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White spot

Nicola White, Jeffrey S Bale, Scott A L Hayward
Lethal time50 (LTime50 ) and lethal temp (LTemp50 ) are commonly used laboratory indices of arthropod cold tolerance, with the former often being employed to predict winter survival in the field. In the present study, we compare the cold tolerance of different life-history stages (nondiapausing and diapausing females, as well as males and juveniles) of a major agricultural pest: the two-spot spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Diapausing females from European populations of this species are shown to be freeze avoiding, supercooling to -23...
December 2018: Physiological Entomology
Xuemei Chen, Yueru Chen, Xiaotong Shen, Jianwei Zuo, Huarong Guo
This study first reported the improvement and application of lentivirus-mediated gene transfer and expression system in shrimp cells. After modified by the inclusion of two envelope proteins (VP19 and VP28) of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) into the envelope of the packaged lentivirus, and insertion of a truncated promoter of immediate-early gene 1 (Pie1-504 ) of shrimp WSSV virus into the lentiviral reporter plasmid, the second-generation lentiviral expression system (pLVX-PEF1α -IRES-mCherry, psPAX2, and PMD2...
December 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Nicoline C W van der Kaaij, Maria J Faaij, Jacob M Ten Cate, Monique H van der Veen
BACKGROUND: A quantitative light-induced fluorescence digital (QLF-D) camera is able to assess demineralizations adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Rotations of teeth during and the presence of the orthodontic appliances may influence the longitudinal follow-up of such lesions over time. METHODS: Brackets were bonded on extracted teeth: 54 incisors and 31 canines. Demineralizations were formed in vitro directly cervical of the bracket. Images were captured using a QLF-D camera mounted on an optical bench, equipped with a goniometer on a turntable...
December 11, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Hafiz Khuram Raza, Hao Chen, Thitsavanh Chansysouphanthong, Zuohui Zhang, Fang Hua, Xinchun Ye, Wei Zhang, Liguo Dong, Shenyang Zhang, Xiaopeng Wang, Guiyun Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and imaging features of gray matter heterotopia (GMH) and improve the clinicians' understanding of the disease. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with GMH diagnosed at The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from November 2014 to November 2016. Their clinical and imaging features are also summarized. RESULTS: The proportion of male and female patients was 2:1. The age of onset was 2~45 years and the average age was 19...
December 10, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Agnieszka Ścisłowicz, Piotr Piejko, Mateusz Nowak, Paulina Renke, Piotr Chaniecki, Aneta Rucka
Roth spots are petechiae of the retina with a white or pale center that corresponds to a bundle of cotton wool or a multinuclear leukocyte aggregate. Often considered a sign of bacterial endocarditis, they are an unspecific symptom, usually more commonly seen in patients with hematopoietic system diseases. A 56-year-old patient reported to the hospital due to sudden visual impairment. The fundoscopy revealed Roth spots in both eyes that aroused the suspicion of infective endocarditis. After confirming the condition at the Department of Cardiology and the implementation of the treatment, there was a significant improvement in visual acuity, including the resolution of retinal changes...
November 28, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hoang A Hoang, Mai H Yen, Vo T Ngoan, Le P Nga, Dang T H Oanh
Striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmed in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, represents an important contribution to Vietnamese aquaculture exports. However, these fish are affected by frequent disease outbreaks across the entire region. One of the most common infections involves white spots in the internal organs, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. In this study, a virulent phage specific to E. ictaluri, designated MK7, was isolated from striped catfish kidney and liver samples and characterized...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Darrell H S Tan, Alexandre Schnubb, James Lawless, Leah Szadkowski, Troy Grennan, James Wilton, Shawn Fowler, Trevor A Hart, John Maxwell, Janet M Raboud
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis is efficacious at preventing HIV infection, but concerns persist about adherence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed preexposure prophylaxis acceptability, adherence and clinical outcomes in a pilot demonstration project. METHODS: HIV-uninfected adult gay and bisexual men who scored 10 or higher on a validated HIV risk score (HIV Incidence Risk Index for MSM) and reported condomless receptive anal sex were sequentially enrolled into a 1-year open-label single-arm pilot study of daily oral therapy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in Toronto...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Garrett M Coleman, Ian Beveridge, Ronald A Campbell
Seven new species of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 are reported from the spiral intestines of batoid elasmobranchs from the coasts of Australia. The new species are: Rhinebothrium dasyatidis n. sp. from the smooth stingray Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton) from Spencer Gulf, South Australia; Rhinebothrium bunburyense n. sp. from the southern eagle ray, Myliobatis tenuicaudatus Hector from off Bunbury, Western Australia; Rhinebothrium vandiemeni n. sp. from the reticulate whipray, Himantura australis Last, Naylor & Manjaji-Matsumoto from off Cape van Diemen, Northern Territory; Rhinebothrium fluviorum n...
