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Compensations in nerve injury

Akira Sakurai, Arianna N Tamvacakis, Paul S Katz
The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion...
July 2016: ENeuro
Sanna Koskela, Anni Suomalainen, Satu Apajalahti, Irja Ventä
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze malpractice claims related to tooth extractions in order to identify areas requiring emphasis and eventually to reduce the number of complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compiled a file of all malpractice claims related to tooth extractions (EBA code) between 1997 and 2010 from the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre. We then examined the data with respect to date, tooth, surgery, injury diagnosis, and the authority's decision on the case...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Shawn D Newlands, Min Wei, David Morgan, Hongge Luan
After vestibular labyrinth injury, behavioral measures of vestibular performance recover to variable degrees (vestibular compensation). Central neuronal responses after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL), which eliminates both afferent resting activity and sensitivity to movement, have been well-studied. However, unilateral semicircular canal plugging (UCP), which attenuates angular-velocity detection while leaving afferent resting activity intact, has not been extensively studied. The current study reports response properties of yaw-sensitive non-eye-movement rhesus macaque vestibular neurons after compensation from UCP...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Imme Zengerink, Max Reijman, Nina M C Mathijssen, Manon P Eikens-Jansen, P Koen Bos
BACKGROUND: A total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a successful and reliable operation with few complications. These complications however, do form a potential source for compensation claims. In the Netherlands, there are no studies available concerning filed claims after THA. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of claims related to THAs in the Netherlands and the reasons to claim, which claims lead to compensation, the costs involved for the insurer, and the demographics of the claimants...
September 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Vishakha Waman Rawool
Work-related exposure to noise and other ototoxins can cause damage to the cochlea, synapses between the inner hair cells, the auditory nerve fibers, and higher auditory pathways, leading to difficulties in recognizing speech. Procedures designed to determine speech recognition scores (SRS) in an objective manner can be helpful in disability compensation cases where the worker claims to have poor speech perception due to exposure to noise or ototoxins. Such measures can also be helpful in determining SRS in individuals who cannot provide reliable responses to speech stimuli, including patients with Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injuries, and infants with and without hearing loss...
2016: International Journal of Audiology
Sabrina M Holland, Kaitlin M Collura, Andrea Ketschek, Kentaro Noma, Toby A Ferguson, Yishi Jin, Gianluca Gallo, Gareth M Thomas
Dual leucine-zipper kinase (DLK) is critical for axon-to-soma retrograde signaling following nerve injury. However, it is unknown how DLK, a predicted soluble kinase, conveys long-distance signals and why homologous kinases cannot compensate for loss of DLK. Here, we report that DLK, but not homologous kinases, is palmitoylated at a conserved site adjacent to its kinase domain. Using short-hairpin RNA knockdown/rescue, we find that palmitoylation is critical for DLK-dependent retrograde signaling in sensory axons...
January 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jennifer Laravine, Adeline Cambon-Binder, Zoubir Belkheyar
Wrist and finger extension paralysis is a consequence of an injury to the radial nerve or the C5C6C7 roots. Despite these 2 different levels of lesions, palliative treatment for this type of paralysis depends on the same tendon transfers. A large majority of the patients are able to compensate for a deficiency of the extension of the wrist and fingers. However, a deficiency in the opening of the first web space, which could be responsible for transfers to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), frequently exists...
March 2016: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Tanvaa Tansatit, Piyaporn Phanchart, Dawinee Chinnawong, Prawit Apinuntrum, Thavorn Phetudom, Yasmina M E Sahraoui
Most nerve communications reported in the literature were found between the terminal branches. This study aimed to clarify and classify patterns of proximal communications between the buccal branches (BN) of the facial nerve and the infraorbital nerve (ION).The superficial musculoaponeurotic system protects any communication sites from conventional dissections. Based on this limitation, the soft tissues of each face were peeled off the facial skull and the facial turn-down flap specimens were dissected from the periosteal view...
January 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Yeon Dong Kim, Hyun Seog Moon
BACKGROUND: Pain medicine often requires medico-legal involvement, even though diagnosis and treatments have improved considerably. Multiple guidelines for pain physicians contain many recommendations regarding interventional treatment. Unfortunately, no definite treatment guidelines exist because there is no complete consensus among individual guidelines. Pain intervention procedures are widely practiced and highly associated with adverse events and complications. However, a comprehensive, systemic review of medical-dispute cases (MDCs) in Korea has not yet been reported...
October 2015: Korean Journal of Pain
Ghan-Shyam Lohiya, Sapna Lohiya, Sunita Lohiya, Vijay Krishna
Background. Scombrotoxinism is an acute toxin-induced illness caused primarily by bacterial synthesis of histamine in decomposed fish. Case Report. Immediately after taking 2-3 bites of cooked salmon, a clerical worker developed oral burning, urticaria, and asthma. In the emergency department, she was diagnosed with "allergies"; scombrotoxinism was never considered. She then developed wide-ranging symptoms (e.g., chronic fatigue, asthma, anxiety, multiple chemical sensitivity, and paresthesiae) and saw many specialists (in pulmonology, otorhinolaryngology, allergy, toxicology, neurology, psychology, and immunology)...
