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Sara Bianchi, Luca Giovannini
The mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in many human diseases, mostly associated with an over hyperactivity of the mTOR signaling, which makes its inhibitors potentially effective therapeutics. Thus, it is important to consider not only the mTOR pathway, but also all those factors that play a key role in its regulation, such as SIRT1 and AMPK. We previously demonstrated the role of some nutraceutical SIRT1 modulators in AMPK and mTOR pathway, showing the presence of a synergistic effect. Now we take further our research by evaluating the effect of berberine, quercetin, tyrosol, and ferulic acid on the mTOR/S6K1/4E-BP1 signaling, along with the existence of any synergistic effect between the following associations: berberine + tyrosol, tyrosol + ferulic acid, ferulic acid + quercetin...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Alessio Cimmino, Paola Nocera, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Marco Masi, Marcin Gorecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Lucio Montecchio, Lucia Maddau, Antonio Evidente
From the culture filtrates of Diaporthella cryptica, an emerging hazelnut pathogen, 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate methyl ester and its 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) and 3-(1H-indol-3-yl) analogues, named crypticins A-C, were isolated together with the well-known tyrosol. Crypticins A-C were identified by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS) methods. The R absolute configuration (AC) of crypticin A was determined comparing its optical rotation power and ECD spectrum with those of papuline, the methyl ester of (-)(S)-phenyllactic acid isolated as the main phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv papulans, responsible for apple blister spot...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jonathan Fusi, Sara Bianchi, Simona Daniele, Silvia Pellegrini, Claudia Martini, Fabio Galetta, Luca Giovannini, Ferdinando Franzoni
Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defences. Several studies have suggested that dietary antioxidants (such as polyphenols and berberine) may counteract oxidative stress through the involvement of the Sirtuin 1/Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (SIRT1/AMPK) pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct and specific antioxidant activity of some natural compounds, as well as their ability to modulate the expression of SIRT1 and the activation of AMPK...
March 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Marco Masi, Paola Nocera, Angela Boari, Alessio Cimmino, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessandro Infantino, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ascochyta lentis var. lathyri has recently been reported to be the causal agent of Ascochyta blight of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), a disease characterized by the appearance of necrotic lesions of leaves and stems. Considering the novelty of the pathogen and the possible involvement of secondary metabolites in symptom appearance, a study was carried out to ascertain the capability of this fungus to produce bioactive metabolites. Some phytotoxic phenols were isolated from the culture filtrates of the fungus...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Dennis Fiorini, Maria Chiara Boarelli, Paolo Conti, Barbara Alfei, Giovanni Caprioli, Massimo Ricciutelli, Gianni Sagratini, Donatella Fedeli, Rosita Gabbianelli, Deborah Pacetti
The aim of the study was to identify new potential chemical markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) quality by using a multicomponent analysis approach. Sixty-six EVOOs were purchased from the Italian market and classified according to their price as low price EVOOs (LEVOOs) and high price EVOOs (HEVOOs) costing 3.60-5.90euro/L and 7.49-29.80euro/L respectively. Sensory and chemical parameters strictly related to olive oil quality have been investigated, like volatile substances, polar phenolic substances, antioxidant activity, fatty acid composition, and α-tocopherol...
March 2018: Food Research International
Elena Fernández, Lorena Vidal, Antonio Canals
A novel approach is presented to determine hydrophilic phenols in olive oil samples, employing vortex-assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME) for sample preparation and screen-printed carbon electrodes for voltammetric analysis. The oxidation of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tyrosol was investigated, being caffeic acid and tyrosol selected for quantification. A matrix-matching calibration using sunflower oil as analyte-free sample diluted with hexane was employed to compensate matrix effects...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Pierluigi Reveglia, Sandra Savocchia, Regina Billones-Baaijens, Alessio Cimmino, Antonio Evidente
Polyphenols were characterized from Dothiorella vidmadera (DAR78993) which was isolated from a grapevine in Australia. In total, six polyphenols were isolated including a new polyphenol characterized by spectroscopic method (essentially NMR and HR ESIMS) as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-isopropoxyphenol. Tyrosol, benzene-1,2,4-triol, resorcinol, 3-(hydroxymethyl)phenol and protocatechuic alcohol, the latter being the main metabolite, were also isolated. Although these are already known as naturally occurring compounds in microorganisms and plants, this is the first time they have been isolated from a fungal organisms involved in grapevine trunk disease...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lucia Bartella, Fabio Mazzotti, Anna Napoli, Giovanni Sindona, Leonardo Di Donna
A rapid and reliable method to assay the total amount of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol derivatives in extra virgin olive oil has been developed. The methodology intends to establish the nutritional quality of this edible oil addressing recent international health claim legislations (the European Commission Regulation No. 432/2012) and changing the classification of extra virgin olive oil to the status of nutraceutical. The method is based on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and labeled internal standards preceded by a fast hydrolysis reaction step performed through the aid of microwaves under acid conditions...
January 26, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Lorena Martínez, Gaspar Ros, Gema Nieto
Hydroxytyrosol (HXT) is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds between phenolic compounds from olive tree followed by oleuropein, caffeic and tyrosol. Due to its molecular structure, its regular consumption has several beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and as a protector of skin and eyes, etc...
