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Zhi-Wu Chen, Yi-Fan Zhao, Shi-Cong He, Ke-Ke Liu, Ji-He Liu, Yong-Hong Xiao
Female-released chemical signals are crucial clues for mate-searching males to locate and gain sexual receptivity of conspecific females. Abundant behavioral evidence indicates that female spiders release sex pheromones to guide mate-searching behavior of conspecific mature males. However, the chemical nature of spider pheromones is poorly understood. Females of the funnel-web spider, Allagelena difficilis, employ sit-and-wait tactics for mating. Field observations indicate that males leave their retreats to search for potential mates during the breeding season...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Felipe Borrero-Echeverry, Marie Bengtsson, Kiyoshi Nakamuta, Peter Witzgall
Specific mate recognition relies on the chemical senses in most animals, and especially in nocturnal insects. Two signal types mediate premating olfactory communication in terrestrial habitats: sex pheromones, which blend into an atmosphere of plant odorants. We show that host plant volatiles affect the perception of sex pheromone in males of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis and that pheromone and plant volatiles are not perceived as independent messages. In clean air, S. littoralis males are attracted to single synthetic pheromone components or even the pheromone of a sibling species, Oriental cotton leafworm S...
August 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Qi Yan, Hai-Dong Li, Yan Chen, Zhan-Feng Ye, Xi-Yu You, Jun Zhou, Lan-Fang Mu, Shi-Jing Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Shuang-Lin Dong
Orthaga achatina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is the most serious pest in south China of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, an important urban tree species. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) of the sex pheromone of O. achatina showed three EAD-active components. Coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses identified these as (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-tricosapentaene (Z3,Z6,Z9,Z12,Z15-23:H). In field tests using different combinations of the three compounds, male moths were attracted to a mixture of Z11-16:OAc and Z3,Z6,Z9,Z12,Z15-23:H, but less attracted to other blends...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Petra Gawalek, Monika Stengl
For the hawkmoth Manduca sexta accumulating evidence suggests that pheromone transduction acts via a metabotropic signal transduction cascade, with G-protein-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) activations generating diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate as the primary events in hawkmoth pheromone transduction. In contrast, ionotropic olfactory receptor (OR) coreceptor (Orco)-dependent mechanisms do not appear to be involved. In hawkmoths pheromones activated a specific sequence of PLC-dependent ion channels of unknown identity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Udhayaraj Suriyakalaa, Rajamanickam Ramachandran, Karuppiah Usha, Devaraj Sankarganesh, Dharmaraj Praveenkumar, Subramanian Abinaya, Pichiah Balasubramanian Tirupathi Pichiah, Soundararajan Kamalakkannan, Shanmugam Achiraman
Oestrus urine was proved as a potential endocrine modulator in alleviating the toxicity induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) in male rats. We, in this study, aimed to prove the attributing potential of toxicity alleviation to squalene, an oestrus-specific pheromone in rats. A single dose of 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg BW, i.p.) was administered to male Wistar rats with concurrent exposure to squalene sprayed in bedding material (Group III). Group II rats did receive 3-MC treatment but did not expose to squalene...
August 7, 2018: Andrologia
Anne M Scott, Ke Li, Weiming Li
Bioassay-guided fractionation is an iterative approach that uses the results of physiological and behavioral bioassays to guide the isolation and identification of an active pheromone compound. This method has resulted in the successful characterization of the chemical signals that function as pheromones in a wide range of animal species. Sea lampreys rely on olfaction to detect pheromones that mediate behavioral or physiological responses. We use this knowledge of fish biology to posit functions of putative pheromones and to guide the isolation and identification of active pheromone components...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael Wink
This mini-review summarizes over 40 years of research on quinolizidine (QAs) and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Emphasis is on the chemical ecology of both groups of alkaloids, which serve as general defense compounds against herbivores for the plants producing them. For QAs and PAs, a number of insects (aphids, moths, beetles) have acquired tolerance. These specialists store the alkaloids and use them as defense chemicals against predators. In some PA sequestering moths, the adaptation is even more intricate and advanced...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Damien Mercier, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Kazumi Ohta, Hokto Kazama
To communicate with conspecifics, animals deploy various strategies to release pheromones, chemical signals modulating social and sexual behaviors [1-5]. Importantly, a single pheromone induces different behaviors depending on the context and exposure dynamics [6-8]. Therefore, to comprehend the ethological role of pheromones, it is essential to characterize how neurons in the recipients respond to temporally and spatially fluctuating chemical signals emitted by donors during natural interactions. In Drosophila melanogaster, the male pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) [9] activates specific olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) [10, 11] to regulate diverse social and sexual behaviors in recipients [12-15]...
