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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938222/inter-hemispherical-asymmetry-in-default-mode-functional-connectivity-and-baiap2-gene-are-associated-with-anger-expression-in-adhd-adults
#1
R Hasler, M G Preti, D E Meskaldji, J Prados, W Adouan, C Rodriguez, S Toma, N Hiller, T Ismaili, J Hofmeister, I Sinanaj, P Baud, S Haller, P Giannakopoulos, S Schwartz, N Perroud, D Van De Ville
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by resting-state alterations, including abnormal activity, connectivity and asymmetry of the default-mode network (DMN). Concurrently, recent studies suggested a link between ADHD and the presence of polymorphisms within the gene BAIAP2 (i.e., brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), known to be differentially expressed in brain hemispheres. The clinical and neuroimaging correlates of this polymorphism are still unknown. We investigated the association between BAIAP2 polymorphisms and DMN functional connectivity (FC) asymmetry as well as behavioral measures in ADHD adults...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936792/alpha-theta-neurofeedback-increases-mentalization-and-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#3
Claudio Imperatori, Giacomo Della Marca, Noemi Amoroso, Giulia Maestoso, Enrico Maria Valenti, Chiara Massullo, Giuseppe Alessio Carbone, Anna Contardi, Benedetto Farina
Several studies showed the effectiveness of alpha/theta (A/T) neurofeedback training in treating some psychiatric conditions. Despite the evidence of A/T effectiveness, the psychological and neurobiological bases of its effects is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the A/T training in increasing mentalization in a non-clinical sample. The modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in Default Mode Network (DMN) associated with A/T training were also investigated...
September 21, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936492/ensemble-hierarchical-high-order-functional-connectivity-networks-for-mci-classification
#4
Xiaobo Chen, Han Zhang, Dinggang Shen
Conventional functional connectivity (FC) and corresponding networks focus on characterizing the pairwise correlation between two brain regions, while the high-order FC (HOFC) and networks can model more complex relationship between two brain region "pairs" (i.e., four regions). It is eye-catching and promising for clinical applications by its irreplaceable function of providing unique and novel information for brain disease classification. Since the number of brain region pairs is very large, clustering is often used to reduce the scale of HOFC network...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936168/mining-time-resolved-functional-brain-graphs-to-an-eeg-based-chronnectomic-brain-aged-index-cbai
#5
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Christos I Salis
The brain at rest consists of spatially and temporal distributed but functionally connected regions that called intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Resting state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) is a way to characterize brain networks without confounds associated with task EEG such as task difficulty and performance. A novel framework of how to study dynamic functional connectivity under the notion of functional connectivity microstates (FCμstates) and symbolic dynamics is further discussed. Furthermore, we introduced a way to construct a single integrated dynamic functional connectivity graph (IDFCG) that preserves both the strength of the connections between every pair of sensors but also the type of dominant intrinsic coupling modes (DICM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935223/testing-the-effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-on-adult-conflict-related-theta-dynamics
#6
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent alcohol use (AAU) is associated with brain anomalies, but less is known about long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite theoretical models linking AAU to diminished cognitive control, empirical work testing this relationship with specific cognitive control neural correlates (e.g., prefrontal theta-band EEG dynamics) remains scarce. A longitudinal twin design was used to test the hypothesis that greater AAU is associated with reduced conflict-related EEG theta-band dynamics in adulthood, and to examine the genetic/environmental etiology of this association...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934250/changes-in-striatal-activity-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#7
Magali Cabanas, Fares Bassil, Nicole Mons, Maurice Garret, Yoon H Cho
Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. A primary consequence of the HD mutation is the preferential loss of medium spiny projection cells with relative sparing of local interneurons in the striatum. In addition, among GABAergic striatal projection cells, indirect pathway cells expressing D2 dopamine receptors are lost earlier than direct pathway cells expressing D1 receptors. To test in vivo the functional integrity of direct and indirect pathways as well as interneurons in the striatum of male R6/1 transgenic mice, we assessed their c-Fos expression levels induced by a striatal-dependent cognitive task and compared them with age-matched wild-type littermates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933314/effectiveness-of-a-low-support-remotely-accessible-cognitive-remediation-training-programme-for-chronic-psychosis-cognitive-functional-and-cortical-outcomes-from-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
G Donohoe, R Dillon, A Hargreaves, O Mothersill, M Castorina, E Furey, A J Fagan, J F Meaney, B Fitzmaurice, B Hallahan, C McDonald, T Wykes, A Corvin, I H Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) training has emerged as a promising approach to improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and related psychosis. The limited availability of psychological services for psychosis is a major barrier to accessing this intervention however. This study investigated the effectiveness of a low support, remotely accessible, computerised working memory (WM) training programme in patients with psychosis. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled into a single blind randomised controlled trial of CR...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931808/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#9
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
May 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931571/sublaminar-subdivision-of-mouse-auditory-cortex-layer-2-3-based-on-functional-translaminar-connections
#10
Xiangying Meng, Daniel E Winkowski, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick O Kanold
The cerebral cortex is subdivided into 6 layers based on morphological features. The supragranular layers 2/3 (L2/3) contain morphologically and genetically diverse populations of neurons, suggesting the existence of discrete classes of cells. In primates and carnivores L2/3 can be subdivided morphologically, but cytoarchitectonic divisions are less clear in rodents. Nevertheless, discrete classes of cells could exist based on their computational requirement, which might be linked to their associated functional microcircuits...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928643/how-situational-context-impacts-empathic-responses-and-brain-activation-patterns
#11
Yawei Cheng, Chenyi Chen, Jean Decety
Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927378/genome-wide-imaging-association-study-implicates-functional-activity-and-glial-homeostasis-of-the-caudate-in-smoking-addiction
#12
David C Qian, David L Molfese, Jennifer L Jin, Alexander J Titus, Yixuan He, Yafang Li, Maxime Vaissié, Humsini Viswanath, Philip R Baldwin, Ralf Krahe, Ramiro Salas, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: Nearly 6 million deaths and over a half trillion dollars in healthcare costs worldwide are attributed to tobacco smoking each year. Extensive research efforts have been pursued to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of smoking addiction and facilitate cessation. In this study, we genotyped and obtained both resting state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging from 64 non-smokers and 42 smokers. Smokers were imaged after having smoked normally ("sated") and after having not smoked for at least 12 h ("abstinent")...
