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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340045/real-time-genetic-compensation-defines-the-dynamic-demands-of-feedback-control
#1
Patrick Harrigan, Hiten D Madhani, Hana El-Samad
Biological signaling networks use feedback control to dynamically adjust their operation in real time. Traditional static genetic methods such as gene knockouts or rescue experiments can often identify the existence of feedback interactions but are unable to determine what feedback dynamics are required. Here, we implement a new strategy, closed-loop optogenetic compensation (CLOC), to address this problem. Using a custom-built hardware and software infrastructure, CLOC monitors, in real time, the output of a pathway deleted for a feedback regulator...
October 18, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336148/distinct-binding-affinities-of-odorant-binding-proteins-from-the-natural-predator-chrysoperla-sinica-suggest-different-strategies-to-hunt-prey
#2
Zhao-Qun Li, Shuai Zhang, Xiao-Ming Cai, Jun-Yu Luo, Shuang-Lin Dong, Jin-Jie Cui, Zong-Mao Chen
Chrysoperla sinica is an important natural predator of many notorious agricultural pests. Understanding its olfactory mechanism can help enhance the effectiveness of C. sinica in biological control. In the present study, we investigated the tissue expression patterns of 12 odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes from C. sinica (CsinOBPs). The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that CsinOBP1, CsinOBP2, CsinOBP3, CsinOBP4, CsinOBP6, CsinOBP7, CsinOBP9, CsinOBP10, and CsinOBP12 were predominantly expressed in the antennae of both sexes, indicating their roles in olfaction...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334125/odometry-and-backtracking-social-and-individual-navigation-in-group-foraging-desert-harvester-ants-veromessor-pergandei
#3
Nicola Plowes, Yu Du, Jenna V Congdon, Vadim Bulitko, Everton S Soares, Marcia L Spetch
Veromessor pergandei harvester ants are group foragers which use a combination of social cues (pheromone-marked columns) and individual cues (e.g., self-generated movement, visual cues) when exploring foraging areas for resources. Upon finding food, individuals navigate back to the column, which guides their return to the nest. The direction and length of columns change between foraging bouts, and hence the end of the column (unlike the nest location) is non-stationary. We conducted displacement tests on returning foragers and present three novel findings...
October 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329061/density-dependent-demography-and-mass-rearing-of-carposina-sasakii-lepidoptera-carposinidae-incorporating-life-table-variability
#4
Xiaofei Li, Dandan Feng, Qiqi Xue, Tingling Meng, Ruiyan Ma, Angie Deng, Hsin Chi, Zhiyi Wu, Remzi Atlihan, Lina Men, Zhiwei Zhang
Carposina sasakii Matsumura is one of the most destructive fruit-boring pests of pome and stone fruit trees in eastern Asia. Because larvae complete their development inside a single fruit, larval density per fruit is a critical factor in their survival, development, and fecundity. The effect of larval density was examined to determine the ideal density for devising an economic and sustainable mass-rearing system for harvesting of C. sasakii. Mass production of insects of the same age of a specific stage is not only important in biological control, but also in pheromone extraction, culturing of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi, etc...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321388/effect-of-gamma-irradiation-on-fecundity-sterility-and-female-sex-pheromone-production-of-callosobruchus-chinensis-coleoptera-bruchidae
#5
Kashinath Chiluwal, Junheon Kim, Soon Do Bae, Gwang Hyun Roh, Hae Jun Park, Chung Gyoo Park
Azuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a field-to-storage pest of legumes and its females produce sex pheromone components with two isomers: (2Z,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienal (2Z-homofarnesal) and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienal (2E-homofarnesal). Two-day-old virgin adults were treated with different doses (0, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 Gy) of gamma radiation and the effects on adult survivorship, fecundity, sterility, and pheromone production were studied...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319455/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-chemosensory-gene-families-from-trichoptera-and-basal-lepidoptera
#6
Jothi Kumar Yuvaraj, Martin N Andersson, Dan-Dan Zhang, Christer Löfstedt
The chemosensory gene families of insects encode proteins that are crucial for host location, mate finding, oviposition, and avoidance behaviors. The insect peripheral chemosensory system comprises odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). These protein families have been identified from a large number of insect species, however, they still remain unidentified from several taxa that could provide important clues to their evolution...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312624/altered-pheromone-biosynthesis-is-associated-with-sex-specific-changes-in-life-span-and-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Nithya Mary Joseph, Nateshwar Yogindra Elphick, Sasha Mohammad, Johannes H Bauer
Many insect behaviors, including foraging, aggression, mating or group behavior, are tightly regulated by pheromones. Recently, it has been shown that pheromones may influence extreme longevity in the honeybee Apis mellifera, while changes in pheromone profile have been observed during ageing in Drosophila melanogaster. These data suggest a potential link between the pheromone system, behavior and longevity in insects. Here, we investigate this potential link by examining changes in behavior and longevity in fruit flies with altered pheromone profiles...