December 6, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Fang Hua, Hongye Yang, Hong He
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Enamel remineralization therapies for treating postorthodontic white spot lesions: a systematic review. Fernández-Ferrer L, Vicente-Ruíz M, García-Sanz V, Montiel-Company JM, Paredes-Gallardo V, Almerich-Silla JM, Bellot-Arcís C. J Am Dent Assoc 2018; 149(9):778-86.e2. SOURCE OF FUNDING: No financial support was reported. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review.
December 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
Eve Malthiery, Jacques-Henri Torres, Valérie Costes-Martineau, Marie-Alix Fauroux
Plasminogen deficiency is a rare congenital condition that leads to pseudomembraneous lesions, such as ligneous conjunctivitis and ligneous gingivitis. Because of its rarity, ligneous gingivitis is not a pathology one may easily suspect from its clinical symptoms. We report the case of a 35-year-old Caucasian woman who experienced gum masses with white spots, but no pain. Based on the clinical picture, one could refute a diagnosis of necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. Several biopsies were taken. The last ones showed an amorphous eosinophilic substance that could be fibrin...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
S Hofstetter, F Seefried, I M Häfliger, V Jagannathan, T Leeb, C Drögemüller
Recently, the Swiss breeding association reported an increasing number of white-spotted cattle in the Brown Swiss breed, which is normally solid brown coloured. A total of 60 Brown Swiss cattle with variably sized white abdominal spots, facial markings and depigmented claws were collected for this study. A genome-wide association study using 40k SNP genotypes of 20 cases and 1619 controls enabled us to identify an associated genome region on chromosome 22 containing the MITF gene, encoding the melanogenesis associated transcription factor...
December 2, 2018: Animal Genetics
Ning-Ning Guo, Xue-Jun Sun, Ya-Kai Xie, Gui-Wen Yang, Cui-Jie Kang
As an important disulfide reductase of the intracellular antioxidant system, Thioredoxin (Trx)plays an important role in maintaining oxidative stress balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage. In recent years, there is increasing evidence that Trx is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of various diseases and a potential therapeutic target for major diseases including lung, colon, cervical, gastric and pancreatic cancer. However, few knowledge is known about the function of Trx in virus infection. In this study, we reported the cloning and functional investigation of a Trx homologue gene, named MjTrx, in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus suffered white spot syndrome virus(WSSV) infection...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Huan Wang, Wei Tang, Rui Zhang, Shaoxiong Ding
Recently, mucosal surfaces, especially fish skin and its secreted mucus, have attracted significant interest from immunologists. Amphiprion clarkii, a member of the family Pomacentridae, lives symbiosis with sea anemones and has a good resistance to common seawater bacterial diseases and parasites owing to the protection from its abundant skin mucus. In the present work, the activity of immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, protease, antiprotease, cathepsin B, alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase), the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria and five Gram-negative bacteria, the antiparasitic activity against the pathogen of marine white spot disease (Cryptocaryon irritans theronts) and the physico-chemical stability (to pH and heat) of the skin mucus of A...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ahmed L Abdel Gawad, Yasser El-Sharkawy, H S Ayoub, Ashraf F El-Sherif, Mahmoud F Hassan
PURPOSE: Early diagnosis of tooth demineralization, and enamel, dentin caries lesions, present a valuable solution to avoid or decrease their deleterious effect. The aim of this study was to design a simple, effective, and non-invasive technique, employing a novel laser wavelength to classify and differentiate between various tooth abnormalities in-vitro, by estimating wavelengths, showing distinctive appearance for each tooth class. METHODS: This study implies a fluorescence hyperspectral imaging system employing a 395-nm laser diode source, irradiating a pre-diagnosed 12 molars and premolars teeth...
