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Carmela Santangelo, Rosaria Vari, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Patrizia De Sanctis, Claudio Giovannini, Massimo D'Archivio, Roberta Masella
Altered inflammatory response characterizes chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and psoriasis. Accumulating evidence indicates that regular consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic degenerative disorders such cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. The beneficial effects on health of EVOO have been attributed, besides to the monounsaturated fats content, to the presence of phenolic compounds that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties...
November 13, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
R Domínguez-Perles, D Auñón, F Ferreres, A Gil-Izquierdo
Despite extensive characterization of hydroxytyrosol (HT), there is a gap in the knowledge about its capacity to modulate catecholamine pathways. This study deals with the evaluation of the effects of HT, hydroxytyrosol acetate (HTA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), as well as their microbial metabolites (homovanillyl alcohol and tyrosol), on the excretion of catecholamines by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS upon administration at 1 and 5 mg kg(-1) to male and female rats. The evaluation of urinary dopamine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, and 3-methoxytyramine demonstrated 12...
November 9, 2017: Food & Function
Maria Bellumori, Lorenzo Cecchi, Annalisa Romani, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti
BACKGROUND: The recovery of phenolic compounds from olive milling is recognized as strategic for producers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of retentates obtained from olive mill wastewaters treated with a membrane filtration system constituted by a micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration followed by a final reverse osmosis, over three crop seasons. Efficiency was evaluated in terms of phenolic amount in the retentates and of organic load in the final discarded waters...
November 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Asmaa Badreddine, Amira Zarrouk, El Mostafa Karym, Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Wiem Meddeb, Randa Sghaier, Maryem Bezine, Anne Vejux, Lucy Martine, Stéphane Grégoire, Lionel Bretillon, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Philippe Durand, Michel Prost, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Boubker Nasser, Gérard Lizard
Argan oil is widely used in Morocco in traditional medicine. Its ability to treat cardiovascular diseases is well-established. However, nothing is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with increased oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) resulting from cholesterol auto-oxidation. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, it is important to identify compounds able to impair its harmful effects...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrea Ragusa, Carla Centonze, Maria Elena Grasso, Maria Francesca Latronico, Pier Francesco Mastrangelo, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi, Michele Maffia
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is among the basic constituents of the Mediterranean diet. Its nutraceutical properties are due mainly, but not only, to a plethora of molecules with antioxidant activity known as biophenols. In this article, several biophenols were measured in EVOOs from South Apulia, Italy. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their conjugated structures to elenolic acid in different forms were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with lignans, luteolin and α-tocopherol...
October 18, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Nasreddine Benbettaïeb, Cadhla Tanner, Philippe Cayot, Thomas Karbowiak, Frédéric Debeaufort
This work deals with the study of the release kinetics of some natural antioxidants (ferulic acid, caffeic acid and tyrosol) from chitosan-fish gelatin edible films immersed ethanol at 96%, as well as the kinetics of their antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The aim was to determine how film functional properties influence the release kinetic and antioxidant activity. The addition of antioxidants to chitosan-fish gelatin matrix decreased the water vapour permeability by more than 30%. The tensile strength (TS) increased up to 50% after the incorporation of antioxidants...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Marco Masi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessio Cimmino, Pierluigi Reveglia, Alexander Berestetskiy, Angela Boari, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is responsible for serious allergies induced on humans. Different approaches for its control were proposed during the COST Action FA1203 "Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe" (SMARTER). Fungal secondary metabolites often show potential herbicidal activity. Three phytotoxins were purified from the fungal culture filtrates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from infected leaves of A. artemisiifolia. They were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods as colletochlorin A, orcinol and tyrosol (1, 2 and 3)...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Yeon-Yong Kim, Soyoung Lee, Min-Jong Kim, Byeong-Cheol Kang, Hima Dhakal, Young-Ae Choi, Pil-Hoon Park, Hyukjae Choi, Tae-Yong Shin, Hyun Gyu Choi, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Dongwoo Khang, Sang-Hyun Kim
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular permeability because of alveolar capillary barrier dysfunction and increased immune responses. This study determined the anti-inflammatory effect of tyrosol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and its underlying mechanisms of action. BALB/c mice were orally administered with tyrosol (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) 1 h before an intratracheal injection of LPS (25 μg/50 μL). Oral treatment with tyrosol inhibited lung vascular permeability, histopathological changes, wet/dry lung weight ratio, and pulmonary vascular cell infiltration...
