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Minh Tu Van Hoang, To Anh Nguyen, Tan Thanh Tran, Thi Ty Hang Vu, Nguyen Truc Nhu Le, Thi Han Ny Nguyen, Thanh Hoang Nhat Le, Thi Thu Hong Nguyen, Thanh Hung Nguyen, Nguyen Thanh Nhan Le, Huu Khanh Truong, Tuan Quy Du, Manh Tuan Ha, Lu Viet Ho, Chau Viet Do, Tran Nam Nguyen, Thi My Thanh Nguyen, Saraswathy Sabanathan, Tu Qui Phan, Vinh Chau Nguyen Van, Guy E Thwaites, Bridget Wills, C Louise Thwaites, Van Tan Le, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been associated with large outbreaks among young children, including severe illness and fatality, in the Asia-Pacific Region since 1997. Severe illness is often associated with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). Vietnam experienced a large sustained outbreak of 200.000 hospitalised cases and over 200 deaths in 2011-12, the large majority occurring in southern Vietnam. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in outpatient clinics, infectious diseases wards and paediatric intensive care units in the three main referral centres for treatment of HFMD in southern Vietnam...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Theeraphol Jatuponwiphat, Pramote Chumnanpuen, Sarah Othman, Teerasak E-Kobon, Wanwipa Vongsangnak
Pasteurella multocida causes respiratory infectious diseases in a multitude of birds and mammals. A number of virulence-associated genes were reported across different strains of P. multocida, including those involved in the iron transport and metabolism. Comparative iron-associated genes of P. multocida among different animal hosts towards their interaction networks have not been fully revealed. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the iron-associated genes from core- and pan-genomes of fourteen P. multocida strains and to construct iron-associated protein interaction networks using genome-scale network analysis which might be associated with the virulence...
December 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Defeng Zhang, Xiaoli Ke, Zhigang Liu, Jianmeng Cao, Youlu Su, Maixin Lu, Fengying Gao, Miao Wang, Mengmeng Yi, Fengling Qin
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is associated with diverse diseases in aquatic animals. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) encoded by the cps gene cluster is the major virulence factor of S. agalactiae; however, limited information is available regarding the pathogenic role of the CPS of serotype Ia piscine GBS strains in fish. Here, a non-encapsulated mutant (Δcps) was constructed by insertional mutagenesis of the cps gene cluster. Mutant pathogenicity was evaluated in vitro based on the killing of whole blood from tilapia, in vivo infections, measuring mutant survival in tilapia spleen tissues and pathological analysis...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Pablo I Plaza, Guillermo Blanco, Julia Madariaga, Eduardo Boeri, María Luisa Teijeiro, Griselda Bianco, Sergio Lambertucci
Different bacteria are present in rubbish dumps used as food resources by various bird species. Birds may be good indicators of the presence of zoonotic diseases in these sites since they can be infected with zoonotic pathogens by foraging on organic waste, and can also act as carriers. We studied if foraging in rubbish dumps increases the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Chlamydia psittaci in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) from northwest Patagonia. We compared these pathogens isolated from or detected in cloacae and oropharynx swabs in two different groups of black vultures: individuals trapped in (1) the Patagonian wild steppe, and (2) in a rubbish dump...
December 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Limin Li, Jianchang Wang, Ping Chen, Shan Zhang, Jiguo Sun, Wanzhe Yuan
BACKGROUND: Since July in 2015, an emerging infectious disease, Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) species C infection with Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome was prevalent in chicken flocks in China. In our study, one FAdV strain was isolated from commercial broiler chickens and was designated as SDSX1.The phylogenetic information, genetic mutations and pathogenicity of SDSX1 were evaluated. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis indicated that SDSX1 is a strain of serotype 4, FAdV-C...
December 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Jenny A Greig, Roberto Calcedo, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Jayme M L Nordin, Jessica Albrecht, Erin Bote, Tamara Goode, Edward A Chroscinski, Peter Bell, Laura K Richman, Michael R Betts, James M Wilson
Systemic delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been evaluated for the treatment of several liver diseases, including homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and hemophilia. Here, we evaluated this approach for the treatment of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. We administered wild-type rhesus macaques with 1.0 × 1013 or 2.5 × 1013 genome copies/kg of an AAV serotype 8 vector expressing a codon-optimized version of human uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) from a liver-specific promoter...
