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Lynda Medjkouh, Abderezak Tamendjari, Rita C Alves, Mariana Araújo, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Bactrocera oleae, an olive fruit fly, is a major olive pest in Algeria. In this study, olives of two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Métidja) with different degrees of infestation by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real %) were analysed. The influence of this pest on individual phenolic compounds (HPLC-DAD-FLD) and antioxidant profiles was ascertained. The antibacterial activity against 8 human enteropathogenic bacteria was also assessed. The results show that Rougette de Métidja, the cultivar with higher drupe size, was attacked to a greater degree than Limli, and the B...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
R Fabiani
Epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil intake is associated to a reduced risk of cancer. Recently, the chemopreventive activity of olive oil has been attributed to its unique phenolic compounds represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol: 3,4-DHPEA) and tyrosol (p-hydroxyphenylethanol: p-HPEA), and their secoiridoid derivatives 3,4-DHPEA-EA (oleuropein aglycon), p-HPEA-EA (ligstroside aglycon), 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA (oleocanthal), and oleuropein. Several studies have demonstrated that these compounds are able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in different tumor cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Jose Rodríguez-Morató, Patricia Robledo, Julie-Anne Tanner, Anna Boronat, Clara Pérez-Mañá, C-Y Oliver Chen, Rachel F Tyndale, Rafael de la Torre
The dietary phenol tyrosol has been reported to be endogenously transformed into hydroxytyrosol, a potent antioxidant with multiple health benefits. In this work, we evaluated whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs) catalyzed this process. To assess TH involvement, Wistar rats were treated with α-methyl-L-tyrosine and tyrosol. Tyrosol was converted into hydroxytyrosol whilst α-methyl-L-tyrosine did not inhibit the biotransformation. The role of CYP was assessed in human liver microsomes (HLM) and tyrosol-to-hydroxytyrosol conversion was observed...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Klaus Teichmann, Maxime Kuliberda, Gerd Schatzmayr, Thomas Pacher, Karin Zitterl-Eglseer, Anja Joachim, Franz Hadacek
Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI)...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Ole Kristian Thu, Odd Georg Nilsen, Bent Hellum
CONTEXT: Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) products are popular natural remedies with a worldwide distribution. Recent studies have revealed potent CYP inhibition by R. rosea extracts both in vitro and in vivo, but information on in vitro CYP inhibition by commercial products are lacking. Variations in commercial R. rosea product quality have also been published. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the variation of in vitro CYP inhibition potential and product quality of six commercially available R...
August 29, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
J Malheiro, I Gomes, A Borges, M M S M Bastos, J-Y Maillard, F Borges, M Simões
The indiscriminate use of biocides for general disinfection has contributed to the increased incidence of antimicrobial tolerant microorganisms. This study aims to assess the potential of seven phytochemicals (tyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamaldehyde, coumaric acid, cinnamic acid and eugenol) in the control of planktonic and sessile cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol showed antimicrobial properties, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 3-5 and 5-12 mM and minimum bactericidal concentrations of 10-12 and 10-14 mM against S...
October 2016: Biofouling
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Érica Pacheco Caetano, Rita Amanda Chaves de Lima, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias Marques, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Charlline Vládia Silva de Melo, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, José Luciano Bezerra Moreira, André Jalles Monteiro, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, José Júlio Costa Sidrim
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, tyrosol, and β-lapachone against strains of Coccidioides posadasii in filamentous phase (n=22) and Histoplasma capsulatum in both filamentous (n=40) and yeast phases (n=13), using the broth dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of these compounds. The mechanisms of action of these compounds were also investigated by analyzing their effect on cell membrane permeability and ergosterol synthesis...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Martina Avbelj, Jure Zupan, Peter Raspor
This mini-review synthesises the present knowledge of microbial quorum-sensing, with a specific focus on quorum-sensing in yeast, and especially in wine yeast. In vine and wine ecosystems, yeast co-interact with a large variety of microorganisms, thereby affecting the fermentation process and, consequently, the flavour of the wine. The precise connections between microbial interactions and quorum-sensing remain unclear, but we describe here how and when some species start to produce quorum-sensing molecules to synchronously adapt their collective behaviour to new conditions...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Vito Michele Paradiso, Carla Di Mattia, Mariagrazia Giarnetti, Marco Chiarini, Lucia Andrich, Francesco Caponio
The effect of the surrounding molecular environment (β-lactoglobulin as an emulsion stabilizer and maltodextrin as a viscosity modifier) on the antioxidant activity of three olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs) in olive oil-in-water emulsions was investigated. Oxidation potential, phenolic partitioning, and radical quenching capacity were assessed in solution and in emulsion for oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol; the influence of β-lactoglobulin and maltodextrin concentration was also evaluated. Finally, the observed properties were related to the oxidative stability of the emulsions containing the PCs to explain their behavior...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Eduardo Medina, Verónica Romero-Gil, Antonio Garrido-Fernández, Francisco Noé Arroyo-López
This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (<1.30 log10 cfu/mL) for all species assayed. The maximum death rate (kmax) was 9...
