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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323785/prevention-of-brain-metastases
#1
REVIEW
Joseph A Bovi
The incidence of brain metastases is projected to rise because survival rates of lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma continue to improve (1). The brain is being identified as a sanctuary site for harboring metastases despite excellent control of extracranial disease. This is thought to occur because the drug therapies that control extracranial disease have limited central nervous system (CNS) penetration. The development of brain metastases is a devastating diagnosis affecting both quality of life (QOL) and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320718/septic-cavernous-sinus-thrombosis-associated-with-orbital-cellulitis-a-report-of-6-cases-and-review-of-literature
#2
Sara V Branson, Elysa McClintic, R Patrick Yeatts
PURPOSE: To describe risk factors, clinical parameters, treatment, and prognosis for patients with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis presenting with orbital cellulitis. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 6 patients identified with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis and orbital cellulitis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging at a tertiary care center from January 1980 to December 2016. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, risk factors, symptoms, etiology, radiographic diagnosis, complications, treatments, and outcomes...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315974/bilateral-vertebral-artery-dissection-and-unilateral-carotid-artery-dissection-in-a-case-of-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-type-iv
#3
Tomotaka Ohshima, Shigeru Miyachi, Taiki Isaji, Naoki Matsuo, Reo Kawaguchi, Masakazu Takayasu
BACKGROUND: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare genetic connective tissue disorders, but the vascular type (Type IV) typically poses the greatest risk to patients. We report a case of multiple cranial artery dissection, which was successfully treated with carotid artery stenting. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 50-year-old woman presented with recurrent severe headaches caused by bilateral vertebral artery dissections that were treated conservatively at our hospital. However, she developed right cervical pain and dizziness at 3 days after admission, and a magnetic resonance angiogram revealed dissection of the right internal carotid artery...
October 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306798/giant-frontal-sinus-osteomas-demographic-clinical-presentation-and-management-of-10-cases
#4
Sally Nguyen, Sylvie Nadeau
Background Osteomas are rare benign and slow-growing osteogenic tumors mainly involving frontal and ethmoid sinuses. Objectives The primary objective of our study is to present the management of cases of giant frontal sinus osteomas. Secondarily, we describe our modified unilateral osteoplastic flap approach without obliteration to remove these osteomas. Methods Retrospective chart review at a tertiary academic center ("Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus") from July 2006 to October 2016. Demographics characteristics, tumor characteristics, presenting symptoms, frontal sinus surgery technique (osteoplastic flap, endoscopic surgery, or a combination of both), and outcomes of giant frontal sinus osteomas (≥30 mm) were recorded...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306398/systematic-literature-review-on-the-delays-in-the-diagnosis-and-misdiagnosis-of-cluster-headache
#5
Alina Buture, Fayyaz Ahmed, Lisa Dikomitis, Jason W Boland
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cluster headache (CH), the most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, often face delayed diagnosis, misdiagnosis and mismanagement. OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and synthesise clinical studies on the delays in diagnosis and misdiagnosis of CH in order to determine its causes and help the management of this condition. METHODS: The systematic review was prepared, conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis...
October 10, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304907/clinical-manifestations-of-headache-in-children-younger-than-7-years
#6
Bu Seon Kang, Jinsun Lee, Jin Hyuk Choi, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Joon Won Kang
Purpose: Headache is a common symptom during childhood. It is usually persistent and requires special care. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of headache in children <7 years of age. Methods: We reviewed 3 years of clinical files on children <7 years of age with a chief complaint of headache. Results: This study included 146 children (66 males, 80 females; mean age, 5.5 ± 1.0 years). Mean symptom duration was 5.8 ± 7...
September 16, 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285053/fibromuscular-dysplasia-and-its-neurologic-manifestations-a-systematic-review
#7
Emmanuel Touzé, Andrew M Southerland, Marion Boulanger, Paul-Emile Labeyrie, Michel Azizi, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Stéphanie Debette, Heather L Gornik, Shazam M Hussain, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Julien Joux, Adam Kirton, Claire Le Hello, Jennifer J Majersik, J Mocco, Alexandre Persu, Aditya Sharma, Bradford B Worrall, Jeffrey W Olin, Pierre-François Plouin
Importance: Data on neurologic manifestations of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) are rare, and current knowledge remains limited. Objectives: To present a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic characteristics, management, and prognosis of the neurologic manifestations associated with cerebrovascular FMD (ie, involving cervical or intracranial arteries) and to guide future research priorities. Evidence Review: References were identified through searches of PubMed from inception to December 2017 using both the medical subject headings and text words...
