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3D morphology evaluation

Soroush Aramideh, Pavlos P Vlachos, Arezoo M Ardekani
Flow in porous media is known to be largely affected by pore morphology. In this work, we investigate the effects of pore geometry on the transport and spatial correlations of flow through porous media in two distinct pore structures arising from three-dimensional assemblies of overlapping and nonoverlapping spheres. Using high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS), we perform Eulerian and Lagrangian analysis of the flow and transport characteristics in porous media. We show that the Eulerian velocity distributions change from nearly exponential to Gaussian distributions as porosity increases...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
Reinhilde Jacobs, Myrthel Vranckx, Tony Vanderstuyft, Marc Quirynen, Benjamin Salmon
AIM: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CBCT compared with 2D imaging and clinical gold standard techniques in peri-implant bone defect detection and measurement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases up to July 2017. Clinical, ex vivo, in vitro and animal studies that assessed and measured peri-implant bone defects using different imaging modalities were included in this review...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Rémy Gauthier, Max Langer, Hélène Follet, Cécile Olivier, Pierre-Jean Gouttenoire, Lukas Helfen, Frédéric Rongiéras, David Mitton, Françoise Peyrin
Human bone is known to adapt to its mechanical environment in a living body. Both its architecture and microstructure may differ between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. The aim of the current study was to analyze in three dimensions, the morphology of the multi-scale porosities on human cortical bone at different locations. Eight paired femoral diaphyses, femoral necks, and radial diaphyses were imaged using Synchrotron Radiation µCT with a 0.7 µm isotropic voxel size. The spatial resolution facilitates the investigation of the multiscale porosities of cortical bone, from the osteonal canals system down to the osteocyte lacunar system...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Anne Jorstad, Jérôme Blanc, Graham Knott
The geometries of axons, dendrites and their synaptic connections provide important information about their functional properties. These can be collected directly from measurements made on serial electron microscopy images. However, manual and automated segmentation methods can also yield large and accurate models of neuronal architecture from which morphometric data can be gathered in 3D space. This technical paper presents a series of software tools, operating in the Blender open source software, for the quantitative analysis of axons and their synaptic connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Valentina Mantegazza, Annalisa Pasquini, Luciano Agati, Laura Fusini, Manuela Muratori, Paola Gripari, Sarah Ghulam Ali, Carlo Vignati, Antonio Luca Bartorelli, Cristina Ferrari, Francesco Alamanni, Mauro Pepi, Gloria Tamborini
MitraClip is a validated treatment for significant mitral regurgitation (MR) in high-risk patients. Aims of the study were to evaluate immediate changes in mitral valve (MV) geometry induced by MitraClip and correlations between baseline geometry and cardiac remodeling. Eighty patients who underwent MitraClip for primary (48%) or secondary (52%) MR were enrolled. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic 3D images were acquired immediately before and after the procedure for MV annulus (MVA) morphology analysis...
July 4, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Jun-Xuan Li, Zhan-Bin Qin, Yue-Hua Li, Guang-Hua Cui
Two new Ag(I) coordination polymers (CPs), namely, Ag(L)(Htp) (1) and [Ag(L)]·(Htp)·2H2 O (2) were synthesized from the long flexible ligand of 1,6-bis(2-methylbenzimidazolyl)hexane (L), terephthalic acid (H2 tp) and different silver(I) salts using hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, These CPs were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. 1 features a uninodal 3-connected 2D hcb layered structure, while 2 exhibits an infinite 1D linear chain and ultimately extended into 3D supramolecular framework via O-H⋯O and Ag⋯O interactions...
November 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Mohamed A M Alsafy, Samir A El-Gendy, Basma Kamal
The camel digits have a complex structure with tendons, joints and ligaments. The objective of the study was to determine the anatomical features of the metatarsophalangeal joint and its puncture site in dromedary camel using anatomical dissection, radiography, computed tomography (CT) bone and soft tissue window scans and 3D reconstruction render volume of CT. The study used six adult camels of both sexes (three males and three females), aged 9-15 years (Mean ± SD equal 11.80 ± 2.59 years). The camel fetlock possesses two metatarsophalangeal joints, left and right ones...
August 6, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Hamidreza Rajabzadeh-Oghaz, Nicole Varble, Hussain Shallwani, Vincent M Tutino, Ashkan Mowla, Hakeem J Shakir, Kunal Vakharia, Gursant S Atwal, Adnan H Siddiqui, Jason M Davies, Hui Meng
OBJECTIVE: Precise morphologic evaluation is important for intracranial aneurysm (IA) management. Currently, clinicians manually measure IA size and neck diameter on two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (2D-DSA) and categorize IA shape as regular/irregular on three-dimensional (3D)-DSA, which might be subject to inconsistency and bias. We investigated whether a computer-assisted 3D analytical approach could improve IA morphology assessment. METHODS: Five neurointerventionists evaluated sizes, neck diameters, and shapes of 39 IAs using current and computer-assisted 3D approaches...
July 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Angélica Graça, Lídia Maria Gonçalves, Sara Raposo, Helena Margarida Ribeiro, Joana Marto
Polymer-based eye drops are the most used drug delivery system to treat dry eye disease (DED). Therefore, the mucoadhesion between the polymer and the ocular mucin is crucial to ensure the efficacy of the treatment. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential use of in vitro methods to study the mucoadhesion of eye drop solutions and, specifically to evaluate the efficacy of two hyaluronic acid-based formulations (HA), HA 0.15% and 0.30% ( w / v ) to treat DED. Rheology methods and zeta potential determination were used to study the mucoadhesive properties of both eye drop solutions...