October 2016: Food Microbiology
Isabella D'Antuono, Antonella Garbetta, Biancamaria Ciasca, Vito Linsalata, Fiorenza Minervini, Veronica M T Lattanzio, Antonio F Logrieco, Angela Cardinali
In this study, the naturally debittered table olives cv Bella di Cerignola were studied in order to (i) characterize their phenolic composition; (ii) evaluate the polyphenols bioaccessibility; (iii) assess their absorption and transport, across Caco2/TC7. LC-MS/MS analysis has confirmed the presence of hydroxytyrosol acetate, caffeoyl-6'-secologanoside, and comselogoside. In vitro bioaccessibility ranged from 7% of luteolin to 100% of tyrosol, highlighting the flavonoids sensitivity to the digestive conditions...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kazuaki Sato, Yuko Mihara, Kazutaka Kanai, Yohei Yamashita, Yuya Kimura, Naoyuki Itoh
Tyrosol (Tyr) is a natural phenolic antioxidant with diverse biological activities. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously administered Tyr versus prednisolone (PSL) in an endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) rat model. Intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg Tyr was performed 2 hr before, simultaneously and 2 hr after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Tyr treatment was associated with decreased inflammatory cell number, protein concentration, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, PGE2 and NO levels in AqH and improvements in histopathologic evidence of EIU in ocular tissue at 24 hr after LPS injection...
June 26, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ignacio Fernandez-Pastor, Antonia Fernandez-Hernandez, Francisco Rivas, Antonio Martinez, Andres Garcia-Granados, Andres Parra
Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Olusola Samuel Jolayemi, Figen Tokatli, Banu Ozen
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of harvest time and malaxation temperature on chemical composition of olive oils produced from economically important olive varieties with a full factorial experimental design. The oils of Ayvalik and Memecik olives were extracted in an industrial two-phase continuous system. The quality parameters, phenolic and fatty acid profiles were determined. Harvest time, olive variety and their interaction were the most significant factors. Malaxation temperature was significant for hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, p-coumaric acid, pinoresinol and peroxide value...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Fátima Peres, Luisa L Martins, Miguel Mourato, Conceição Vitorino, Paulo Antunes, Suzana Ferreira-Dias
In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Mohamed M Mohyeldin, Belnaser A Busnena, Mohamed R Akl, Ana Maria Dragoi, James A Cardelli, Khalid A El Sayed
Dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met and its ligand HGF is valid and attractive molecular target for therapeutic blockade in cancer. Inspired by the chemical structure of the naturally occurring olive secoiridoid (-)-oleocanthal (1) and its documented anticancer activity against c-Met-dependent malignancies, a previous study reported tyrosol sinapate (4) as a c-Met inhibitor hit. This study reports additional semisynthetic optimization and SAR of 4 to improve its selective activity against c-Met-dependent breast cancer by increasing its capacity to inhibit c-Met phosphorylation...
April 20, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kazuaki Sato, Yuko Mihara, Kazutaka Kanai, Yohei Yamashita, Yuya Kimura, Naoyuki Itoh
We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of tyrosol (Tyr) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in male Lewis rats by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tyr (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg) was intravenously injected 2 hr before, simultaneously, and 2 hr after LPS injection. The aqueous humor (AqH) was collected 24 hr after LPS injection; the infiltrating cell number, protein concentration, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Imen Aissa, Nadia Kharrat, Fatma Aloui, Mohamed Sellami, Mohamed Bouaziz, Youssef Gargouri
Antioxidants are highly important gradients used to preserve cosmetic products and reduce the effect of oxidative stress on the skin. The present work explores the possibility of using phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater as effective alternatives to the commercial antioxidants used in cosmetic formulations deemed by their allergic and carcinogenic effects. Esterification of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol extracted from olive mill wastewater with various fatty acids was conducted using Novozyme 435 lipase as biocatalyst...
May 26, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Xue-Peng Yang, Fang-Fang Wang, Ji Yan, Ke Ma, Duo-Bin Mao
A glycoside hydrolase from Penicillium oxalicum BL 3005 was purified to apparent homogeneity. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was identified to be a new member of family-3 by peptide sequence. High transglycosylation activity was found in the hydrolytic reaction of cellobiose. In the reaction, salidroside (4-hydroxyphenethyl O-β-D-glucopyranoside) was formed by adding tyrosol as the glycosyl acceptor. The optimum reaction pH and temperature were pH 6.5 and 55°C, respectively...
May 25, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
A Marone, A A Carmona-Martínez, Y Sire, E Meudec, J P Steyer, N Bernet, E Trably
Industry of table olives is widely distributed over the Mediterranean countries and generates large volumes of processing wastewaters (TOPWs). TOPWs contain high levels of organic matter, salt, and phenolic compounds that are recalcitrant to microbial degradation. This work aims to evaluate the potential of bioelectrochemical systems to simultaneously treat real TOPWs and recover energy. The experiments were performed in potentiostatically-controlled single-chamber systems fed with real TOPW and using a moderate halophilic consortium as biocatalyst...
September 1, 2016: Water Research
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