October 9, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306314/-z-7-hexadecene-is-an-aggregation-sex-pheromone-produced-by-males-of-the-south-american-cerambycid-beetle-susuacanga-octoguttata
#8
Weliton D Silva, José Maurício S Bento, Lawrence M Hanks, Jocelyn G Millar
We describe the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a novel aggregation-sex pheromone produced by males of Susuacanga octoguttata (Germar), a South American cerambycid beetle. Analyses of extracts of headspace volatiles produced by adult beetles revealed a sex-specific compound emitted by males which was identified as (Z)-7-hexadecene by microchemical and spectroscopic analyses. The synthesized pheromone was attractive to beetles of both sexes in field trials. This unsaturated hydrocarbon motif is unprecedented among cerambycid pheromones identified to date...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306250/an-ant-navigation-model-based-on-weber-s-law
#9
Paulo Amorim, Thierry Goudon, Fernando Peruani
We analyze an ant navigation model based on Weber's law, where the ants move across a pheromone landscape sensing the area using two antennae. The key parameter of the model is the angle [Formula: see text] representing the span of the ant's sensing area. We show that when [Formula: see text] ants are able to follow (straight) pheromone trails proving that for initial conditions close to the trail, there exists a Lyapunov function that ensures ant trajectories converge on and follow the pheromone trail, with these solutions being locally asymptotically stable...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303483/correction-two-single-point-mutations-shift-the-ligand-selectivity-of-a-pheromone-receptor-between-two-closely-related-moth-species
#10
Ke Yang, Ling-Qiao Huang, Chao Ning, Chen-Zhu Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301945/decision-making-of-the-benthic-diatom-seminavis-robusta-searching-for-inorganic-nutrients-and-pheromones
#11
Karen Grace V Bondoc, Christine Lembke, Stefan N Lang, Sebastian Germerodt, Stefan Schuster, Wim Vyverman, Georg Pohnert
Microorganisms encounter a diversity of chemical stimuli that trigger individual responses and influence population dynamics. However, microbial behavior under the influence of different incentives and microbial decision-making is poorly understood. Benthic marine diatoms that react to sexual attractants as well as to nutrient gradients face such multiple constraints. Here, we document and model behavioral complexity and context-sensitive responses of these motile unicellular algae to sex pheromones and the nutrient silicate...
October 9, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298644/a-tripartite-toxin-antitoxin-module-induced-by-quorum-sensing-is-associated-with-the-persistence-phenotype-in-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Delphine Dufour, Alexandra Mankovskaia, Yuki Chan, Kamyar Motavaze, Siew-Ging Gong, Céline M Lévesque
The oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans communicates using a canonical Gram-positive quorum sensing system, CSP-ComDE. The CSP pheromone already known to be involved in the development of genetic competence positively influences the formation of persisters, dormant variants of regular cells that are highly tolerant to antimicrobial therapy. It is now believed that the persistence phenotype is the end result of a stochastic switch in the expression of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules. TAs consist of a pair of genes that encode two components, a stable toxin and its cognate labile antitoxin...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297606/energy-efficient-hybrid-routing-protocol-based-on-the-artificial-fish-swarm-algorithm-and-ant-colony-optimisation-for-wsns
#13
Xinlu Li, Brian Keegan, Fredrick Mtenzi
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a particular type of distributed self-managed network with limited energy supply and communication ability. The most significant challenge of a routing protocol is the energy consumption and the extension of the network lifetime. Many energy-efficient routing algorithms were inspired by the development of Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO). However, due to the inborn defects, ACO-based routing algorithms have a slow convergence behaviour and are prone to premature, stagnation phenomenon, which hinders further route discovery, especially in a large-scale network...
October 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296296/laser-surgery-reveals-the-biomechanical-and-chemical-signaling-functions-of-aphid-siphunculi-cornicles
#14
Serine Alfaress, Craig R Brodersen, El-Desouky Ammar, Michael E Rogers, Nabil Killiny
Aphids are an attractive food source to many predators and parasitoids because of their small size, soft bodies and slow movement. To combat predation, aphids evolved both behavioral and chemical defensive mechanisms that are operated via siphunculi (cornicles), differently developed structures that more or less extend from their abdomen. Although both direct and indirect linkages between siphunculi and their defensive mechanisms have been explored, their ultimate effects on aphid fitness are still broadly debated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291808/phytochemicals-as-mediators-for-host-range-expansion-of-a-native-invasive-forest-insect-herbivore
#15
Nadir Erbilgin
Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently invaded jack pine forests in western Canada. This invasion signifies a climate change-induced range expansion by a native insect. The mechanism underlying this invasion is unknown, but likely involves phytochemicals that play critical roles in MPB biology. Thus far, studies have investigated the compatibility of jack pine chemistry with beetles and their microbial symbionts. I have identified three phytochemical mechanisms that have likely facilitated the host range expansion of MPB...