July 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Shigehiro Namiki, Ryohei Kanzaki
Sex pheromones orient male moths toward conspecific female moths; the presence of visual information modulates this behavior. In the current study, we explore candidate neuronal pathways for the interaction between vision and the locomotor signal for pheromone orientation. We describe the connectivity between visual neuropils and brain premotor centers, the posterior slope (PS) and the lateral accessory lobe (LAL), in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Using a single-cell labeling technique, we analyze visual projection neurons supplying these areas...
August 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Francesca Ricci, Annalisa Candelori, Anna Brandi, Claudio Alimenti, Pierangelo Luporini, Adriana Vallesi
In Euplotes raikovi, we have determined the full-length sequences of a family of macronuclear genes that are the transcriptionally active versions of codominant alleles inherited at the mating-type (mat) locus of the micronuclear genome, and encode cell type-distinctive signaling pheromones. These genes include a 225__ 231-bp coding region flanked by a conserved 544-bp 5'-leader region and a more variable 3'-trailer region. Two transcription initiation start sites and two polyadenylation sites associated with non-conventional signals cooperate with a splicing phenomenon of a 326-bp intron residing in the 5'-leader region in the generation of multiple transcripts from the same gene...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yu Ting Zhang, Wan Shu Hong, Dong Teng Liu, Heng Tong Qiu, Yong Zhu, Shi Xi Chen
Our previous studies showed that 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) acted as a sex pheromone to induce reproductive success in Chinese black sleeper ( Bostrychus sinensis ), but its functional mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs of the gonadotropin subunits ( cg α , fsh β, and lh β), and found that, in exposure to 5 nM DHP, transcript levels of lh β significantly increased in the pituitary at 6 h post exposure; plasma 11-KT levels increased at 24 h post exposure in mature male fish...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Qian Ju, Xiao Li, Xiao-Qiang Guo, Long Du, Chen-Ren Shi, Ming-Jing Qu
The dark black chafer (DBC), Holotrichia parallela , is an important pest of multiple crops. Insect host-searching behaviors are regulated by host plant volatiles. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanism linking the chemosensory system to plant volatiles at the molecular level will benefit DBC control strategies. Based on antenna transcriptome data, two highly expressed antenna-specific odorant-binding proteins (HparOBP20 and 49) were selected to identify novel DBC attractants using reverse chemical ecology methods...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carl Smith, Rowena Spence, Martin Reichard
In many taxa, odour cues mediate mating decisions. A key question is what these odours comprise, where they are produced, and what they signal. Using rose bitterling, fish that spawn in the gills of freshwater mussels, we investigated the role of sperm cues on female oviposition decisions using individuals of known MHC genotype. Male bitterling frequently released sperm prior to female oviposition and females responded with an increased probability of oviposition and released a greater number of eggs, particularly if males had a dissimilar MHC genotype...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Aalishaa A Azam, Jean M Kinder, G Nasir Khan, Ade Alase, Pikyee Ma, Yang Liu, James R Ault, Peter J F Henderson, Babur Z Chowdhry, Bruce D Alexander, Stephen E Harding, Mary K Phillips-Jones
Despite the importance of membrane proteins in cellular processes, studies of these hydrophobic proteins present major technical challenges, including expression and purification for structural and biophysical studies. A modified strategy of that proposed previously by Saidijam et al. (2005) and others, for the routine expression of bacterial membrane proteins involved in environmental sensing and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), is proposed which results in purification of sufficient proteins for biophysical experiments...
