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Paediatric diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#1
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#2
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901704/audit-of-the-dietetic-care-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-at-a-large-australian-paediatric-tertiary-hospital-and-comparison-with-the-international-society-for-paediatric-and-adolescent-diabetes-nutrition-guidelines
#3
Rachel Battersby, Annabel Sweeney, Sarah Toome, Janice Fairchild, Jacqueline Miller
AIM: Optimal glycaemic control is important in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to reduce the risk of developing microvascular complications. Modest reductions in HbA1c translate to significant risk reductions of these complications. Research indicates that targeted dietetic care using evidence-based guidelines improves HbA1c levels. The aim of this study was to audit the dietetic care provided to patients with T1D at the Women's and Children's Hospital (WCH) and compare the service provided to the International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) nutrition guidelines...
September 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819992/insulin-delivery-and-nocturnal-glucose-control-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Martin Tauschmann, Roman Hovorka
Nocturnal glucose control remains challenging in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes due to highly variable overnight insulin requirements. The issue may be addressed by glucose responsive insulin delivery based on real-time continuous glucose measurements. Areas covered: This review outlines recent developments of glucose responsive insulin delivery systems from a paediatric perspective. We cover threshold-based suspend application, predictive low glucose suspend, and more advanced single hormone and dual-hormone closed-loop systems...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818842/what-s-new-in-paediatric-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Rowena Lalji, Kjell Tullus
Paediatric hypertension predisposes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Despite clear guidelines, there remains a lack of screening. Diagnosis remains challenging given the high rate of false-positive high blood pressure (BP) readings at a single visit; thus, multiple visits are required to confirm the diagnosis. Depending on the normative data sets used, hypertension in overweight and obese children can be underestimated by up to 20%. Specific BP targets are required for subgroups such as adolescents, children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 1 diabetes...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774463/clinical-trials-a-pending-subject
#6
B Gil-Extremera, P Jiménez-López, J D Mediavilla-García
Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige...
July 31, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772271/remission-phase-in-paediatric-type-1-diabetes-new-understanding-and-emerging-biomarkers
#7
Mireia Fonolleda, Marta Murillo, Federico Vázquez, Joan Bel, Marta Vives-Pi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease of unknown aetiology that results from the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells. Clinical onset with classic hyperglycaemic symptoms occurs much more frequently in children and young adults, when less than 30% of β-cells remain. Exogenous insulin administration is the only treatment for patients. However, due to glucose dysregulation, severe complications develop gradually. Recently, an increase in T1D incidence has been reported worldwide, especially in children...
August 3, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767734/prediction-of-glycaemic-control-in-young-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-using-mixed-effects-logistic-regression-modelling
#8
Michiel Joost van Esdonk, Bonnie Tai, Andrew Cotterill, Bruce Charles, Stefanie Hennig
OBJECTIVES: Glycaemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus can be challenging, complex and influenced by many factors. This study aimed to identify patient characteristics that were predictive of satisfactory glycaemic control in the paediatric population using a logistic regression mixed-effects (population) modelling approach. METHODS: The data were obtained from 288 patients aged between 1 and 22 years old recorded retrospectively over 3 years (1852 HbA1c observations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727196/insulin-regimens-for-newly-diagnosed-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-survey-of-current-practice
#9
Dharrshinee Selvakumar, Hesham S Al-Sallami, Martin de Bock, Geoffrey R Ambler, Paul Benitez-Aguirre, Esko Wiltshire, Elaine Tham, Peter Simm, Louise S Conwell, Phillipa J Carter, Benjamin B Albert, Jinny Willis, Benjamin J Wheeler
AIM: There is no consensus on the optimal insulin treatment for children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aims of this study were (i) to describe the insulin regimens used at diagnosis by patient age and geographical region and (ii) to explore differences between and within Australia (AU) and New Zealand (NZ) with regards to other aspects of patient management and education. METHODS: An online survey of medical professionals caring for children with T1DM in AU and NZ was undertaken...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716039/extra-corporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-refractory-cardiogenic-shock-after-adult-cardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Maziar Khorsandi, Scott Dougherty, Omar Bouamra, Vasudev Pai, Philip Curry, Steven Tsui, Stephen Clark, Stephen Westaby, Nawwar Al-Attar, Vipin Zamvar
BACKGROUND: Postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCCS) refractory to inotropic support and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) occurs rarely but is almost universally fatal without mechanical circulatory support. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we looked at the evidence behind the use of veno-arterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) in refractory PCCS from a patient survival rate and determinants of outcome viewpoint. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in January 2017 using PubMed (with no defined time period) using the keywords "postcardiotomy", "cardiogenic shock", "extracorporeal membrane oxygenation" and "cardiac surgery"...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703902/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-paediatric-type-2-diabetes-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#11
M I O'Dea, S M O'Connell, M J O'Grady
OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of paediatric Type 2 diabetes in the Republic of Ireland and describe patient demographics, initial presentation, management, outcomes, comorbidities and complications. METHODS: Using a standardized proforma we conducted a cross-sectional survey of children and adolescents aged < 16 years with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes between October and December 2015 in each of the 19 centres in the Republic of Ireland responsible for the care of children with diabetes...