October 6, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291225/a-novel-rat-model-of-comorbid-ptsd-and-addiction-reveals-intersections-between-stress-susceptibility-and-enhanced-cocaine-seeking-with-a-role-for-mglu5-receptors
#16
Marek Schwendt, John Shallcross, Natalie A Hadad, Mark D Namba, Helmut Hiller, Lizhen Wu, Eric G Krause, Lori A Knackstedt
PTSD is highly comorbid with cocaine use disorder (CUD), and cocaine users with PTSD + CUD are more resistant to treatment. Here we sought to develop a rat model of PTSD + CUD in order to identify the neurobiological changes underlying such comorbidity and screen potential medications for reducing cocaine seeking in the PTSD population. We utilized a predator scent stress model of PTSD, wherein rats received a single exposure to the fox pheromone 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT). One week after TMT exposure, stress-susceptible (susceptible), intermediate, and resilient phenotypes were detected and were consistent with behavioral, corticosterone, and gene expression profiles 3 weeks post TMT...
October 5, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291158/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-the-settlement-inducing-protein-complex-guides-barnacle-settlement-decisions
#17
Manto Kotsiri, Maria Protopapa, Sofoklis Mouratidis, Michael Zachariadis, Demetrios Vassilakos, Ioannis Kleidas, Martina Samiotaki, Skarlatos G Dedos
Reproduction in barnacles relies on chemical cues that guide their gregarious settlement. These cues have been pinned down to several sources of settlement pheromones, one of which is a protein termed Settlement-Inducing Protein Complex (SIPC), a large glycoprotein acting as a pheromone to induce larval settlement and as an adhesive in the surface exploration by the cyprids. Settlement assays in laboratory conditions with Amphibalanus (= Balanus ) amphitrite cyprids in the presence of SIPC showed that cyprids exhibit settlement preference behaviour at lower concentrations (EC50 =3...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290999/surface-lipidome-of-the-lone-star-tick-amblyomma-americanum-provides-leads-on-semiochemicals-and-lipid-metabolism
#18
Robert Renthal, Kim Lohmeyer, Lígia M F Borges, Adalberto A Pérez de León
Lipids extracted from the surface of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. Prior to lipid extraction, the adult ticks were either unfed or fed on cattle, and the fed ticks were in groups either containing males and females together, or containing only males or females. Cholesteryl esters were found on the surfaces of fed females, and they may provide a more complete description of the composition of the mounting sex pheromone. Dihydrocholesteryl esters were detected on the surfaces of unfed males and females, suggesting a possible role in survival during host-seeking...
September 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284151/current-strategies-and-future-outlook-for-managing-the-neotropical-tomato-pest-tuta-absoluta-meyrick-in-the-mediterranean-basin
#19
REVIEW
M Giorgini, E Guerrieri, P Cascone, L Gontijo
The invasion of new regions by exotic pests has been more than ever a critical issue that warrants coordinated international actions to manage established populations and prevent further spreading. Invasive insects can undermine the ecological equilibrium of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Moreover, increasing temperatures due to climatic change exacerbate this problem by allowing pests to further reach regions previously considered unsuitable. The tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera) is an exotic pest native to Peru that has spread beyond Neotropical America...
October 3, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283303/putative-neural-network-within-an-olfactory-sensory-unit-for-nestmate-and-non-nestmate-discrimination-in-the-japanese-carpenter-ant-the-ultra-structures-and-mathematical-simulation
#20
Yusuke Takeichi, Tatsuya Uebi, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Kouji Yasuyama, Kanako Inoue, Toshinobu Suzaki, Hideo Kubo, Naoko Kajimura, Jo Takano, Toshiaki Omori, Ryoichi Yoshimura, Yasuhisa Endo, Masaru K Hojo, Eichi Takaya, Satoshi Kurihara, Kenta Tatsuta, Koichi Ozaki, Mamiko Ozaki
Ants are known to use a colony-specific blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as a pheromone to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates and the CHCs were sensed in the basiconic type of antennal sensilla ( S. basiconica ). To investigate the functional design of this type of antennal sensilla, we observed the ultra-structures at 2D and 3D in the Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus , using a serial block-face scanning electron microscope (SBF-SEM), and conventional and high-voltage transmission electron microscopes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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