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Yoh Isogai, Zheng Wu, Michael I Love, Michael Ho-Young Ahn, Dhananjay Bambah-Mukku, Vivian Hua, Karolina Farrell, Catherine Dulac
Newborn mice emit signals that promote parenting from mothers and fathers but trigger aggressive responses from virgin males. Although pup-directed attacks by males require vomeronasal function, the specific infant cues that elicit this behavior are unknown. We developed a behavioral paradigm based on reconstituted pup cues and showed that discrete infant morphological features combined with salivary chemosignals elicit robust male aggression. Seven vomeronasal receptors were identified based on infant-mediated activity, and the involvement of two receptors, Vmn2r65 and Vmn2r88, in infant-directed aggression was demonstrated by genetic deletion...
December 13, 2018: Cell
Marco Falchetto, Giuseppe Ciossani, Francesca Scolari, Alessandro Di Cosimo, Simone Nenci, Linda M Field, Andrea Mattevi, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Giuliano Gasperi, Federico Forneris
In insects, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) connect the peripheral sensory system to receptors of olfactory organs. Medfly Ceratitis capitata CcapObp22 shows 37% identity and close phylogenetic affinities with Drosophila melanogaster OBP69a/PB-PRP1 (pheromone-binding protein related protein 1). The CcapObp22 gene is transcribed in the antennae and maxillary palps, suggesting an active role in olfaction. Here, we recombinantly produced CcapObp22, obtaining a 13.5 kDa protein capable of binding multiple strongly hydrophobic terpene compounds, including medfly male pheromone components...
December 12, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Hong-Lei Wang, Mario Baldessari, Gianfranco Anfora, Erik J van Nieukerken, Christer Löfstedt
Two heliozelid species, Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner and Holocacista rivillei (Stainton) severely infest Italian grapevines. The volatile pheromones from calling females were collected by solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Two compounds from A. oinophylla females eliciting electrophysiological activity from the conspecific male antenna were identified as (Z)-5-tetradecenal and (Z)-7-tetradecenal by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jia Li, Xiaoqi Wang, Long Zhang
The peach fruit borers Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) are serious fruit borers in East Asia. Odorants have been reported to elicit their olfactory responses, including sex pheromone and host plant volatiles. However, little is known about their molecular aspects of olfactory perception to these odorants. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are believed to play an important role in insect olfaction, which recognize and bind odorants, and transport them to odorant receptors located on olfactory neurons...
December 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qing-Hua Chen, Feng Zhu, Zhihua Tian, Wan-Min Zhang, Rong Guo, Wancai Liu, Lieming Pan, Yongjun Du
Several lepidopteran species share the same pheromone blend consisting of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) at different ratios and active doses. In rice pest Chilo suppressalis , (Z)-11-hexadecenol, (Z11-16:OH) and octadecanal (18:Ald) were identified as minor components in the pheromone gland of female moths, and these components were previously not considered as part of the sex pheromone of C. suppressalis . Z11-16:Ald, Z9-16:Ald and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald) frequently trapped other lepidopteran species, such as rice pests Scirpophaga incertulas and Mythimna separate , corn and vegetable pests Helicoverpa armigera in the field, suggesting a lack of specificity in the pheromone blend...
December 12, 2018: Insects
Jia Fan, Qian Zhang, Qingxuan Xu, Wenxin Xue, Zongli Han, Jingrui Sun, Julian Chen
Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead is a dominant endoparasitoid of aphids, such as Myzus persicae and Sitobion avenae , and plays an important role in controlling aphids in various habitats, including tobacco plants and wheat in China. A. gifuensis has been successfully applied for the biological control of aphids, especially M. persicae , in green houses and fields in China. The corresponding parasites, as well as its mate-searching behaviors, are subjects of considerable interest. Previous A. gifuensis transcriptome studies have relied on short-read next-generation sequencing (NGS), and the vast majority of the resulting isotigs do not represent full-length cDNA...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sanya Aggarwal, Celion Tang, Kristen Sing, Hyun Wook Kim, Robert P Millar, Javier A Tello
<br>Background/Aims: The medial amygdala (MeA) responds to olfactory stimuli and alters reproductive physiology. However, the neuronal circuit that relays signals from the MeA to the reproductive axis remains poorly defined. This study aimed to test whether MeA kisspeptin (MeAKiss) neurons in male mice are sensitive to sexually relevant olfactory stimuli and transmit signals to alter reproductive physiology. We also investigated whether MeAKiss neurons have the capacity to elaborate glutamate and GABA neurotransmitters and potentially contribute to reproductive axis regulation...