2015: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Z Cardoso-Cita, B Perea-Pérez, M E Albarrán-Juan, M E Labajo-González, L López-Durán, F Marco-Martínez, A Santiago-Saéz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery is one of the specialities with most complaints due to its scope and complexity. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the complaints made against medical specialists in Traumatology, taking into account those variables that might have an influence both on the presenting of the complaint as well as on the resolving of the process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis was performed on 303 legal judgments (1995-2011) collected in the health legal judgements archive of the Madrid School of Medicine, which is linked to the Westlaw Aranzadi data base...
January 2016: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Margie Wheelock, Tod A Clark, Jennifer L Giuffre
BACKGROUND: The most common neurological defect in traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation is isolated axillary nerve palsy. Most recover spontaneously; however, some have persistent axillary neuropathy. An intact rotator cuff may compensate for an isolated axillary nerve injury; however, given the high rate of rotator cuff pathology with advancing age, patients with an axillary nerve injury are at risk for complete shoulder disability. OBJECTIVE: To review reconstruction of the axillary nerve to alleviate shoulder pain, augment shoulder stability, abduction and external rotation to alleviate sole reliance on the rotator cuff to move and stabilize the shoulder...
2015: Plastic Surgery
Masami Tsukamoto, Naoko Niimi, Kazunori Sango, Shizuka Takaku, Yasushi Kanazawa, Kazunori Utsunomiya
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is thought to preserve neurons and glia following axonal injury and neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of exendin (Ex)-4, a synthetic GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, on adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and PC12 cells. GLP-1R was predominantly localized on large and small peptidergic neurons in vivo and in vitro, suggesting the involvement of GLP-1 in both the large and small sensory fiber functions. Ex-4 dose-dependently (1 ≤ 10 ≤ 100 nM) promoted neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival at 2 and 7 days in culture, respectively...
September 2015: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Beven P Livingston, T Richard Nichols
Nerve injury in the hindlimb of the cat results in locomotor changes, yet these findings have not been explored in a more multifunctional forelimb. Kinematics and muscle activity of the shoulder and elbow during level and upslope locomotion following reinnervation of the feline long head of the triceps brachii (TLo) were evaluated (1) during paralysis [none to minimum motor activity (short-term effects)] and (2) after the motor function was recovered but the proprioceptive feedback was permanently disrupted (long-term effects)...
2014: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Noora Vallila, Antti Sommarhem, Mika Paavola, Yrjänä Nietosvaara
BACKGROUND: The distal part of the humerus is the second most common fracture location in children. Complications are more common than with other pediatric fractures and are mostly related to inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: On the basis of data from 1990 through 2010 in the national registry of inpatient care treatment in Finland, we calculated the number of children less than seventeen years of age who were treated under anesthesia for a distal humeral fracture (reduction with or without internal fixation) and the number of treatment institutions...
March 18, 2015: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
M Temam, O Abadie, A Chetboun, W Mamane
Over 1,400,000 cases of hand trauma are identified each year in France, with a large proportion with open wounds, accounting for significant activity in orthopedic surgery emergency units. It is customary to focus on nerve or tendon injuries as a priority. However, even partial vascular lesions may be complicated by a false aneurysm. We report the case of a false aneurysm of the palmar branch of the radial artery in 25-year-old man, 6 months after a non-treated puncture wound of the thenar eminence. Surgery was undertaken because of increased volume and discomfort on gripping...
February 2015: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
Andreas A Argyriou, Panagiotis Karanasios, Alexandra Makridou, Nicolaos Makris
Most cases of scapular winging (SW) are attributed to either long thoracic or spinal accessory nerve lesions. Dorsal scapular nerve lesions are quite rare and the literature contains very few case reports of SW secondary to rhomboid paralysis. We are reporting the unusual case of a young patient who developed right-side scapular winging due to dorsal scapular neuropathy and rhomboids palsy, and we highlight the role of conservative treatment and rehabilitation for cases of mild/medium injury to the dorsal scapular nerve or to the rhomboid muscles...
2015: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Li Xiao, Chikako Saiki, Ryoji Ide
Mammalian adult central nerve system (CNS) injuries are devastating because of the intrinsic difficulties for effective neuronal regeneration. The greatest problem to be overcome for CNS recovery is the poor regeneration of neurons and myelin-forming cells, oligodendrocytes. Endogenous neural progenitors and transplanted exogenous neuronal stem cells can be the source for neuronal regeneration. However, because of the harsh local microenvironment, they usually have very low efficacy for functional neural regeneration which cannot compensate for the loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes...
July 1, 2014: Neural Regeneration Research
G Berdugo-Vega, G Arias-Gil, M Rodriguez-Niedenführ, D C Davies, T Vázquez, A Pascual-Font
Changes that occur in astroglial populations of the nucleus ambiguus after recurrent (RLN) or superior (SLN) laryngeal nerve injury have hitherto not been fully characterised. In the present study, rat RLN and SLN were lesioned. After 3, 7, 14, 28 or 56 days of survival, the nucleus ambiguus was investigated by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence or a combination of GFAP immunofluorescence and the application of retrograde tracers. GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly increased 3 days after RLN resection and it remained significantly elevated until after 28 days post injury (dpi)...
November 2014: Journal of Anatomy
S Leuzzi, A Armenio, L Leone, V De Santis, A Di Turi, P Annoscia, L Bufano, M Pascone
OBJECTIVE: The post-traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuroanastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps...
March 2014: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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