July 13, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691461/oral-manifestations-of-selective-iga-deficiency-review-and-case-report
#12
L Azzi, F Croveri, R Vinci, V Maurino, A Boggio, D Mantegazza, D Farronato, A Tagliabue, J Silvestre-Rangil, L Tettamanti
Immunoglobulin A deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency defined as decreased serum level of IgA (less than 7 mg/dl) in the presence of normal levels of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Most individuals with IgA deficiency are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations, such as diabetes mellitus, Graves disease and celiac disease. The international literature has not produced any kind of review yet about intra-oral manifestations of selective IgA-deficiency...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685101/end-stage-kidney-failure-in-oman-an-analysis-of-registry-data-with-an-emphasis-on-congenital-and-inherited-renal-diseases
#13
Intisar Al Alawi, Issa Al Salmi, Adhra Al Mawali, Yacoub Al Maimani, John A Sayer
Globally, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a huge burden on health care systems. The aims of this study were to perform a comprehensive epidemiological and etiological report of ESKD patients commencing RRT in Oman with an emphasis on genetic causes and inherited kidney disease. All newly registered Omani patients with ESKD commencing RRT from 2001 until 2015 (n = 2,922) were analysed using the RRT register in Oman. All potentially genetic or inherited causes of ESKD were reviewed. In Oman, ESKD is more prevalent in males (57...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667203/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-coronary-artery-aneurysm-in-taiwan-a-population-based-case-control-study
#14
Chein-Tang Fang, Yi-Ping Fang, Yaw-Bin Huang, Chen-Chun Kuo, Chung-Yu Chen
OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is usually an asymptomatic and rare disease. There are limited epidemiological data for CAA in Asian populations and in the rest of the world. DESIGN: A retrospective case control study. SETTING: A population based, database study from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, between 2005 and 2011. PARTICIPANTS: CAA patients identified using International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) code 414...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656671/effect-of-simulated-refractive-error-on-adult-visual-acuity-for-paediatric-tests
#15
Nabin Paudel, Robert J Jacobs, Rebecca Sloan, Sarah Denny, Kimberley Shea, Benjamin Thompson, Nicola Anstice
PURPOSE: Although vanishing optotype preferential-looking tasks are commonly used to measure visual acuity (VA), the relative sensitivity of these tests to refractive error is not well understood. To address this issue, we determined the effect of spherical and astigmatic simulated refractive errors on adult VA measures obtained using vanishing optotypes, picture optotypes and Sloan letters. METHODS: VA was determined uniocularly for adults under conditions of spherical (0...
July 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626956/markedly-increased-incidence-of-critical-illness-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
R A Marrie, E A C Sellers, H Chen, R Fransoo, C N Bernstein, C A Hitchon, C A Peschken, A Garland
AIMS: To compare the incidence of and mortality after intensive care unit admission in adults with paediatric-onset Type 1 diabetes vs the general population. METHODS: Using population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada, we identified 814 cases of paediatric-onset Type 1 diabetes, and 3579 general population controls matched on age, sex and region of residence. We estimated the incidence of intensive care unit admission in adulthood, and compared the findings between populations using incidence rate ratios and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity and socio-economic status...
June 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626948/racial-and-ethnic-differences-among-children-with-new-onset-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes
#17
K Gandhi, M Tosur, R Schaub, M W Haymond, M J Redondo
AIM: To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed a single-centre series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The median (range) age was 9.7 (0.3-18.1) years, the mean (sd) BMI percentile was 69.7 (25.4) and 48.3% of the cohort were girls. The cohort comprised 57.3% non-Hispanic white, 20...
June 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624716/seizure-related-hospital-admissions-readmissions-and-costs-comparisons-with-asthma-and-diabetes-in-south-australia
#18
Michelle L Bellon, Christopher Barton, Nikki McCaffrey, Denise Parker, Claire Hutchinson
PURPOSE: Seizures are listed as an Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition (ACSC), where, in some cases, hospitalisation may be avoided with appropriate preventative and early management in primary care. We examined the frequencies, trends and financial costs of first and subsequent seizure-related hospital admissions in the adult and paediatric populations, with comparisons to bronchitis/asthma and diabetes admissions in South Australia between 2012 and 2014. METHODS: De-identified hospital separation data from five major public hospitals in metropolitan South Australia were analysed to determine the number of children and adults admitted for the following Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups: seizure related conditions; bronchitis/asthma; and diabetes...
June 10, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615030/the-autoimmune-burden-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#19
Elena Tronconi, Angela Miniaci, Andrea Pession
BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis of unknown origin which can be considered an autoimmune disease (AD). The aim of this study is to analyse the presence of two or more autoimmune diseases (polyautoimmunity) in patients suffering from JIA and to evaluate the occurrence of ADs in their families. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with JIA aged 0-21 years, admitted to the Paediatric Rheumatology Unit, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna were screened for ADs...
June 14, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608928/self-care-management-of-type-1-diabetes-has-improved-in-swedish-schools-according-to-children-and-adolescents
#20
Anna Ottosson Bixo, Karin Åkesson, Rosita Ilvered, Gun Forsander, Stefan Särnblad
AIM: Age-appropriate support for diabetes self-care is essential during school time and we investigated the perceived quality of support children and adolescents received in 2015 and 2008. METHODS: This national study was based on questionnaires answered by children and adolescents aged 6-15 years of age with type 1 diabetes attending schools or preschools in 2008 (n=317) and 2015 (n=570) and separate parental questionnaires. The subjects were recruited by Swedish paediatric diabetes units, with 41/44 taking part in 2008 and 41/42 in 2015...
June 13, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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