December 14, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Xuelian Wang, Xiumin Huang, Youzhong Zhang
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the first viruses to have been acknowledged to prompt carcinogenesis, and they are linked with cancers of the uterine cervix, anogenital tumors, and head and neck malignancies. This paper examines the structure and primary genomic attributes of HPV and highlights the clinical participation of the primary HPV serotypes, focusing on the roles that HPV-16 and 18 play in carcinogenesis. The mechanisms that take place in the progression of cervical neoplasia are described. The oncogenic proteins E6 and E7 disrupt control of the cell cycle by their communication with p53 and retinoblastoma protein...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jihei Cha, Han Wool Kim, Ji Hyen Lee, Soyoung Lee, Kyung-Hyo Kim
Background: Various pneumococcal vaccines have been evaluated for immunogenicity by opsonophagocytic assay (OPA). A multiplexed OPA (MOPA) for 13 pneumococcal serotypes was developed by Nahm and Burton, and expanded to 26 serotypes in 2012. The development of new conjugate vaccines with increased valence has necessitated expanded MOPAs to include these additional serotypes. In this study, we validated this expanded MOPA platform and applied to measure antibodies against 11 additional serotypes (2, 8, 9N, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 17F, 20B, 22F, and 33F) in human sera...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Paula Rozo-Lopez, Barbara S Drolet, Berlin Londoño-Renteria
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease of veterinary importance, enzootic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the U.S., VS produces devastating economic losses, particularly in the southwestern states where the outbreaks display an occurrence pattern of 10-year intervals. To date, the mechanisms of the geographic spread and maintenance cycles during epizootics remain unclear. This is due, in part, to the fact that VS epidemiology has a complex of variables to consider, including a broad range of vertebrate hosts, multiple routes of transmission, and an extensive diversity of suspected vector species acting as both mechanical and biological vectors...
December 11, 2018: Insects
Els van Westen, Mirjam J Knol, Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Irina Tcherniaeva, Leo M Schouls, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Cecile A C M van Els, Guy A M Berbers, Nynke Y Rots
The two currently available ten- and thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) both induce serotype-specific IgG anti-polysaccharide antibodies and are effective in preventing vaccine serotype induced invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) as well as in reducing overall vaccine-serotype carriage and transmission and thereby inducing herd protection in the whole population. IgG levels decline after vaccination and could become too low to prevent carriage acquisition and/or pneumococcal disease...
December 11, 2018: Vaccines
Shuanbao Yu, Qiaohong Liao, Yonghong Zhou, Shixiong Hu, Qi Chen, Kaiwei Luo, Zhenhua Chen, Li Luo, Wei Huang, Bingbing Dai, Min He, Fengfeng Liu, Qi Qiu, Lingshuang Ren, H Rogier van Doorn, Hongjie Yu
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is spread widely across Asia, and the hospitalization burden is currently not well understood. Here, we estimated serotype-specific and age-specific hospitalization rates of HFMD in Southern China. METHODS: We enrolled pediatric HFMD patients admitted to 3/3 county-level hospitals, and 3/23 township-level hospitals in Anhua county, Hunan (CN). Samples were collected to identify enterovirus serotypes by RT-PCRs between October 2013 and September 2016...
2018: PloS One
Chandana Kolluru, Yasmine Gomaa, Mark R Prausnitz
The aim of this study was to develop a dissolving microneedle (MN) patch for administration of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) with improved thermal stability when compared with conventional liquid IPV. Excipient screening showed that a combination of maltodextrin and D-sorbitol in histidine buffer best preserved IPV activity during MN patch fabrication and storage. As determined by D-antigen ELISA, all three IPV serotypes maintained > 70% activity after 2 months and > 50% activity after 1-year storage at 5 °C or 25 °C with desiccant...
