13, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Behdin Nowrouzi, Emilia Giddens, Basem Gohar, Sandrine Schoenenberger, Mary Christine Bautista, Jennifer Casole
BACKGROUND: Workplace environment is related to the physical and psychological well-being, and quality of work life (QWL) for nurses. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive literature review on nurses' quality of work life to identify a comprehensive set of QWL predictors for nurses employed in the United States and Canada. METHODS: Using publications from 2004-2014, contributing factors to American and Canadian nurses' QWL were analyzed...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Daniel Ayanga, Daryl Shorter, Thomas R Kosten
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) is a significant public health concern, negatively impacting the medical, psychological, and social domains of an individual's life as well as creating substantial burdens for society. Effective treatment interventions are necessary for reduction of OUD and its consequences. Pharmacotherapy represents a central component of management. Areas Covered: This review focuses on pharmacologic strategies for OUD treatment, discussing both primary as well as adjunctive therapy modalities. We will discuss both medications used during detoxification to treat withdrawal, as well as those used as maintenance therapy...
October 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Fabio Margiotta, Ailish Hannigan, Ather Imran, Dominic Colman Harmon
Chronic pain is a public health concern affecting 20% to 30% of the population of Western countries. Psychological risk factors can worsen chronic pain patients. Themes of perceived injustice (PI) and pain catastrophizing are related to poor clinical outcomes. Particularly, perceived injustice has not been assessed systematically in patients at their first presentation in chronic pain clinics in Ireland. This study aims to assess the Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ)'s internal consistency in the Irish population, assess PI in patients attending a chronic pain clinic in Ireland using the IEQ, investigate pain catastrophizing through the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and its relationship with IEQ scores, and explore their relationships with self-reported Numeric Pain Rating Scale...
October 13, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
G B Ploubidis, A Sullivan, M Brown, A Goodman
BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the levels of psychological distress experienced at age 42 years by men and women born in 1958 and 1970. Comparing these cohorts born 12 years apart, we ask whether psychological distress has increased, and, if so, whether this increase can be explained by differences in their childhood conditions. METHOD: Data were utilized from two well-known population-based birth cohorts, the National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Marnie L Brennan, Nick Wright, Wendela Wapenaar, Susanne Jarratt, Pru Hobson-West, Imogen F Richens, Jasmeet Kaler, Heather Buchanan, Jonathan N Huxley, Heather M O'Connor
Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant...
October 11, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
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