October 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283564/-the-subdural-collection-a-great-simulator-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Abid Houssem, Cebula Helene, Proust Francois, Chibbaro Salvatore
Prostate carcinoma rarely develops intracranial metastasis. In case it does, the dura is the most affacted area. In general, brain computed tomography (CT) findings mimic subdural hematoma making surgery challenge. We report the case of a 52-year-old male, presented as an emergency with a month history of headache, progressive temporospatial disorientation, mental confusion, and abrupt consciousness deterioration up to coma occurring few hours prior admission. An urgent brain CT scan showed a subdural collection in favor of a chronic subdural hematoma...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283526/pediatric-extradural-hematoma-clinical-assessment-using-king-s-outcome-scale-for-childhood-head-injury
#9
Muhammad Sohail Umerani, Asad Abbas, Fatima Aziz, Rafiya Shahid, Faiza Ali, Raza Khairat Rizvi
Introduction: Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a traumatic accumulation of blood between the inner table of the skull and the stripped off dural membrane and predominantly consists of venous blood in infants. The study aims to assess the outcome of pediatric EDH using King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 patients' files were reviewed retrospectively with a diagnosis of EDH from January 2012 to December 2014. Predesigned proforma was filled using data from patient records...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271875/primary-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumors-a-review-and-update
#10
Kaleigh Fetcko, Mahua Dey
Importance: Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that are still poorly understood. In North America, GCTs comprise approximately 1% of primary brain tumors in pediatric and young adult patients. GCTs can occur as pure or mixed subtypes; they are divided into germinomas, which are the most common subtype, and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), which consist of approximately one-third of GCTs and include teratomas, embryonal carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and yolk sac tumors...
March 2018: Medical Research Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271050/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-viral-encephalitis-a-pictorial-essay
#11
REVIEW
Kalaivani Jayaraman, Rajeswaran Rangasami, Anupama Chandrasekharan
Viral encephalitis by definition is the result of human virus affecting the brain and sparing the meninges. The other nervous system manifestations are meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis, and encephalomyeloradiculitis. Encephalitis can involve any age group from children to old people. The severity of the disease depends on the viral agent and the host immune system. The patient can present with fever, headache, seizure, neurological deficit, or altered sensorium. Laboratory investigations, imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are crucial in the diagnosis of encephalitis...
October 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270423/psychological-therapies-for-the-management-of-chronic-and-recurrent-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
REVIEW
Emma Fisher, Emily Law, Joanne Dudeney, Tonya M Palermo, Gavin Stewart, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review first published in Issue 1, 2003, and previously updated in 2009, 2012 and 2014. Chronic pain, defined as pain that recurs or persists for more than three months, is common in childhood. Chronic pain can affect nearly every aspect of daily life and is associated with disability, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to update the published evidence on the efficacy of psychological treatments for chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents...
September 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254814/zika-virus-a-review-of-literature
#13
REVIEW
Vivian C Agumadu, Kamleshun Ramphul
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that was first isolated in 1947. Since then, multiple outbreaks of ZIKV have been reported in different countries. It is transmitted mostly by Aedes mosquitoes, and the symptoms of fever, joint pain, red eyes, headache, and maculopapular rash closely resemble chikungunya and dengue. The most severe complications of ZIKV infection include the risk of microcephaly and other congenital brain anomalies in infected pregnant women. It is a condition that can be easily prevented with proper education...