December 12, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Qing Zhang, Yiyuan Xia, Hongbin Luo, Sheng Huang, Yongjun Wang, Yangping Shentu, Yacoubou Abdoul Razak Mahaman, Fang Huang, Dan Ke, Qun Wang, Rong Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Bin Zhang, Xiaochuan Wang
Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CPPs), a natural products with potentially lower toxicity and better bioavailability has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 1000s of years and a neuroprotective polysaccharide mitigates tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. However, whether CPPs can relieve AD pathology and cognitive defects remains poorly understood. Here we reported that CPPs remarkably increased the cell viability and PP2A activity, decreased tau phosphorylation in HEK 293/tau cells...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
David-Alexandre Gross, Alexandre Ghenassia, Laurent Bartolo, Dominique Urbain, Sofia Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Stéphanie Lorain, Jean Davoust, Pascal Chappert
A key aspect to consider for vaccinal protection is the induction of a local line of defense consisting of non-recirculating tissue-resident memory T cell (TRM ), in parallel to the generation of systemic memory CD8+ T cell responses. The potential to induce TRM has now been demonstrated for a number of pathogens and viral vectors. This potential, however, has never been tested for recombinant adeno-associated (rAAV) vectors, which are weakly inflammatory and poor transducer of dendritic cells. Using a model rAAV2/1-based vaccine, we report herein that a single intradermal immunization with rAAV2/1 vectors in mice induces fully functional TRM at the local site of immunization...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bashir Abba, Sule Abdullahi, Samuel Bawa, Kabir Ibrahim Getso, Imam Wada Bello, Charles Korir, Audu Musa, Fiona Braka, Adamu Ningi, Peter Nsubuga, Richard Banda, Sisay G Tegegne, Faisal Shuaib, Usman Said Adamu, Sulaiman Haladu
BACKGROUND: Kano is one of the high-risk states for polio transmission in Northern Nigeria. The state reported more cases of wild polioviruses (WPVs) than any other state in the country. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2013 indicated that OPV3 coverage in the routine immunization (RI) programmewas 57.9%. Additionally, serial polio seroprevalence studies conducted from 2011 to 2015 in the eightmetropolitan LGAs indicated low immunity levels against all three polio serotypes in children below one year...
December 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Belia Klaassen, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, John Masimba, Leticia Franco Narvaez, Aline Mamin, Blaise Genton, Laurent Kaiser, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of dengue across Africa is high, severe dengue is reported infrequently. We describe the clinical features and the outcome of dengue according to raceduring an outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania that occurred in both native and expatriate populations. METHODS: Adults with confirmed dengue (NS1 and/or IgM on rapid diagnostic test and/or PCR positive) were included between December 2013 and July 2014 in outpatient clinics. Seven-day outcome was assessed by a visit or a call...
December 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zhe Ma, Haodan Zhu, Yiqi Su, Yu Meng, Huixing Lin, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
BACKGROUND: Swine streptococcosis has caused great economic loss in the swine industry, and the major pathogen responsible for this disease is Streptococcus Suis serotype 2 (SS2). Disease resistance breeding is a fundamental way of resolving this problem. With the development of GWAS and transcriptomic microarray technology, we now have powerful research tools to identify SS2 resistance genes. RESULTS: In this research, we generated an F2 generation of SS2 resistant C57BL/6 and SS2 susceptive A/J mice...
December 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
Flávia Barrosa Soares, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Elisabete Aparecida de Almeida, Amanda Maria de Jesus Bertani, Enéas de Carvalho, Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva, Sueli Aparecida Fernandes, Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Priyanka Jain, Sudhanthiramani Sudhanthirakodi, Goutam Chowdhury, Sangeeta Joshi, Shalini Anandan, Ujjwayni Ray, Asish Mukhopadhyay, Shanta Dutta
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a common serovar associated with non-typhoidal salmonellosis globally. However, there is insufficient data on molecular characterization of S. Typhimurium isolates from India. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial resistance (AMR), plasmid, virulence profiles and molecular subtypes of S. Typhimurium Indian isolates (n = 70) of clinical and environmental origin isolated during 2010-2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by disc diffusion and E-test methods respectively...
2018: PloS One
Michele de Souza Bastos, Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins, Natália Lessa da Silva, Samya Jezine, Sérgio Pinto, Valderjane Aprigio, Rossicleia Lins Monte, Silvio Fragoso, Marzia Puccioni-Sohler
BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. METHODS CSF samples of 700 patients were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect presence of DENV specific IgM...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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