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White spot

David W Wheeler, Candace M Trout, Caryn M Thompson, Joseph R Winkle, W Hunter White
Spinetoram is the newest member the spinosyn-class of natural products to be commercialized for flea control on cats in the United States under the tradename Cheristin® for cats. This report describes results from two laboratory studies and a multi-center clinical field trial designed to confirm the efficacy of a topical spot-on solution containing spinetoram (11.2% w/w, 130 mg/mL) against European strains of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. In the laboratory studies, cats were allocated to one of two treatment groups of eight animals each: negative control (mineral oil) or spinetoram, both applied as a topical spot-on at the base of the skull on Day 0...
July 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Oscar B Micheloni, Abel E Farroni, Paula García, Ricardo L E Furlan
This work describes a TLC-coupled bioautographic assay suitable for the separation and detection of apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibitors from natural extracts. PPO was immobilised in agar containing l-DOPA as substrate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) to enhance colour development. The inhibition was detected as white spots on reddish background. Minimum amount of PPO inhibitors detected was 0.0125 µg of 4-hexylresorcinol, 0.025 µg of ascorbic acid, 0.5 µg of cysteine and 1 µg of kojic acid...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra Freitas, Larissa Vasconcellos Nunes, Lívia Picchi Comar, Daniela Rios, Ana Carolina Magalhães, Heitor Marques Honório, Linda Wang
OBJECTIVES: A resin infiltrant was employed for the treatment of active white spot lesions due to its ability to penetrate into the enamel pores and prevent the progression of the lesion. However, limited information is available about its mechanical effect on different artificial enamel lesions as well as on its resistance to further demineralization. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the Icon® infiltrant on different artificial caries-like enamel lesions and its resistance to new acid challenges...
August 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Xiaoqian Tang, Xiaoai Li, Fude Zhai, Jing Xing, Xiuzhen Sheng, Wenbin Zhan
Previous studies have demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in WSSV infection. In the present work, in order to further elucidate the potential role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The expression variation of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in hemocytes of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after WSSV infection were examined by flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay (FCIFA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and results showed that the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in hemocytes fluctuated significantly after WSSV infection and exhibited two peaks at 6 and 24 h post infection (hpi)...
August 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mariana R Pilotto, André N A Goncalves, Felipe N Vieira, Walter Q Seifert, Evelyne Bachère, Rafael D Rosa, Luciane M Perazzolo
We provide a global overview of the intestinal bacteriome of Litopenaeus vannamei in two rearing systems and after an oral challenge by the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). By using a high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, we identified and compared the composition and abundance of bacterial communities from the midgut of shrimp reared in the super-intensive biofloc technology (BFT) and clear seawater system (CWS). The predominant bacterial group belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria, followed by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes...
August 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Karla Rovaris, Saulo Leonardo Sousa Melo, Polyane Mazucatto Queiroz, Carolina Loch, Donald R Schwass, Francisco Haiter-Neto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of Beam Hardening Correction tool (BHC) on Micro-CT images used in the diagnosis of incipient caries lesions. METHODS: Six posterior teeth, with 6 sound proximal surfaces and 6 natural white spot lesions, were scanned using a SkyScan1174 device. Each tooth was imaged 16 times in various acquisition parameters, and reconstructed 3 times applying different levels of BHC (0, 15 and 30%). The 288 datasets were analyzed by three examiners...
