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Group B streptococcal neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103891/no-298-the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#1
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087335/a-mouse-model-reproducing-the-pathophysiology-of-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-infection
#2
Elva Bonifácio Andrade, Ana Magalhães, Ana Puga, Madalena Costa, Joana Bravo, Camila Cabral Portugal, Adília Ribeiro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Augusto Faustino, Arnaud Firon, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Teresa Summavielle, Paula Ferreira
Group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis remains a devastating disease. The absence of an animal model reproducing the natural infectious process has limited our understanding of the disease and, consequently, delayed the development of effective treatments. We describe here a mouse model in which bacteria are transmitted to the offspring from vaginally colonised pregnant females, the natural route of infection. We show that GBS strain BM110, belonging to the CC17 clonal complex, is more virulent in this vertical transmission model than the isogenic mutant BM110∆cylE, which is deprived of hemolysin/cytolysin...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995578/progress-toward-a-group-b-streptococcal-vaccine
#3
Joon Young Song, Jae Hyang Lim, Sangyong Lim, Zhi Yong, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in neonate, elderly, and immunocompromised patients worldwide. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) of GBS infections, it remains one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, causing serious infections. Furthermore, recent studies reported an increasing number of GBS infections in pregnant women and elderly. Although IAP is effective, it has several limitations, including increasing antimicrobial resistance and late GBS infection after negative antenatal screening...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970020/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-in-mothers-and-infants-in-western-china-prevalences-and-risk-factors
#4
Jichang Chen, Jinjian Fu, Wei Du, Xin Liu, Chokechai Rongkavilit, Xuemei Huang, Yubi Wu, Yuanliu Wang, Eric McGrath
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of maternal and infant Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization is poorly understood in China. The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal and infant GBS colonization in Western China. METHODS: From January 2017 to June 2017, a prospective study was conducted to estimate the maternal and infant GBS colonization rate by maternal rectovaginal and infant nasopharynx, ear canal and umbilical swab culture...
July 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694999/novel-approaches-to-the-study-of-neonatal-infections
#5
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Riccardo Castagnoli, Irene Ioimo, Cristian Achille, Paolo Manzoni, Chryssoula Tzialla
The pathogenesis of neonatal infection is incompletely understood. Neonatal immune immaturity and the microbial factors of virulence only partially explain the interindividual differences in the protective responses to the most common neonatal pathogens. Stratification of infants into high- and low-risk groups through epidemiological studies has been invaluable in designing preventive strategies and reducing the burden of neonatal infection. The discovery of the role of maternal antibodies (Abs) as, for instance, anti-capsular polysaccharide group B streptococcal (GBS) Abs, in protecting newborn infants against neonatal GBS sepsis, has been a milestone in the unraveling of the molecular underpinnings of susceptibility to infection in the neonatal age...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686667/-streptococcus-agalactiae-non-pilus-cell-wall-anchored-proteins-involvement-in-colonization-and-pathogenesis-and-potential-as-vaccine-candidates
#6
REVIEW
Giampiero Pietrocola, Carla Renata Arciola, Simonetta Rindi, Lucio Montanaro, Pietro Speziale
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important etiological agent of several infectious diseases including neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, and orthopedic device infections. This pathogenicity is due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae . Single virulence factors are not sufficient to provoke a streptococcal infection, which is instead promoted by the coordinated activity of several pathogenicity factors. Such determinants, mostly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that mediate binding of the pathogen to host extracellular matrix/plasma ligands and cell surfaces, proteins that cooperate in the invasion of and survival within host cells and factors that neutralize phagocytosis and/or modulate the immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#7
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593684/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-molecular-characteristics-and-epidemiology
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. GBS is an opportunistic commensal constituting a part of the intestinal and vaginal physiologic flora and maternal colonization is the principal route of GBS transmission. GBS is a pathobiont that converts from the asymptomatic mucosal carriage state to a major bacterial pathogen causing severe invasive infections. At present, as many as 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, and II-IX) are recognized. The aim of the current review is to shed new light on the latest epidemiological data and clonal distribution of GBS in addition to discussing the most important colonization determinants at a molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520354/group-b-streptococcal-maternal-colonization-and-neonatal-disease-molecular-mechanisms-and-preventative-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509833/serial-clustering-of-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-infections-in-the-neonatal-unit-a-genomic-re-evaluation-of-causality
#10
Elita Jauneikaite, Georgia Kapatai, Frances Davies, Ioana Gozar, Juliana Coelho, Kathleen B Bamford, Benedetto Simone, Lipi Begum, Shannon Katiyo, Bharat Patel, Peter Hoffman, Theresa Lamagni, Eimear T Brannigan, Alison Holmes, Tokozani Kadhani, Tracey Galletly, Kate Martin, Hermione Lyall, Yimmy Chow, Sunit Godambe, Victoria Chalker, Shiranee Sriskandan
Background: Invasive Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of serious neonatal infection. Current strategies to reduce early onset GBS disease have no impact on late onset disease (LOD). Although GBS is a normal part of the enteric microbiota in healthy term infants, LOD cases arising in the neonatal intensive care unit setting raise questions about mode of acquisition. Methods: Enhanced surveillance for any case of late onset GBS sepsis admitted to a level 3, 24-bed neonatal intensive care unit over a 2 year period was instituted following a cluster of four cases...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495215/-progress-on-influencing-factors-regarding-the-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-infectious-diseases
