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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140500/the-persuasion-network-is-modulated-by-drug-use-risk-and-predicts-anti-drug-message-effectiveness
#1
Richard Huskey, J Michael Mangus, Benjamin O Turner, René Weber
While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138429/brain-network-correlates-of-emotional-aging
#2
Youngwook Lyoo, Sujung Yoon
Physical and cognitive functions typically decline with aging while emotional stability is relatively conserved. The current proof-of-concept study is the first to report of the brain mechanisms underlying emotional aging from a brain network perspective. Two hundred eighty-six healthy subjects aged 20-65 were classified into three groups of the emotionally young, intermediate-aged, and old (E-young, E-intermediate, and E-old, respectively) based on the cluster analysis of the emotion recognition task data...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137838/fusion-of-fmri-and-non-imaging-data-for-adhd-classification
#3
Atif Riaz, Muhammad Asad, Eduardo Alonso, Greg Slabaugh
Resting state fMRI has emerged as a popular neuroimaging method for automated recognition and classification of different brain disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common brain disorders affecting young children, yet its underlying mechanism is not completely understood and its diagnosis is mainly dependent on behavior analysis. This paper addresses the problem of classification of ADHD based on resting state fMRI and proposes a machine learning framework with integration of non-imaging data with imaging data to investigate functional connectivity alterations between ADHD and control subjects (not diagnosed with ADHD)...
October 19, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137828/differentiating-between-clinical-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-first-episode-psychosis-during-maintenance-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#4
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Patricia L Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
INTRODUCTION: We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. METHODS: FEP (N=35) and matched controls (N=25) performed a visuospatial working memory task during fMRI acquisition. We isolated neural activity during the maintenance period and examined neural activity within regions typically engaged during a working memory task...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#5
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#6
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136125/effective-connectivity-measured-using-optogenetically-evoked-hemodynamic-signals-exhibits-topography-distinct-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#7
Adam Q Bauer, Andrew W Kraft, Grant A Baxter, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Jasmine J Park, Michael R Bruchas, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
Brain connectomics has expanded from histological assessment of axonal projection connectivity (APC) to encompass resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC). RS-FC analyses are efficient for whole-brain mapping, but attempts to explain aspects of RS-FC (e.g., interhemispheric RS-FC) based on APC have been only partially successful. Neuroimaging with hemoglobin alone lacks specificity for determining how activity in a population of cells contributes to RS-FC. Wide-field mapping of optogenetically defined connectivity could provide insights into the brain's structure-function relationship...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136114/age-related-declines-in-motor-performance-are-associated-with-decreased-segregation-of-large-scale-resting-state-brain-networks
#8
B R King, P van Ruitenbeek, I Leunissen, K Cuypers, K-F Heise, T Santos Monteiro, L Hermans, O Levin, G Albouy, D Mantini, S P Swinnen
Aging is typically associated with substantial declines in motor functioning as well as robust changes in the functional organization of brain networks. Previous research has investigated the link between these 2 age-varying factors but examinations were predominantly limited to the functional organization within motor-related brain networks. Little is known about the relationship between age-related behavioral impairments and changes in functional organization at the whole brain (i.e., multiple network) level...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135806/fluid-intelligence-relates-to-the-resting-state-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-and-functional-connectivity-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis
#9
Changjun Li, Guocheng Yang, Meiling Li, Bo Li
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between fluid intelligence (gF) and the pattern of the functional characteristics in the resting state in adults using multivariate pattern analysis. Resting-state functional images from 100 participants in the Human Connectome Project data set were analyzed. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was first calculated, and a support vector regression approach was used to identify the association with gF. To discover whether the connectivity of the gF-associated areas was also related to gF, we further checked the seed-based functional connectivity using the seeds from the ALFF...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134717/superior-colliculus-resting-state-networks-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#10