September 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Priscilla Azambuja Lopes de Souza, Aline Marcadenti, Vera Lúcia Portal
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than 7 million deaths worldwide. In the early stages of the development of atherosclerotic plaques, cardiovascular risk factors stimulate vascular endothelial cells, initiating an inflammatory process, fundamental in the pathogenesis of CAD. The inclusion of potentially cardioprotective foods, such as olive oil, to the diet, may aid in the control of these risk factors, and in the reduction of cytokines and inflammatory markers. The present review aims to address the interaction between phenolic compounds present in olive oil, and inflammation, in the prevention and treatment of CAD...
September 30, 2017: Nutrients
Jin-Long Cui, Ya-Nan Wang, Jin Jiao, Yi Gong, Jun-Hong Wang, Meng-Liang Wang
Endophyte is a factor that affects the physiology and metabolism of plant. However, limited information is available on the mechanism of interaction between endophyte and plant. To investigate the effects of endophytic fungus ZPRs-R11, that is, Trimmatostroma sp., on salidroside and tyrosol accumulations in Rhodiola crenulata, signal transduction, enzyme gene expression, and metabolic pathway were investigated. Results showed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and salicylic acid (SA) involved in fungus-induced salidroside and tyrosol accumulations...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
G Presti, V Guarrasi, E Gulotta, F Provenzano, A Provenzano, S Giuliano, M Monfreda, M R Mangione, R Passantino, P L San Biagio, M A Costa, D Giacomazza
When compared with other edible vegetable oils, the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) exhibits excellent nutritional properties due to the presence of biophenolic compounds. Although they constitute only a very small amount of the unsaponifiable fraction of EVOO, biophenols strongly contribute to the sensorial properties of this precious food conferring it, for example, the bitter or pungent taste. Furthermore, it has been found that biophenols possess beneficial effects against many human pathologies such as oxidative stress, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging-related illness...
November 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
Yundong Xie, Yanhong Xu, Zizhang Chen, Wenfang Lu, Na Li, Qiutang Wang, Lihua Shao, Yiping Li, Guangde Yang, Xiaoli Bian
Dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are major risky factors involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Multifunctional intervene is more meaningful. The aim of this study was to evaluate the multifunctional effects of two new compounds, combination of fenofibric acid (FA) with tyrosol (T) or hydroxytyrosol (HT). Compared with fenofibrate (FF), FF-HT exhibited excellent antioxidant capacities in vitro and much improved hypolipidemia, reducing plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and malonaldehyde (MDA) by 76%, 54%, and 28%, while FF-T decreased the plasma parameters by 16%, 10%, and 20% in hyperlipidemic mice induced by Triton WR 1339...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mercedes Becerra-Herrera, Alberto Vélez-Martín, Adrián Ramos-Merchante, Pablo Richter, Rafael Beltrán, Ana Sayago
Changes in phenolic profiles and color parameters can help to differentiate between extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) with protected designation of origin (PDO). Phenolic profile characterization and CIELAB parameters determination of 9 PDO EVOOs from Spain were developed. Both properties of EVOOs are very relevant to their commercialization and increase the product value. The Serrana de Espadán olive cultivar was characterized for the first time and showed the highest pinoresinol concentrations and clarities in these olive oils, which are important values for the product image...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
W R Macedo, G H Silva, M F C Santos, A P S Oliveira, D S Souza
Antioxidant compounds have the ability to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in an attempt to minimise damage in seeds during the germination. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological and metabolic process of two well-established antioxidant compounds: kojic acid and hydroxyphenyl ethanol (tyrosol), at increasing concentrations, on wheat seeds. The use of different concentrations of tyrosol or kojic acid not showed any interference on seed germination rate. However, we observed isolated effect of antioxidants and their concentrations to: germination speed index, shoot length and electrolyte leakage; and significant interaction between the factors to: seedling total length, seedling fresh matter and α-amylase activity...