#11
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399583/status-of-group-b-streptococcal-vaccine-development
#12
Shun Mei Lin, Yong Zhi, Ki Bum Ahn, Sangyong Lim, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading causal organism of neonatal invasive diseases and severe infections in the elderly. Despite significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of GBS infections and improvement in personal hygiene standards, this pathogen is still a global health concern. Thus, an effective vaccine against GBS would augment existing strategies to substantially decrease GBS infection. In 2014, World Health Organization convened the first meeting for consultation on GBS vaccine development, focusing on the GBS maternal immunization program, which was aimed at reducing infections in neonates and young infants worldwide...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310577/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-infants-from-urban-area-of-south-china-2011-2014
#13
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193647/the-incidence-characteristics-management-and-outcomes-of-anaphylaxis-in-pregnancy-a-population-based-descriptive-study
#14
S J McCall, K J Bunch, P Brocklehurst, R D'Arcy, K Hinshaw, J J Kurinczuk, D N Lucas, B Stenson, D J Tuffnell, M Knight
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis in pregnancy and describe the management and outcomes in the UK. DESIGN: A population-based descriptive study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). SETTING: All consultant-led maternity units in the UK. POPULATION: All pregnant women who had anaphylaxis between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2015. Anaphylaxis was defined as a severe, life-threatening generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction...
July 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129472/effectiveness-of-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-infection-an-integrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Kathryn Braye, John Ferguson, Deborah Davis, Christine Catling, Amy Monk, Maralyn Foureur
BACKGROUND: In some countries, up to 30% of women are exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of early-onset group B Streptococcal infection. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis aims to reduce the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality from this infection. The intervention may adversely affect non-pathogenic bacteria which are passed to the newborn during birth and are considered important in optimising health. Since many women are offered intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, effectiveness and implications of this intervention need to be established...
August 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117332/estimates-of-the-burden-of-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children
#16
Anna C Seale, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jenny Hall, Lola Madrid, Hannah Blencowe, Simon Cousens, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Joy E Lawn
Background: We aimed to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the burden of group B Streptococcus (GBS), including invasive disease in pregnant and postpartum women, fetal infection/stillbirth, and infants. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the current mainstay of prevention, reducing early-onset infant disease in high-income contexts. Maternal GBS vaccines are in development. Methods: For 2015 live births, we used a compartmental model to estimate (1) exposure to maternal GBS colonization, (2) cases of infant invasive GBS disease, (3) deaths, and (4) disabilities...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117330/neonatal-encephalopathy-with-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-systematic-review-investigator-group-datasets-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Cally J Tann, Kathryn A Martinello, Samantha Sadoo, Joy E Lawn, Anna C Seale, Maira Vega-Poblete, Neal J Russell, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Paul T Heath
Background: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a leading cause of child mortality and longer-term impairment. Infection can sensitize the newborn brain to injury; however, the role of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease has not been reviewed. This paper is the ninth in an 11-article series estimating the burden of GBS disease; here we aim to assess the proportion of GBS in NE cases. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups reporting GBS-associated NE...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#18
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096709/strategies-for-preventing-group-b-streptococcal-infections-in-newborns-a-nation-wide-survey-of-italian-policies
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Chryssoula Tzialla, Alberto Berardi, Claudio Farina, Pierangelo Clerici, Alessandro Borghesi, Elsa Viora, Paolo Scollo, Mauro Stronati
BACKGROUND: There are no Italian data regarding the strategies for preventing neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) infection. We conducted a national survey in order to explore obstetrical, neonatal and microbiological practices for the GBS prevention. METHODS: Three distinct questionnaires were sent to obstetricians, neonatologists and microbiologists. Questionnaires included data on prenatal GBS screening, maternal risk factors, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, microbiological information concerning specimen processing and GBS antimicrobial susceptibility...
November 2, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036682/perinatal-risk-factors-for-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-after-initiation-of-risk-based-maternal-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-a-case-control-study
#20
Sridhar Santhanam, Sumita Arun, Grace Rebekah, Nithya J Ponmudi, Jolly Chandran, Ruby Jose, Atanu Kumar Jana
Objectives: To identify the perinatal risk factors for early-onset Group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) sepsis in neonates after inception of a risk-based maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy in 2004. Design: Case control study. Methods: All newborn with early onset GBS sepsis (born between 2004 and 2013) were deemed to be "cases" and controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Results: More than three per vaginal (PV) examinations [odds ratio (OR) 8...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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