August 7, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
A A Taha, P S Fleming, R G Hill, M P Patel
Enamel demineralization or white spot lesions (WSLs) are a frequent complication associated with fixed appliance-based orthodontic treatment. The remineralization potential of a novel fluoride-containing bioactive glass (QMAT3) propelled via an air abrasion system was compared with Sylc glass and artificial saliva on artificially induced WSLs. Thirty extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into 3 groups ( n = 10) per method of treatment and scanned with optical coherence tomography and noncontact profilometer in the 4 enamel states: sound, demineralized, after glass propulsion, and after immersion in artificial saliva...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Bassant A Abbas, Eiman S Marzouk, Abbas R Zaher
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of resin infiltration to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSLs) and to estimate the effect of different numbers of etching and resin infiltrant applications on the color change of WSLs with various depths. Ninety-six sound extracted premolars were subjected to acid attack inducing different depths of WSLs. Using a DIAGNOdent, teeth were divided into four main groups according to the depth of the WSLs: shallow enamel, deep enamel, shallow dentine, and deep dentine without cavitation...
August 6, 2018: Progress in Orthodontics
Luanderson Oliveira Silva, Cácia Signori, Aline Carvalho Peixoto, Maximiliano Sérgio Cenci, André Luis Faria-E-Silva
This study evaluated the effectiveness of resin infiltration or enamel microabrasion for restoring color changes caused by incipient carious lesions as well as the color stability achieved by these treatments. Enamel specimens were subjected to cariogenic challenge to produce white spot lesions (WSLs) using a microcosm biofilm model. These lesions were treated with resin infiltration or enamel microabrasion (n = 8), and color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer at baseline and after the treatments...
2018: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
Ying Huang, Yihong Chen, Kaimin Hui, Qian Ren
Toll/Toll-like receptors are key components in the innate immune responses of invertebrates. In this study, we identified two novel Toll receptors ( PcToll5 and PcToll6 ) from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii . The complete cDNA sequence of PcToll5 is 4247 bp, encoding a 1293 amino acid polypeptide. The full-length 4688 bp PcToll6 encodes a putative protein of 1195 amino acids. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that PcToll5 and PcToll6 were constitutively expressed in all tissues studied. The highest expression levels of PcToll5 and PcToll6 were found in the intestine and gills, respectively, and were significantly upregulated from 24 to 48 h during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthew Page, Sowsan F Atabani, Martyn Wood, Erasmus Smit, Steven Wilson, Carol Atherton, Clare F Davenport, Daniel Hartland, Mark Simpson, Stephen Taylor
OBJECTIVES: This is a comparative review between using dried blood spot (DBS) and mini-tube (MT) HIV sampling kits as part of an online sexually transmitted infection (STI) postal testing service. England has recently seen increases in internet-based and postal (eHealth) STI services. Expanding accessibility and testing for patients, cost implications and narrowing the HIV undiagnosed margin are drivers for this. METHODS: In 2017, data were reviewed from an online postal STI kit requesting service at a time of transitioning from MT to DBS...
August 2, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Yuning Hu, Hongtuo Fu, Hui Qiao, Shengming Sun, Wenyi Zhang, Shubo Jin, Sufei Jiang, Yongsheng Gong, Yiwei Xiong, Yan Wu
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is widely used in molecular biology, although the accuracy of the quantitative results is determined by the stability of the reference genes used. Recent studies have investigated suitable reference genes for some crustaceans under various conditions, but studies in Macrobrachium nipponense are currently lacking. In this study, we selected the following seven genes from among 35 commonly used housekeeping genes as candidate qPCR reference genes for temporal and spatial expression: EIF ( eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A ), 18S ( 18S ribosomal RNA ), EF-1α ( elongation factor-1α ), GAPDH ( glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ), TUB ( α-tubulin ), β-act ( β-actin ), and RPL18 ( Ribosomal protein L18 )...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
C Vodopivez, A Curtosi, E Pelletier, L U Spairani, E A Hernández, W P Mac Cormack
Western Antarctica (WA) constitutes the area with the highest human presence in the white continent and also the region where the effects of global warming are more evident worldwide. Such human presence represents a potential risk of pollution with both, organic and inorganic contaminants. Global warming also could modify dynamics and transport of the pollutants, increasing summer water runoff, ice melting and iceberg scouring. Under this fast-changing scenario, knowledge about the concentration of contaminants is essential to evaluate the environmental status of this ecologically relevant area...