July 22, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253793/tectal-glioma-as-a-distinct-diagnostic-entity-a-comprehensive-clinical-imaging-histologic-and-molecular-analysis
#14
Anthony P Y Liu, Julie H Harreld, Lisa M Jacola, Madelyn Gero, Sahaja Acharya, Yahya Ghazwani, Shengjie Wu, Xiaoyu Li, Paul Klimo, Amar Gajjar, Jason Chiang, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
Tectal glioma (TG) is a rare low-grade tumor occurring predominantly in the pediatric population. There has been no detailed analysis of molecular alterations in TG. Risk factors associated with inferior outcome and long-term sequelae of TG have not been well-documented. We retrospectively studied TGs treated or referred for review at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) between 1986 and 2013. Longitudinal clinical data were summarized, imaging and pathology specimen centrally reviewed, and tumor material analyzed with targeted molecular testing and genome-wide DNA methylation profiling...
September 25, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251385/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-primary-headache-disorders-in-older-adults
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Berk, Sait Ashina, Vincent Martin, Lawrence Newman, Brinder Vij
OBJECTIVES: To provide a unique perspective on geriatric headache and a number of novel treatment options that are not well known outside of the headache literature. DESIGN: Review of the most current and relevant headache literature for practitioners specializing in geriatric care. RESULTS: Evaluation and management of headache disorders in older adults requires an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and how it relates to age-related physiological changes...
September 25, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245771/clinical-problem-solving-fever-and-rapidly-progressive-weakness-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#16
Asher J Albertson, Alexander R Dietz, John R Younce, Arun S Varadhachary
Here we report the challenging case of a 41-year-old man with HIV complicated by AIDS and a history of prior neurologic injury from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy who presented with headache, fevers, lower extremity weakness, hyperreflexic upper extremities, and diminished lower extremity reflexes. We review the clinical decision-making and differential diagnosis for this presentation as the physical examination evolved and diagnostic testing changed over time.
October 2018: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242732/probable-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-untreated-arteriovenous-malformation-with-cyst-formation-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Yu-Tse Liu, Tao-Chieh Yang, Shih-Ming Jung, Cheng-Chi Lee
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) usually manifest as headaches, seizures, focal neurological signs, and spontaneous intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. An untreated AVM with associated cyst formation is extremely rare, and the probable pathogenesis is unclear. We propose and discuss the possible pathogenesis of this condition and its diagnosis and management. A 26-year-old male presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Computed tomography showed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a complex composition within the lesion, without a flow-voiding signal...
September 21, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240867/intracranial-meningeal-rosai-dorfman-disease-mimicking-multiple-meningiomas-three-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#18
Yong Jiang, Shu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a benign, self-limiting and non-neoplastic histiocytic proliferative disorder with a poorly defined pathogenesis. Central nervous system involvement is extremely rare, particularly in cases with multiple intracranial masses. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment and management of RDD. CASE DESCRIPTION: The first case was of a 39-year-old man who presented with headaches and paroxysmal convulsions of the limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple solid masses located at the right frontoparietal and left frontal meningeal regions...
September 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237939/malignant-hypertension-in-association-with-low-estrogen-dose-oral-contraceptives-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Danial Mir, Arash Ardabilygazir, Sonia Afshariyamchlou, Issac Sachmechi
Malignant hypertension (MH) has been described in association with high-dose (50 - 100 mcg) estrogen oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Although the rise in blood pressure (BP) is usually mild, some women will have a more significant increase in BP, and hypertensive emergencies may very rarely occur. We present a 21-year-old Caucasian female with a past medical history of fibromyalgia and family history of hypertension (both grandparents) who was admitted with a three-day history of headache and blurring of vision in her left eye with a BP of 210/150...
July 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232919/occipital-lobe-epilepsy-was-presented-in-a-patient-with-intracerebral-schwannoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Hirotomo Ten, Koji Adachi, Fumio Yamaguchi, Akira Matsuno, Akira Teramoto, Akio Morita
Schwannoma arising within brain parenchyma is a rare scenario. So far, only 70 cases were reported. We reported a case of intracerebral schwannoma presented with occipital lobe epilepsy, which has never been reported before. A 19-year-old man suffered from intermittent blurred vision and headache. Neuroradiological findings showed a left occipital lesion with cystic and solid components. Histological and electron micrograph features confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma after the tumor was totally removed. The theories and literature related to this case were reviewed and the possible developmental origin was discussed...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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