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headache diagnosis review

H O Akhiwu, E S Yiltok, A O Ebonyi, S Gomerep, N Y Shehu, E P Amaechi, A E Onukak, P Iduh, A A Oyagbemi, G Omame, P M Ashir, D Z Egah, S Oguche
Background: Lassa fever (LF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa. The clinical presentation and course is variable, making diagnosis difficult. Aim: To report the outbreak and identify the common clinical presentations of LF in paediatric patients in Jos, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients managed for LF during the June-August 2017 outbreak. LF was suspected in cases with: fever of less than 3 weeks' duration that had not responded to antimalarials or antibiotics, myalgia, abdominal pain, prostration and history of contact with any person diagnosed with LF...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Jessica Levi, Krystyne Basa, Kevin Wong, Thierry Morlet, Robert O'Reilly
Retrospective chart review of 248 children (1-19 years old) with tinnitus who presented to a tertiary pediatric hospital between 2006 and 2011, looking at which cofactors are predictors of pediatric tinnitus. In our review, we extracted demographics, symptoms, historical data, imaging, and laboratory results; we compared with the general population. Eighty-seven percent had normal hearing. Age distribution, noise exposure, and frequency of psychiatric diagnoses in our cohort were consistent with previous reports...
December 3, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Ashhar Ali, Jennifer Kriegler, Stewart Tepper, Brinder Vij
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether onabotulinumtoxinA therapy is effective in the treatment of new daily persistent headache (NDPH). BACKGROUND: New daily persistent headache is a difficult to treat headache syndrome resistant to both conventional and unconventional headache therapies. New daily persistent headache was excluded in the registration trials for onabotunlinumtoxinA (onabot) in chronic migraine. Apart from case reports supporting its benefit, little is known about its therapeutic value in NDPH...
November 28, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThe authors report the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of 6 cases of spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) in an effort to guide clinical diagnosis and management of these uncommon lesions.METHODSThis study is a retrospective review of cases involving adult patients who underwent resection of pituitary lesions at the authors' institutions between January 2000 and October 2017. The authors identified patients with histopathological confirmation of SCO and collected clinical data, including preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management, complications, and outcomes...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Kerry L Reynolds, Amanda C Guidon
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) initiate antitumor immunity by blocking the action of immune inhibitor-signaled cytotoxic proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed cell death ligand 1. However, in rare cases (∼1%-12% of patients), ICI treatment causes neurologic immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These include, but are not limited to, headache, encephalitis, neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, and myositis. The symptoms associated with irAEs can range from mild (grade 1-2) to severe (grade 3-4); however, they are often challenging to diagnose because they may present as generalized symptoms, such as fatigue and weakness, that can also be caused by the cancer itself...
November 27, 2018: Oncologist
Kuan Fan, Haixia Zhu, Hongbo Xu, Ping Mao, Lamei Yuan, Hao Deng
Familial amyloid polyneuropathies (FAPs) are life-threatening, autosomal dominant diseases resulting, in most instances, from transthyretin gene (TTR) variants. A small number of TTR variants lead to leptomeningeal amyloidosis (LA), which is a rare FAP subtype with late-onset central nervous system (CNS) impairment symptoms. Previous studies suggest that LA's CNS selectivity was due to complete endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of highly destabilized mutants in peripheral tissues. LA's later age at onset (AAO) was due to lower choroid plexus secretory efficacy...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Zhiwei Shen, Chengxian Yang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
RATIONALE: Sellar metastasis is a rare and complex disease whose clinical features are strongly associated with the primary malignancy. Here, we present a rare case of giant sellar metastasis spread from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to our Hospital, reporting headache, nasal congestion, nausea, vomiting, and a sharp decline in her right eye vision. DIAGNOSES: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an invasive sellar mass with cavernous sinus and nasal cavity extension...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ruiqi Chen, Chuanyuan Tao, Chao You, Yan Ju
BACKGROUND: Intracranial germinomas are uncommon and constitute less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. They usually arise in the midline of the brain, most commonly in the pineal region. Pineal germinomas tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, pineal germinomas with fast-developing diffuse subarachnoid/leptomeningeal dissemination are extremely rare, especially in young children. METHODS: The case of a 4-year-old boy with a pineal germinoma who died of diffuse subarachnoid/leptomeningeal dissemination 1 month after radiotherapy is reported...
