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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213119/the-heterogeneity-of-the-left-dorsal-premotor-cortex-evidenced-by-multimodal-connectivity-based-parcellation-and-functional-characterization
#2
Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Hai Li, Lingzhong Fan, Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Christian Grefkes, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Tianzi Jiang, Katrin Amunts, Simon B Eickhoff
Despite the common conception of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) as a single brain region, its diverse connectivity profiles and behavioral heterogeneity argue for a differentiated organization of the PMd. A previous study revealed that the right PMd is characterized by a rostro-caudal and a ventro-dorsal distinction dividing it into five subregions: rostral, central, caudal, ventral and dorsal. The present study assessed whether a similar organization is present in the left hemisphere, by capitalizing on a multimodal data-driven approach combining connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) based on meta-analytic modeling, resting-state functional connectivity, and probabilistic diffusion tractography...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210983/multi-view-ensemble-classification-of-brain-connectivity-images-for-neurodegeneration-type-discrimination
#3
Michele Fratello, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Francesca Trojsi, Antonio Russo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Roberto Tagliaferri, Fabrizio Esposito
Brain connectivity analyses using voxels as features are not robust enough for single-patient classification because of the inter-subject anatomical and functional variability. To construct more robust features, voxels can be aggregated into clusters that are maximally coherent across subjects. Moreover, combining multi-modal neuroimaging and multi-view data integration techniques allows generating multiple independent connectivity features for the same patient. Structural and functional connectivity features were extracted from multi-modal MRI images with a clustering technique, and used for the multi-view classification of different phenotypes of neurodegeneration by an ensemble learning method (random forest)...
February 16, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210930/emotion-specific-nocebo-effects-an-fmri-study
#4
Anne Schienle, Carina Höfler, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
The neurobiological mechanisms of nocebos are still poorly understood. Thirty-eight women participated in a 'smell study' using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were presented with an odorless stimulus (distilled water) together with the verbal suggestion that this fluid has an aversive odor which enhances disgust feelings. The nocebo was presented while the participants viewed disgusting, fear-inducing, and neutral images. Participants' affective and neuronal responses during nocebo administration were compared with those in a control condition without nocebo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209266/changes-in-functional-organization-and-functional-connectivity-during-story-listening-in-children-with-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centro-temporal-spikes
#5
Jennifer Vannest, Thomas C Maloney, Jeffrey R Tenney, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Diego Morita, Anna W Byars, Mekibib Altaye, Scott K Holland, Tracy A Glauser
Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS), despite high likelihood for seizure remission, are reported to have subtle difficulties in language and other cognitive skills. We used functional MRI and a story listening task to examine the effect of BECTS on patterns of activation and connectivity. Language and cognitive skills were assessed using standardized measures. Twenty-four children with recently diagnosed BECTS and 40 typically-developing children participated. In a functionally-defined region of interest in right inferior frontal gyrus, BECTS patients showed a lower level of activation...
February 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208070/association-of-medial-prefrontal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-metacognitive-capacity-in-early-phase-psychosis
#6
Michael M Francis, Tom A Hummer, Bethany L Leonhardt, Jenifer L Vohs, Matt G Yung, Nicole F Mehdiyoun, Paul H Lysaker, Alan Breier
Metacognition refers to a range of cognitive processes that allow one to form complex ideas of self and others and to use this information to navigate psychosocial challenges. Several studies in both early-phase and prolonged schizophrenia have demonstrated not only that significant deficits in metacognitive ability are present, but importantly that they are associated with significant functional impairment and decreased quality of life. In spite of the importance of metacognitive impairment in schizophrenia, relatively little is known about the biological substrates that may contribute to this dysfunction...
February 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207760/preferential-expression-of-scores-of-functionally-and-evolutionarily-diverse-dna-and-rna-binding-proteins-during-oxytricha-trifallax-macronuclear-development
#7
Zachary T Neeb, Daniel J Hogan, Sol Katzman, Alan M Zahler
During its sexual reproduction, the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax orchestrates a remarkable transformation of one of the newly formed germline micronuclear genomes. Hundreds of thousands of gene pieces are stitched together, excised from chromosomes, and replicated dozens of times to yield a functional somatic macronuclear genome composed of ~16,000 distinct DNA molecules that typically encode a single gene. Little is known about the proteins that carry out this process. We profiled mRNA expression as a function of macronuclear development and identified hundreds of mRNAs preferentially expressed at specific times during the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206685/claustrum-of-the-short-tailed-fruit-bat-carollia-perspicillata-alignment-of-cellular-orientation-and-functional-connectivity
#8
Rena Orman, Richard Kollmar, Mark Stewart
The claustrum is a gray-matter structure that underlies neocortex and reciprocates connections with cortical and subcortical targets. In lower mammals, the claustrum is directly adjacent to neocortex, making the definition of claustral boundaries challenging. Latexin, an endogenous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases, localizes to claustral cells, enabling a clear delineation of claustrum. Given its proportionately large claustrum, we hypothesized that the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, can be a useful model for claustral structure-function relations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204773/eeg-functional-connectivity-prior-to-sleepwalking-evidence-of-interplay-between-sleep-and-wakefulness
#9
Marie-Ève Desjardins, Julie Carrier, Jean-Marc Lina, Maxime Fortin, Nadia Gosselin, Jacques Montplaisir, Antonio Zadra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202336/functional-connectivity-in-resting-state-as-a-phonemic-fluency-ability-measure
#10
Anna Miró-Padilla, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, María-Ángeles Palomar-García, César Ávila
There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest...