September 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927330/thalamocortical-neural-responses-during-hyperthermia-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#13
Jing Zhang, Shaowen Qian, Qingjun Jiang, Guanzhong Gong, Kai Liu, Bo Li, Yong Yin, Gang Sun
The neural responses during hyperthermia, once thought of as simple physiological processes (e.g. thermal sensation and regulation), have now been recognized involving more cognitive processes, which would be highly of importance to the management of those occupations during heavy heat exposure. Previous studies have demonstrated altered activity in localized subcortical clusters for thermal sensation and regulation, as well as cortical-cortical activity for behavioral tasks during hyperthermia. However, the involvement of cortical-subcortical activity during hyperthermia has not been investigated...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926795/dissociable-intrinsic-functional-networks-support-noun-object-and-verb-action-processing
#14
Huichao Yang, Qixiang Lin, Zaizhu Han, Hongyu Li, Luping Song, Lingjuan Chen, Yong He, Yanchao Bi
The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules...
September 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926475/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-default-mode-network-and-sensorimotor-network-in-heavy-metal-music-lovers
#15
Yan Sun, Congcong Zhang, Shuxia Duan, Xiaoxia Du, Vince D Calhoun
The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity (FC) in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) compared with classical music lovers (CML) during resting state. Forty HMML and 31 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and seed-based resting-state FC were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration. A voxel-based two-sample t-test was used to test the differences between the two groups...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926154/brain-functional-connectome-abnormalities-in-als-are-associated-with-disability-and-cortical-hyperexcitability
#16
Nimeshan Geevasinga, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Parvathi Menon, Mehdi Van den Bos, Lavier Gomes, Sheryl Foster, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized a multimodality approach encompassing connectome network combined with brain volume analysis, and assessment of cortical excitability to provide novel insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla GE Signa HDx scanner, using an 8-channel head coil. MR images for the resting state scan were acquired using echo planar imaging MR sequence, acquiring 40 contiguous axial/oblique slices...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924878/differences-between-schizophrenic-and-normal-subjects-using-network-properties-from-fmri
#17
Youngoh Bae, Kunaraj Kumarasamy, Issa M Ali, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Bradley J Erickson
Schizophrenia has been proposed to result from impairment of functional connectivity. We aimed to use machine learning to distinguish schizophrenic subjects from normal controls using a publicly available functional MRI (fMRI) data set. Global and local parameters of functional connectivity were extracted for classification. We found decreased global and local network connectivity in subjects with schizophrenia, particularly in the anterior right cingulate cortex, the superior right temporal region, and the inferior left parietal region as compared to healthy subjects...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924621/an-altered-scaffold-for-information-processing-cognitive-control-development-in-adolescents-with-autism
#18
Marjorie Solomon, Jeremy Hogeveen, Lauren Libero, Christine Nordahl
We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control that have been conducted since 2007 in individuals with ASD and typical development (TYP) ages 10 to 30 years that examined how these regions and networks support behavioral and task-based fMRI performance on tasks assessing cognitive control during this period...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924181/common-and-dissociable-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-differences-associate-with-dimensions-of-psychopathology-across-categorical-diagnoses
#19
A N Kaczkurkin, T M Moore, M E Calkins, R Ciric, J A Detre, M A Elliott, E B Foa, A Garcia de la Garza, D R Roalf, A Rosen, K Ruparel, R T Shinohara, C H Xia, D H Wolf, R E Gur, R C Gur, T D Satterthwaite
The high comorbidity among neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a possible common neurobiological phenotype. Resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abnormalities in regional CBF are present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Regional CBF may also provide a useful biological marker across different types of psychopathology. To investigate CBF changes common across psychiatric disorders, we capitalized upon a sample of 1042 youths (ages 11-23 years) who completed cross-sectional imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923408/altered-functional-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Hana Burianová, Nahla L Faizo, Marcus Gray, Julia Hocking, Graham Galloway, David Reutens
Growing evidence of altered functional connectivity suggests that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) alters not only hippocampal networks, but also a number of resting state networks. These highly coherent, yet functionally distinct brain circuits interact dynamically with each other in order to mediate consciousness, memory, and attention. However, little is currently known about the modulation of these networks by epileptiform activity, such as interictal spikes and seizures. The objective of the study was to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate functional connectivity in three resting state networks: default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and dorsal attentional network (DAN) in patients with mTLE compared to a healthy cohort, and in relation to the onset of interictal spikes and the period immediately prior to the spikes...
September 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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