November 19, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Ishu Bishnoi, Sheikhoo Bishnoi, Nisha Gahlawat, Lalit Bhardwaj, Geetika Duggal, Gopal Singal, Pardaman Singh
INTRODUCTION: Intraventricular dermoid cyst are very rare benign tumour. Due to benign nature, it may go un-noticed for years and might present with sudden rupture. Ruptured cyst can cause chemical meningitis, hydrocephalus, seizures etc. Due to lack of data, there are no defined guidelines about its management. We are reporting an interesting case of ruptured intraventricular dermoid cyst and chemical meningitis, who was managed successfully and will review the literature. CASE REPORT: A 48 years male patient was brought with complaint of sudden mental deterioration, irritability, headache, vomiting for 3 days...
November 19, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Gorka Zabalo San Juan, Alfonso Vázquez Míguez, Idoya Zazpe Cenoz, Ainhoa Casajús Ortega, Mariate García Campos, Daniel de Frutos Marcos, Juan Carlos García Romero
Depressed fractures that occur on the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) cause stenosis or thrombosis of the sinus in 11.5% of cases. Despite this, the appearance of signs and symptoms derived from high intracranial pressure is an infrequent event. So far, only 17 cases of venous sinus injury causing intracranial hypertension have been documented. It is necessary to establish treatment immediately before clinical suspicion. Surgical treatment by craniectomy is a fast, effective and safe alternative according to the series...
November 15, 2018: Neurocirugía
Xia Zhang, Bing Xing, Hui You, Huanwen Wu, Yong Zhong, Jin Ma
BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a necrotizing granulomatous disease, very rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the pituitary. Delayed treatment may cause permanent bilateral blindness. We report an isolated case of pituitary GPA that manifested as a progressive bilateral temporal visual field (VF) defect and was diagnosed via pituitary biopsy. Additionally, we review ocular, chiasmal and cranial nerve involvement in pituitary GPA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old Chinese man was referred for repeated fever, sudden headache, diplopia with a bilateral best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 10/20, ptosis in both eyes and restricted abduction on the right side...
November 16, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Christine Siegel, Terri S Armstrong
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the symptoms commonly experienced by patients with malignant glioma, and discuss the pathophysiology and interventions associated with those. DATA SOURCES: A review of published scientific literature and clinical literature, and online information from National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Oncology Nursing Society, Epilepsy Foundation of America, and the American Brain Tumor Association. CONCLUSION: The unique symptom burden associated with a malignant glioma diagnosis often disrupts the lives of patients and their caregivers...
November 10, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Simin Zhang, Weina Wang, Xiaorui Su, Qiaoyue Tan, Huaiqiang Sun, Zefan Liu, Ni Chen, Qiyong Gong, Qiang Yue
BACKGROUND: Meningeal melanoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system, whose amelanotic variant is the so-called 'amelanotic meningeal melanoma (AMM)'. AMM does not produce melanin and therefore does not exhibit typical short-T1 and short-T2 signal on MRI, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed and be inappropriately managed. To date, only four AMM cases were reported in English literature, here we reported the fifth case. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old female presented with a 4-month history of progressive headache and nausea, the conventional MRI demonstrated a posterior fossa mass accompanied by diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination...