December 10, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Samantha J Carew, Bandhan Mukherjee, Iain T K MacIntyre, Abhinaba Ghosh, Sa Li, Gilbert J Kirouac, Carolyn W Harley, Qi Yuan
Alarm pheromones alert conspecifics to the presence of danger. Can pheromone communication aid in learning specific cues? Such facilitation has an evident evolutionary advantage. We use two associative learning paradigms to test this hypothesis. The first is stressed cage mate-induced conditioning. One pair-housed adult rat received 4 pairings of terpinene + shock over 30 min. Ten minutes after return to the home cage, its companion rat was removed and exposed to terpinene. Single-housed controls were exposed to either terpinene or shock only...
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aquillah M Kanzi, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicolaas A Van der Merwe, Brenda D Wingfield
Fungi in the genus Chrysoporthe are economically important canker pathogens of commercially grown Eucalyptus species and native Myrtales. Before the current study, homothallism was widely accepted as the mating system of these species, but this hypothesis could not be fully tested. Using whole genome sequences, we characterized the MAT locus of two C. austroafricana isolates and its sibling species, C. cubensis and C. deuterocubensis. A unique MAT1-2 idiomorph containing a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene, and a MAT1-1-2 gene, was identified in one isolate of C...
December 4, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Bridget Bobadoye, Baldwyn Torto, Ayuka Fombong, Yunfan Zou, Karl Adlbauer, Lawrence M Hanks, Jocelyn G Millar
During field bioassays in Kenya of 10 chemicals that are common pheromone components of cerambycid beetles, six species in the subfamily Cerambycinae were significantly attracted to 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, and one species in the subfamily Lamiinae was significantly attracted to 2-(undecyloxy)ethanol (known as monochamol). These results further demonstrate that the former compound is highly conserved as a cerambycid pheromone because it has now been identified or implicated in the pheromones of numerous cerambycine species native to all six habitable continents...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Jörg Fleischer, Jürgen Krieger
Pheromones are chemicals that serve intraspecific communication. In animals, the ability to detect and discriminate pheromones in a complex chemical environment substantially contributes to the survival of the species. Insects widely use pheromones to attract mating partners, to alarm conspecifics or to mark paths to rich food sources. The various functional roles of pheromones for insects are reflected by the chemical diversity of pheromonal compounds. The precise detection of the relevant intraspecific signals is accomplished by specialized chemosensory neurons housed in hair-like sensilla located on the surface of body appendages...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Michael S Werner, Marc H Claaßen, Tess Renahan, Mohannad Dardiry, Ralf J Sommer
Many animal and plant species respond to population density by phenotypic plasticity. To investigate if specific age classes and/or cross-generational signaling affect density-dependent plasticity, we developed a dye-based method to differentiate co-existing nematode populations. We applied this method to Pristionchus pacificus, which develops a predatory mouth form to exploit alternative resources and kill competitors in response to high population densities. Remarkably, adult, but not juvenile, crowding induces the predatory morph in other juveniles...
November 20, 2018: iScience
Dany Domínguez-Pérez, Jordi Durban, Guillermin Agüero-Chapin, Javier Torres Lopez, Reinaldo Molina Ruiz, Daniela Almeida, Juan J Calvete, Vítor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes
The Harderian gland is a cephalic structure, widely distributed among vertebrates. In snakes, the Harderian gland is anatomically connected to the vomeronasal organ via the nasolacrimal duct, and in some species can be larger than the eyes. The function of the Harderian gland remains elusive, but it has been proposed to play a role in the production of saliva, pheromones, thermoregulatory lipids and growth factors, among others. Here, we have profiled the transcriptomes of the Harderian glands of three non-front-fanged colubroid snakes from Cuba, the Cuban Lesser Racer, Caraiba andreae; Cubophis cantherigerus (Cuban Racer); and the Caribbean Water Snake, Tretanorhinus variabilis, using Illumina HiSeq2000 100 bp paired-end...