Isadora Olivé, Maria Densmore, Sherain Harricharan, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth Lanius
OBJECTIVES: The innate alarm system (IAS) models the neurocircuitry involved in threat processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigate a primary subcortical structure of the IAS model, the superior colliculus (SC), where the SC is thought to contribute to the mechanisms underlying threat-detection in PTSD. Critically, the functional connectivity between the SC and other nodes of the IAS remains unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a resting-state fMRI study to investigate the functional architecture of the IAS, focusing on connectivity of the SC in PTSD (n = 67), its dissociative subtype (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50) using region-of-interest seed-based analysis...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#11
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#12
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134288/task-relevant-brain-networks-identified-with-simultaneous-pet-mr-imaging-of-metabolism-and-connectivity
#13
Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Lukas Nics, Lucas Rischka, Sebastian Ganger, Helen Sigurdardottir, Chrysoula Vraka, Leo Silberbauer, Thomas Vanicek, Alexander Kautzky, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Markus Hartenbach, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Except for task-specific functional MRI, the vast majority of imaging studies assessed human brain function at resting conditions. However, tracking task-specific neuronal activity yields important insight how the brain responds to stimulation. We specifically investigated changes in glucose metabolism, functional connectivity and white matter microstructure during task performance using several recent methodological advancements. Opening the eyes and right finger tapping had elicited an increased glucose metabolism in primary visual and motor cortices, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134143/eeg-sensorimotor-rhythms-variation-and-functional-connectivity-measures-during-motor-imagery-linear-relations-and-classification-approaches
#14
Carlos A Stefano Filho, Romis Attux, Gabriela Castellano
Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133431/restoration-of-dendritic-complexity-functional-connectivity-and-diversity-of-regenerated-retinal-bipolar-neurons-in-adult-zebrafish
#15
Timothy E McGinn, Diana M Mitchell, Peter C Meighan, Natalie Partington, Dylan C Leoni, Christina E Jenkins, Michael D Varnum, Deborah L Stenkamp
Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of regenerating retinal neurons that have been lost due to mechanical, chemical, or light damage. In the case of chemical damage, there is evidence that visually-mediated behaviors are restored following regeneration, consistent with recovery of retinal function. However, the extent to which regenerated retinal neurons attain appropriate morphologies and circuitry after such tissue-disrupting lesions has not been investigated. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were subjected to intravitreal injections of ouabain, which destroys the inner retina...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132127/a-functional-connection-between-dyskerin-and-energy-metabolism
#16
Alberto Angrisani, Nunzia Matrone, Valentina Belli, Rosario Vicidomini, Nunzia Di Maio, Mimmo Turano, Filippo Scialò, Paolo Antonio Netti, Antonio Porcellini, Maria Furia
The human DKC1 gene encodes dyskerin, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein whose overexpression represents a common trait of many types of aggressive sporadic cancers. As a crucial component of the nuclear H/ACA snoRNP complexes, dyskerin is involved in a variety of essential processes, including telomere maintenance, splicing efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, snoRNAs stabilization and stress response. Although multiple minor dyskerin splicing isoforms have been identified, their functions remain to be defined...
November 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131720/dimensions-of-experience-exploring-the-heterogeneity-of-the-wandering-mind
#17
Hao-Ting Wang, Giulia Poerio, Charlotte Murphy, Danilo Bzdok, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#18
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130326/resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-the-mindful-attention-awareness-scale
#19
Elena Bilevicius, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
Mindfulness refers to attending to moment-to-moment experiences with acceptance and no judgment. Several scales have been developed to quantify different components of mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is particularly sensitive to trait mindfulness and is proposed to measure the attentional component of mindfulness. The purpose of the current study was to identify the neural correlates of the MAAS in four resting state networks related to attention-the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the left and right central executive network (lCEN and rCEN)...
November 12, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128784/insular-subdivisions-functional-connectivity-dysfunction-within-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Xiaolong Peng, Pan Lin, Xiaoping Wu, Ruxue Gong, Rui Yang, Jue Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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