February 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#11
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198813/increased-anterior-cingulate-cortex-response-precedes-behavioural-adaptation-in-anorexia-nervosa
#12
Daniel Geisler, Franziska Ritschel, Joseph A King, Fabio Bernardoni, Maria Seidel, Ilka Boehm, Franziska Runge, Thomas Goschke, Veit Roessner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Ehrlich
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197906/functions-of-sumo-in-the-maintenance-of-genome-stability
#14
Nicola Zilio, Karolin Eifler-Olivi, Helle D Ulrich
Like in most other areas of cellular metabolism, the functions of the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO in the maintenance of genome stability are manifold and varied. Perturbations of global sumoylation causes a wide spectrum of phenotypes associated with defects in DNA maintenance, such as hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, gross chromosomal rearrangements and loss of entire chromosomes. Consistent with these observations, many key factors involved in various DNA repair pathways have been identified as SUMO substrates...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197860/local-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-autism-site-and-cohort-variability-and-the-effect-of-eye-status
#15
Sangeeta Nair, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Michael M Berkebile, José Omar Maximo, Natalia Witkowska, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with prominent impairments in sociocommunicative abilities, which have been linked to anomalous brain network organization. Despite ample evidence of atypical long-distance connectivity, the literature on local connectivity remains small and divergent. We used resting-state functional MRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) as a local connectivity measure in comparative analyses across several well-matched low-motion subsamples from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange and in-house data, with a grand total of 147 ASD and 184 typically developing (TD) participants, ages 7-18 years...
February 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197859/imaging-the-up-s-and-down-s-of-emotion-regulation-in-lifetime-depression
#16
Sina Radke, Felix Hoffstaedter, Leonie Löffler, Lydia Kogler, Frank Schneider, Jens Blechert, Birgit Derntl
Reappraisal is a particularly effective strategy for influencing emotional experiences, specifically for reducing the impact of negative stimuli. Although depression has repeatedly been linked to dysfunctional behavioral and neural emotion regulation, prefrontal and amygdala engagement seems to vary with clinical characteristics and the specific regulation strategy used. Whereas previous neuroimaging research has focused on down-regulating reactions to emotionally evocative scenes, the current study compared up- and down-regulation in response to angry facial expressions in patients with depression and healthy individuals...
February 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197105/investigating-the-role-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-modulation-of-transthalamic-activity-a-combined-fmri-fmrs-study
#17
Nathalie Just, Sarah Sonnay
The Excitatory-Inhibitory balance (EIB) between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons is known to regulate the function of thalamocortical neurocircuits. The thalamus is known as an important relay for glutamatergic and GABAergic signals ascending/descending to/from the somatosensory cortex in rodents. However, new investigations attribute a larger role to thalamic nuclei as modulators of information processing within the cortex. In this study, functional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (fMRS) was used to measure glutamate (Glu) and GABA associations with BOLD responses during activation of the thalamus to barrel cortex (S1BF) pathway at 9...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195569/rare-damaging-variants-in-dna-repair-and-cell-cycle-pathways-are-associated-with-hippocampal-and-cognitive-dysfunction-a-combined-genetic-imaging-study-in-first-episode-treatment-naive-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Z Yang, M Li, X Hu, B Xiang, W Deng, Q Wang, Y Wang, L Zhao, X Ma, P C Sham, G Northoff, T Li
Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder where changes in both hippocampus and memory-related cognitive functions are central. However, the exact relationship between neurodevelopmental-genetic factors and hippocampal-cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. The general aim of our study is to link the occurrence of rare damaging mutations involved in susceptibility gene pathways to the structure and function of hippocampus in order to define genetically and phenotypically based subgroups in schizophrenia...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195438/from-rest-to-language-task-task-activation-selects-and-prunes-from-broader-resting-state-network
#19
Gaelle E Doucet, Xiaosong He, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC...
February 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195139/altered-insula-connectivity-under-mdma
#20
Ishan C Walpola, Timothy Nest, Leor Roseman, David Erritzoe, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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