September 7, 2017: Natural Product Research
Majdouline Belaqziz, Shiau Pin Tan, Abdelilah El-Abbassi, Hajar Kiai, Abdellatif Hafidi, Orla O'Donovan, Peter McLoughlin
Olive processing wastewaters (OPW), namely olive mill wastewater (OMW) and table-olive wastewaters (TOW) were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria using the standard disc diffusion and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography assays. Disc diffusion screening and bioautography of OMW were compared to the phenolic extracts of table-olive brines. Positive activity against S. aureus was demonstrated. The optimization of chromatographic separation revealed that hexane/acetone in the ratio of 4:6 was the most effective for phenolic compounds separation...
2017: PloS One
Beibei Chen, Lili Wang, Lin Li, Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Chenyue Liu, Rufeng Ma, Qiangqiang Jia, Dandan Zhao, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Sihua Gao, Dongwei Zhang
Background: Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) has now attracted increasing attention as an alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. This study aimed to provide a general review of traditional interpretation of the actions of FLL in osteoporosis, main phytochemical constituents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology in bone improving effect, and safety. Materials and Methods: Several databases, including PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, National Science and Technology Library, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Web of Science were consulted to locate publications pertaining to FLL...
September 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fei Zhou, Yajing Zhao, Maiquan Li, Tao Xu, Liuquan Zhang, Baiyi Lu, Xiaodan Wu, Zhiwei Ge
This study was aimed at investigating the chemical stability (the thermal, light and pH stability) of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. flowers, identifying the degradation products of acteoside and salidroside (major PhGs in O. fragrans flowers) by UPLC-QTOF-MS and studying the anti-hypoxia activity of PhGs after degradation. The degradation of PhGs followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the rate constant of acteoside (4.3 to 203.4 × 10(-3) day(-1)) was higher than that of salidroside (3...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kumudini M Meepagala, William E Briscoe, Natascha Techen, Robert D Johnson, Brandon M Clausen, Stephen O Duke
BACKGROUND: The fungus Diaporthe eres was isolated from a fungal pathogen-infected leaf of Hedera helix (English Ivy) exhibiting necrosis. It is hypothesized that the causative fungus produces phytotoxins as evidenced by necrotic lesions on the leaves. RESULTS: The fungus was isolated and grown in Czapek Dox broth culture medium and potato dextrose broth culture medium and identified as Diaporthe eres. The ethyl acetate extracts of the culture broths were phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)...
August 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Alessio Cimmino, Lucia Maddau, Marco Masi, Benedetto T Linaldeddu, Gennaro Pescitelli, Antonio Evidente
A new isochromanone, named fraxitoxin, was isolated together with (-)-mellein and tyrosol from liquid cultures of Diplodia fraxini a pathogen involved in the etiology of canker and dieback disease of Fraxinus spp. in Europe. It was characterized as 5-methoxy-3-methyl-isochroman-1-one using spectroscopic methods (essentially NMR and HREIMS). Its absolute configuration (R) at C-3 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) measurements and calculations. Phytotoxic activity of the compound was evaluated on ash, cork and holm oak leaves at concentration of 1 mg/mL by the leaf-puncture assay...
August 23, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Gessica Serra, Monica Deiana, Jeremy P E Spencer, Giulia Corona
SCOPE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols to counteract the pro-inflammatory effects induced by dietary and endogenous oxysterols in ex-vivo immune cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), separated from the whole blood of healthy donors, were utilised and were stimulated with an oxysterols mixture, in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of the EVOO polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT), tyrosol (TYR) and homovanillic alcohol (HVA)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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