July 31, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Jeffrey A Harvey, Bertanne Visser, Marl Lammers, Janine Marien, Jonathan Gershenzon, Paul J Ode, Robin Heinen, Rieta Gols, Jacintha Ellers
A recent study showed that a wingless parasitoid, Gelis agilis, exhibits a suite of ant-like traits that repels attack from wolf spiders. When agitated, G. agilis secreted 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone), which a small number of ant species produce as an alarm/panic pheromone. Here, we tested four Gelis parasitoid species, occurring in the same food chain and microhabitats, for the presence of sulcatone and conducted two-species choice bioassays with wolf spiders to determine their degree of susceptibility to attack...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Evgeny Kanshin, Mirela Pascariu, Mike Tyers, Damien D'Amours, Pierre Thibault
The regulation of protein function through phosphorylation is often dominated by allosteric interactions and conformational changes. However, alternative mechanisms involving electrostatic interactions also regulate protein function. In particular, phosphorylation of clusters of Ser/Thr residues can affect protein-plasma membrane/chromatin interactions by electrostatic interactions between phosphosites and phospholipids or histones. Currently, only a few examples of such mechanisms are reported, primarily because of the difficulties of detecting highly phosphorylated proteins and peptides, due in part to the low ionization efficiency and fragmentation yield of multi-phosphorylated peptides in mass spectrometry when using positive ion mode detection...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Sophia Wirth, Maritta Kunert, Lisa-Marija Ahrens, Katrin Krause, Selina Broska, Christian Paetz, Olaf Kniemeyer, Elke-Martina Jung, Wilhelm Boland, Erika Kothe
The regulator of G-protein signaling, Thn1, is involved in sexual development through pheromone signaling in the mushroom forming basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune affecting hyphal morphology and mating interactions. Thn1 plays a key role in coordinating sesquiterpene production, pheromone response and sexual development. The gene thn1 is transcriptionally regulated in response to mating with a role in clamp cell development and hydrophobin gene transcription. Further, it negatively regulates cAMP signaling and secondary metabolism...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Ke Li, Cory O Brant, Mar Huertas, Edward J Hessler, Gellert Mezei, Anne M Scott, Thomas R Hoye, Weiming Li
Olfactory cues provide critical information for spatial orientation of fish, especially in the context of anadromous migrations. Born in freshwater, juveniles of anadromous fish descend to the ocean where they grow into adults before migrating back into freshwater to spawn. The reproductive migrants, therefore, are under selective pressures to locate streams optimal for offspring survival. Many anadromous fish use olfactory cues to orient toward suitable streams. However, no behaviorally active compounds have been identified as migratory cues...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephanie L Gage, Fabiana Ahumada, Angela Rivera, Henry Graham, Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) are social insects that have evolved a coordinated defensive response to ensure colony survival. Their nests may contain valuable resources such as pollen and nectar that are attractive to a range of insect and mammalian intruders and need protecting. With sufficient provocation, honey bees will mobilize and sting intruders, who are likely to incur additional stings. To inspect and manage their colonies, beekeepers apply smoke to decrease the likelihood of being stung...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Paolo Pelosi, Jiao Zhu, Wolfgang Knoll
In this paper, we critically review the binding protocols currently reported in the literature to measure the affinity of odorants and pheromones to soluble olfactory proteins, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and Niemann-Pick class C2 (NPC2) proteins. The first part contains a brief introduction on the principles of binding and a comparison of the techniques adopted or proposed so far, discussing advantages and problems of each technique, as well as their suitable application to soluble olfactory proteins...
July 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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