January 23, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Seda Yalcin, Matthias Schreiner
The effects of thermal oxidation at 60 °C on tocopherols (α, β, γ) and phenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) of olive oil were studied. Tocopherols were determined by HPLC and phenolic compounds by HPLC and GC-MS. Peroxide value of olive oil increased with treatment time until it reached to 56.6 meq/kg. α-Tocopherol, β-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol contents of olive oil decreased with treatment time. α-Tocopherol in olive oil was decomposed after 63 days of treatment. β-Tocopherol in olive oil was depleted after 33 days of treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Isabella D'Antuono, Angelica Bruno, Vito Linsalata, Fiorenza Minervini, Antonella Garbetta, Maria Tufariello, Giovanni Mita, Antonio F Logrieco, Gianluca Bleve, Angela Cardinali
The effects of fermentation by autochthonous microbial starters on phenolics composition of Apulian table olives, Bella di Cerignola (BDC), Termite di Bitetto (TDB) and Cellina di Nardò (CEL) were studied, highlighting also the cultivars influence. In BDC with starter, polyphenols amount doubled compared with commercial sample, while in TDB and CEL, phenolics remain almost unchanged. The main phenolics were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, verbascoside and luteolin, followed by hydroxytyrosol-acetate detected in BDC and cyanidine-3-glucoside and quercetin in CEL...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed, Rwaida A Al Haidari, Mohamed F Zayed, Amal A El-Kholy, Ehab S Elkhayat, Samir A Ross
Fusarithioamide B (6), a new aminobenzamide derivative with unprecedented carbon skeleton and five known metabolites: stigmast-4-ene-3-one (1), stigmasta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (2), p-hydroxyacetophenone (3), tyrosol (4), and fusarithioamide A (5) were separated from Fusarium chlamydosporium EtOAc extract isolated from Anvillea garcinii (Burm.f.) DC. leaves (Asteraceae). The structure elucidation and completeassignment of the isolated metabolites were performed mainly by the aid of various NMR and MS data...
December 30, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Lynda Medjkouh, Abderezak Tamendjari, Rita C Alves, Rahima Laribi, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful pest of olive trees (O. europaea) affecting their fruit development and oil production. Olive fruits have characteristic phenolic compounds, important for plant defense against pathogens and insects, and with many biological activities, they contribute to the high value of this crop. In this study, olives from 8 cultivars (Abani, Aellah, Blanquette de Guelma, Chemlal, Ferkani, Limli, Rougette de Mitidja and Souidi) with different degrees of fly infestation (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attack %) and different maturation indices were sampled and analysed...
January 4, 2018: Food & Function
Gabriele Rocchetti, Giulia Chiodelli, Gianluca Giuberti, Luigi Lucini
A bioaccessibility study of polyphenols after in vitro simulated large intestine fermentation was carried out on edible nuts. Raw nuts were also analysed for total phenolic content and antioxidant potential, considering both bound and free phenolics. The highest phenolic content was found in walnuts, followed by pistachios extracts (596.9 and 410.1 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g-1, respectively). Consistently, the total antioxidant capacity was highest in walnuts (3689.7 μM trolox equivalents 100 g-1) followed by peanuts and pistachios (3169...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yuanxin Sun, Dayong Zhou, Fereidoon Shahidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Miriam Rossi, Francesco Caruso, Lorraine Kwok, Grace Lee, Alessio Caruso, Fabio Gionfra, Elena Candelotti, Stuart L Belli, Nora Molasky, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Stefano Leone, Tomáš Filipský, Daniela Tofani, Jens Pedersen, Sandra Incerpi
We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide...
2017: PloS One
Xianglai Li, Zhenya Chen, Yifei Wu, Yajun Yan, Xinxiao Sun, Qipeng Yuan
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a valuable natural phenolic compound with strong antioxidant activity and various physiological and pharmaceutical functions. In this study, we established an artificial pathway for biosynthesis of HT. First, efficient enzymes were selected to construct tyrosol biosynthetic pathway. ARO10 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be a better ketoacid decarboxylase than Kivd from Lactococcus lactis for tyrosol production. While knockout of feaB significantly decreased accumulation of the byproduct 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6 further improved tyrosol production...
December 28, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
Michael P Torrens-Spence, Tomáš Pluskal, Fu-Shuang Li, Valentina Carballo, Jing-Ke Weng
Salidroside is a bioactive tyrosine-derived phenolic natural product found in medicinal plants under the Rhodiola genus. In addition to their anti-fatigue and anti-anoxia roles in traditional medicine, Rhodiola total extract and salidroside have also displayed medicinal properties as anti-cardiovascular diseases and anti-cancer agents. The resulting surge in global demand of Rhodiola plants and salidroside has driven some species close to extinction. Here, we report the full elucidation of Rhodiola salidroside biosynthetic pathway utilizing the first comprehensive transcriptomics and metabolomics datasets for Rhodiola rosea...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
Niria Treviño-Saldaña, Gerardo García-Rivas
Modulation of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as protein acetylation, is considered a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Protein hyperacetylation is associated with the development of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, decreased expression and activity of the deacetylases Sirt1, Sirt3, and Sirt6 have been linked to the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ilyes Saidi, Pierre Waffo-Téguo, Asma E L Ayeb-Zakhama, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri, Axel Marchal, Hichem Ben Jannet
A phytochemical investigation of the trunk bark ethyl acetate extract of Citharexylum spinosum L. has led to the isolation of four previously undescribed iridoid glycosides, tunispinosides A-D, and five known phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside, leucosceptoside A, martynoside, isoverbascoside and plantainoside C, together with 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, two 8,3'-neolignan glycosides, plucheosides D1 -D2 , coniferyl aldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and tyrosol...
February 2018: Phytochemistry
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