November 30, 2018: Genomics
Man-Yeon Choi, Robert K Vander Meer
Insect neuropeptides represent more than 90% of all insect hormones. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN)/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides. These neuropeptides regulate a variety of biological functions from embryo to adult in moths including, sex pheromone biosynthesis and diapause. Other functions are yet to be determined. The identification of suitable target genes is most important for the successful application of RNA interference (RNAi) for pest insect control...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Zhao-Qun Li, Xiao-Ming Cai, Zong-Xiu Luo, Lei Bian, Zhao-Jun Xin, Yan Liu, Bo Chu, Zong-Mao Chen
Ectropis grisescens Warren 1894 (Lepidopotera: Geometridae) and Ectropis obliqua Prout 1915 (Lepidopotera: Geometridae) are the most destructive chewing pests in China's tea plantations. Ectropis grisescens sex pheromone lures and E. obliqua nucleopolyhedrosis virus (EoNPV) are two species-specific and effective bio-control technologies to control these pests. Because these two species are morphologically similar, tea growers are unable to discriminate them by visual inspection. Hence, determining whether to use E...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson
Aldehydes are components of many moth sex pheromones, and are thought to be produced from analogous alcohols by oxidase(s) in the cell membrane or the gland cuticle. This implies that the two types of components are produced and/or stored in different parts of the gland: alcohols in cells and aldehydes in cuticle. Few studies have investigated the distribution of components in moth pheromone glands. Using rinse/extract sampling, stable isotope tracer/tracee methods, and decapitation/ pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide stimulation, we studied production and distribution of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH) in the gland of Chloridea virescens (formerly Heliothis virescens)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mona Shaaban, Abdelaziz Elgaml, El-Sayed E Habib
High incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial clinical isolates necessitates the discovery of new targets for inhibition of microbial pathogenicity, without stimulation of microbial resistance. This could be achieved by targeting virulence determinants, which cause host damage and disease. Many pathogenic bacteria elaborate signaling molecules for cellular communication. This signaling system is named quorum sensing system (QS), and it is contingent on the bacterial population density and mediated by signal molecules called pheromones or autoinducers (AIs)...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Peter A Combs, Joshua J Krupp, Neil M Khosla, Dennis Bua, Dmitri A Petrov, Joel D Levine, Hunter B Fraser
Reproductive isolation is a key component of speciation. In many insects, a major driver of this isolation is cuticular hydrocarbon pheromones, which help to identify potential intraspecific mates [1-3]. When the distributions of related species overlap, there may be strong selection on mate choice for intraspecific partners [4-9] because interspecific hybridization carries significant fitness costs [10]. Drosophila has been a key model for the investigation of reproductive isolation; although both male and female mate choices have been extensively investigated [6, 11-16], the genes underlying species recognition remain largely unknown...
November 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
A K P Roriz, H F Japyassú, C Cáceres, V M Teresa, I S Joachim-Bravo
Sexual behavioural isolation can result from sexual selection and represents a relevant factor associated with the speciation process. We analysed the pheromone emission pattern and the courtship of males of five different populations of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic complex: Brazil (Vacaria, Tucumán and Piracicaba), Colombia and Peru. The time of pheromone emission was recorded in each population every 30 min during the day. The behavioural sequences of courting were video recorded and analysed using EthoSeq software...
November 29, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Zhao-Qun Li, Xiao-Ming Cai, Zong-Xiu Luo, Lei Bian, Zhao-Jun Xin, Bo Chu, Yan Liu, Zong-Mao Chen
The sibling species Ectropis grisescens and E. obliqua are the major chewing tea pests in China. A difference in sex pheromone components plays a central role in premating isolation in these two species. To investigate the mechanism of premating isolation in these two Ectropis species, we sequenced the transcriptomes of the antennae of female and male E. obliqua individuals and performed phylogenetic analyses, abundance analyses, and tissue expression profile analyses to compare the olfactory genes involved in the detection of sex pheromones...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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