November 27, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yasemin Nur Korkmaz, Ahmet Yagci
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three different fluoride-releasing agents on preventing white spot lesions that occur during treatment with full coverage rapid maxillary expanders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 48 patients with transverse maxillary deficiency were randomly assigned to four equal groups. A fluoride-containing agent was applied to teeth before cementation of the full coverage acrylic-bonded rapid maxillary expanders in the three experimental groups (gel, varnish, and sealent in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively), while the control group received no agent application...
November 28, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Qian Wang, Jian Fang, Qihua Pan, Yizhou Wang, Ting Xue, Lingyu Li, Tiansheng Chen
The recombinant baculovirus has been widely used as an efficient tool to mediate gene delivery into mammalian cells but has barely been used in fish cells. In the present study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus containing the dual-promoter cytomegalovirus (CMV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early gene 1 (ie1) (WSSV ie1), followed by a puromycin⁻green fluorescent protein (Puro-GFP, pf ) or puromycin⁻red fluorescent protein (Puro-RFP, pr ) cassette, which simultaneously allowed for easy observation, rapid titer determination, drug selection, and exogenous gene expression...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eleanor A S Adamson, Ralf Britz
Channa aurolineata is a valid species of the Marulius group. Previously treated as a synonym of C. marulius, C. aurolineata is readily distinguished from C. marulius by a different colour pattern, in which a conspicuous white posterior margin is present on the black scales that form the dark lateral blotches in larger juveniles and adults (vs. scales without white margin but with white spots in C. marulius). Channa aurolineata also differs from C. marulius by having more lateral line scales (65-71 vs 62-65), more dorsal-fin rays (55-58 vs 52-56) and more vertebrae (63-66 vs 59-63)...
November 9, 2018: Zootaxa
Lucas Cavalcanti Brito, Suelle Maria Dos Santos, Kim Ribeiro BarÃo
Immature stages of Murgantia histrionica (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens of all life stages of M. histrionica were collected on Peritoma arborea (Cleomaceae) in Palm Springs, California. Specimens were observed in light and scanning microscopies, imagens taken and described based on specimens and photographs. We provide images of the eggs and immatures in light microscopy, and SEM of the eggs and first and fifth instars. Eggs of M. histrionica are barrel-shaped, white, with brown band and circular spot; the corium surface carinated, forming hexagonal cells; carinae irregular apically...
October 29, 2018: Zootaxa
Yan-Hong Wang, Fan Liu, Hao-Nan Liu, Qiu-Xu Wang, Wen-Zhong Xing, Zhen-Chu Li
PURPOSE: To compare the effect on enamel demineralization following fluoride rinse or casein phosphopeptide calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP) after fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The study population consisted of 21 post-orthodontic patients (13 females, 8 males, 84 affected teeth) with white spot lesions (WSL). They were divided into 3 groups with 28 affected teeth in each group. Participants in the control group were brushed with fluoride toothpaste twice a day...
August 2018: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Izumi Nishikawa, Jun Kato, Satoshi Terasoma, Hiroyoshi Matsutani, Hidehiko Tamaki, Tetsuya Tamaki, Fumiaki Kuwashima, Hiroya Nakata, Tatsuji Tomeki, Hideyuki Matsunaka, Yumiko Ibata, Yasunobu Yamashita, Takao Maekita, Katsuhiko Higashi, Masao Ichinose
Background and Aim: Nodular gastritis is caused by Helicobacter pylori infection and is associated with the development of diffuse-type gastric cancer. This study examined the clinical characteristics of patients with nodular gastritis, including cancer incidence before and after H. pylori eradication. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent upper endoscopy and were positive for H. pylori infection. We examined the clinical findings and follow-up data after H...
June 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
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