November 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Erdal Eren, Ayça Törel Ergür, Şükriye Pınar İşgüven, Eda Çelebi Bitkin, Merih Berberoğlu, Zeynep Şıklar, Firdevs Baş, Servet Yel, Serpil Baş, Elif Söbü, Abdullah Bereket, Serap Turan, Halil Sağlam, Zeynep Atay, Oya Ercan, Tülay Güran, Mehmet Emre Atabek, Hüseyin Anıl Korkmaz, Aylin Kılınç Uğurlu, Ayşehan Akıncı, Esra Döğer, Enver Şimşek, Emine Demet Akbaş, Ayhan Abacı, Ülkü Gül, Sezer Acar, Eda Mengen Uçaktürk, Melek Yıldız, Edip Ünal, Ömer Tarım
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the characteristics on admission, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of hyperprolactinemic cases in a large multicenter study. METHODS: We reviewed 233 hyperprolactinemic patients under 18 years of age who were followed by different centers. The patients were divided as having microadenomas, macroadenomas, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Complaints of the patients and their treatment (medication and/or surgery) responses were evaluated in detail...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Eduardo Martínez-Morillo, Nuria Valdés Gallego, Edwin Eguia Ángeles, Juan Carlos Fernández Fernández, Belén Prieto García, Francisco V Álvarez Menéndez
INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are uncommon tumors whose best known symptoms include high blood pressure, palpitations, headache, and sweating. Clinical identification is not easy, however, and requires biochemical tests that allow for early diagnosis, including measurement of metanephrines levels. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of plasma free metanephrines (PMETs) and to verify the transferability of the reference values used. METHODS: PMETs levels were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
October 31, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Liyang Li, Liang Zhuang, Jian Zhou, Changzhou Shao
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is a common fungal infection frequently seen in immunocompromised patients. Owing to its nonspecific clinical and radiographic features, the differential diagnosis with secondary tuberculosis, malignant tumor, and bacterial pneumonia is sometimes difficult. Many case reports have focused on misdiagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis as a malignant tumor. But to the best of our knowledge, the coexistence of pulmonary cryptococcosis and malignant tumor is rarely presented...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
C L Fonseka, T E Kanakkahewa, S D A L Singhapura, J S Hewavithana, L P Kolambage, H M M Herath, K D Pathirana, Thilak Priyantha Weeraratna
Background: Tuberculous pachymeningitis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis usually suspected from the detection of thickening of the dura in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Progressive nature of the disease can lead to chronic headache with focal neurological signs due to compression from the thickened dura. Case Report: We report a 40-year-old female who presented with chronic headache over a decade associated with recurrent neurological abnormalities including optic neuritis, hemisensory loss, migraine, facial nerve palsy, and recurrent vertigo...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Sandra Pekic, Vladimir Jovanovic, Goran Tasic, Ivan Paunovic, Svetislav Tatic, Dusko Dundjerovic, Mirjana Doknic, Dragana Miljic, Marko Stojanovic, Marina Nikolic Djurovic, Milan Petakov, Vera Popovic
Pheochromocytomas and sympathetic paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors and represent very rare causes of intracerebral hemorrhage in young, with only few cases reported. A 32-year-old man presented to our emergency department because of sudden onset of severe headache. He had a six months history of paroxysmal headache, palpitations and sweating. During examination he became somnolent and developed left-sided hemiplegia. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain showed a right temporoparietal hematoma...
October 23, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Han Zhang, Xiaotian Zhang, Dongming Zheng
In addition to an orthostatic headache, spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome can lead to subdural hematoma and diffusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain sag. However, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is rarely reported in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. We present the case of a 35-year-old male who developed an orthostatic headache, nausea, vomiting, and photophobia for 5 days. An enhanced brain magnetic resonance image showed extensive linear pachymeningeal enhancement in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Robert Stuver, Alec Petersen, Thomas A Guerrero-Garcia, Ursula Matulonis, Paul Richardson, Prabhsimranjot Singh
Multiple myeloma is the most common plasma cell dyscrasia and causes 2% of all cancer deaths in Western countries. Ovarian carcinosarcomas are very rare gynecological malignancies and account for only 1-2% of all ovarian tumors. In this case, we report a 67-year-old woman with known relapsed ovarian carcinosarcoma who presented with headache and neck pain. She was found to have new lytic lesions in the cranial and thoracic regions. While these lesions were assumed to be metastases, a diligent approach detected an M-spike on serum protein electrophoresis and a monoclonal gammopathy with immunoglobulin G lambda monoclonal immunoglobulin on immunofixation...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
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