July 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hongliang Zuo, Linwei Yang, Jiefu Zheng, Ziqi Su, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
The Zinc finger domains (ZnFs), which contain finger-like protrusions stabilized by zinc ions and function to bind DNA, RNA, protein and lipid substrates, are ubiquitously present in a large number of proteins. In this study, a novel protein containing a single C4 type Znf domain (SZnf) was identified from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and its role in immunity was further investigated. The ZnF domain of SZnF but not other regions shared high homology with those of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (FTZ-F1) proteins...
July 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rajendra Bhimma, Elaene Naicker, Verena Gounden, Louansha Nandlal, Cathy Connolly, Sudesh Hariparshad
Hypertension in childhood leads to hypertension in adult life, the strongest risk factor being obesity. This study determined the prevalence of primary hypertension and its risk factors in Grade XII learners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from March 2016 to June 2017. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), random finger prick cholesterol and glucose, and spot urine for an albumin : creatinine ratio were measured. An average of three separate blood pressure readings taken was at least 5 minutes apart. Five hundred and sixty-four learners had weight, height, and BMI; 536 had random blood glucose; and 545 had cholesterol and random spot urine albumin : creatinine ratios measured...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
Azhani Ismail, Ishak A Razak, Norintan Ab-Murat
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of anticipatory guidance on the caries incidence of 2-3-year-old preschool children and their 4-6-year-old siblings, as well as on their mothers' oral health literacy, as compared to the conventional Ministry of Health (MOH) programme. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at two government dental clinics in Batu Pahat District, Malaysia. The samples comprised of 478 mother-child-sibling trios (233 families in the intervention group, and 245 families in the control group)...
July 27, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Jiang Chen, Chaoyou Chiang, Yuqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Natural teeth in the anterior maxilla are critical in determination the esthetic outcome of single implant prosthesis. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore aesthetics of natural teeth in the anterior maxilla using the Pink Esthetic Score/White Esthetic Score (PES/WES) index. Additionally, inherent weak spots of natural teeth and high-risk parameters of prostheses were also considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed by photographic analysis...
July 26, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Tomohito Sato, Masaru Takeuchi
RATIONALE: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Hypertensive choroidopathy is a preliminary sign of vasogenic edema in the choroid, and is associated with PIH. Here, we report a post-natal case of PIH-related chorioretinitis with bilateral severe serous retinal detachment (SRD) resembling uveal effusion syndrome. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 35-year-old woman was diagnosed with severe PIH at 37 weeks of pregnancy. She underwent an emergency cesarean delivery...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Margaret Wang, Ama Sadaka, Thomas Prager, Andrew G Lee, Francesco Pellegrini, Daniele Cirone, Luca De Simone, Luca Cimino
Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement (AIBSE) is often caused by Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR), an outer retinal disease. We report two illustrative cases of AZOOR. The first one was a 21-year-old white female who presented with a scotoma and "shimmering lights" in her left eye. In the second case, a 73-year-old white female was referred for evaluation of a "bitemporal hemianopsia" that started years prior, with no clinical significant photopsias. To our knowledge, case two is the longest documented duration of bilateral, progressive, and chronic, idiopathic, enlargement of the blind spot (CIBSE) documented in the English language ophthalmic literature...
August 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Melissa M Miranda-Cruz, Jennifer J Poom-Llamas, José A Godoy-Lugo, Rudy M Ortiz, Silvia Gómez-Jiménez, Jesús A Rosas-Rodríguez, Edgar F Morán-Palacio, José G Soñanez-Organis
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor that induces genes involved in glucose metabolism. HIF-1 is formed by a regulatory α-subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutive β-subunit (HIF-1β). The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induces a shift in glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. HIF-1α is associated with the induction of metabolic changes in tissues of WSSV-infected shrimp. However, the contributions of HIF-1 to viral load and antioxidant responses in WSSV-infected shrimp have been not examined...
July 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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