August 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Thomas R Niethammer, Ansgar Loitzsch, Annie Horng, Andrea Baur-Melnyk, Martin Bendiks, Mehmet F Gülecyüz, Peter E Müller, Matthias F Pietschmann
BACKGROUND: Graft hypertrophy is common after matrix-based autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in the knee joint. However, it is not clear whether graft hypertrophy is a complication or an adjustment reaction in the cartilage regeneration after ACI. PURPOSE: To analyze the cartilage quality of the ACI regeneration with graft hypertrophy using T2-weighted mapping. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: A total of 91 patients with isolated cartilage defects (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS] grade III-IV) of the knee were treated with Novocart 3D, a third-generation, matrix-based, ACI procedure in the knee joint...
August 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Haixia Shi, Junko Nagai, Tsukasa Sakatsume, Kenjiro Bandow, Noriyuki Okudaira, Yoshihiro Uesawa, Hiroshi Sakagami, Mineko Tomomura, Akito Tomomura, Koichi Takao, Yoshiaki Sugita
BACKGROUND/AIM: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-ones (chromones) provide a backbone structure for the chemical synthesis of potent anticancer drugs. In contrast to 2-(N-cyclicamino)chromones, the biological activity of 3-(N-cyclicamino)chromones has not been reported. In this study, cytotoxicity of 15 3-(N-cyclicamino)chromone derivatives was investigated and subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and three oral normal mesenchymal cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Junko Nagai, Haixia Shi, Yuka Kubota, Kenjiro Bandow, Noriyuki Okudaira, Yoshihiro Uesawa, Hiroshi Sakagami, Mineko Tomomura, Akito Tomomura, Koichi Takao, Yoshiaki Sugita
BACKGROUND/AIM: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one (chromone) provides a backbone structure for the chemical synthesis of potent anticancer drugs. Since studies of the biological activity of pyrano[4,3-b]chromones are limited, we investigated a total of 20 pyrano[4,3-b]chromones (10 sets of diastereomers) for their cytotoxicity against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and human normal oral cells, and then carried out a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
V Paoloni, E Cretella Lombardo, F Placidi, G Ruvolo, P Cozza, G Laganà
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the severity degree of OSA (apnea/hypopnea index AHI>1) and palatal area and volume, measured by 3D analysis of digital casts in Marfan children. METHODS: Twenty children with a clinical diagnosis of MS were recruited from a tertiary medical center. All the subjects underwent standard nocturnal polygraphy testing. Sixteen Marfan patients (7F,9 M; mean age 8.8yy ± 1.5yy) with AHI>1 were enrolled. Marfan Group (MG) was compared with a control group (CG) of 17 children without Marfan syndrome (9F,8 M; mean age 8...
September 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Maura Pellei, Valentina Gandin, Cristina Cimarelli, Wilma Quaglia, Nello Mosca, Luca Bagnarelli, Cristina Marzano, Carlo Santini
Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of 5-nitroimidazole conjugated heteroscorpionate ligands have been synthesized. In particular, the new 2,2-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-N-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide ligand (LH MN) was synthesized by direct coupling of preformed side chain acid with 5-nitroimidazole and its coordination chemistry was investigated towards Cu(I) and Cu(II) acceptors and compared with that of the related 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide ligand (LMe MN)...
October 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Marius Valeriu Hînganu, Delia Hînganu, Sebastian Romică Cozma, Cristina Asimionoaiei-Simionescu, Irina Andreea Scutariu, Dorin Savin Ionesi, Danisia Haba
The present study aims to identify the anatomical functional changes of the buccopharyngeal space in case of singers with canto voice. The interest in this field is particularly important in view of the relation between the artistic performance level, phoniatry and functional anatomy, as the voice formation mechanism is not completely known yet. We conducted a morphometric study on three soprano voices that differ in type and training level. The anatomical soft structures from the superior vocal formant of each soprano were measured on images captured using the Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) technique...
July 23, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Pranav Joshi, Kyeong-Nam Yu, Soo-Yeon Kang, Seok Joon Kwon, Paul S Kwon, Jonathan S Dordick, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli, Moo-Yeal Lee
Numerous chemicals including environmental toxicants and drugs have not been fully evaluated for developmental neurotoxicity. A key gap exists in the ability to predict accurately and robustly in vivo outcomes based on in vitro assays. This is particularly the case for predicting the toxicity of chemicals on the developing human brain. A critical need for such in vitro assays is choice of a suitable model cell type. To that end, we have performed high-throughput in vitro assessment of proliferation and differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs)...
July 24, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Ran Zhou, Yongkang Luo, Aaron Fenster, John David Spence, Mingyue Ding
Irregularity of the plaque surface associated with previous plaque rupture plays an important role in the risk estimation of stroke caused by carotid atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop and validate novel vulnerability biomarkers from three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) images by analyzing the surface morphological characteristics of carotid plaque using fractal geometry features. In the experiments, a total of 38 3DUS plaque images were obtained from two groups of patients treated with 80 mg of atorvastatin or placebo daily for 3 months respectively...
July 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yijie Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Minfei Qiang, Kun Zhang, Haobo Li, Yuchen Jiang, Xiaoyang Jia
To provide morphological parameters of the normal tibial plateau by using three-dimensional (3D) CT and conventional radiography.We performed morphological measurements of tibial plateau on 157 consecutive adults using radiographic and 3D computed tomography (CT). Gender differences as well as differences in measurement techniques were statistically compared. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate intra- and interobserver reproducibility.The mediolateral dimensions, anteroposterior dimensions of tibial plateau showed significant differences according to gender, but no statistical differences were observed in coronal tibial slope as well as in posterior slope...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mohamed M Salama, Doaa A El-Naggar, Rania H Abdel-Rahman, Seham A G Elhak
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common volatile organic solvent which is considered as an ubiquitous environmental pollutant. It is claimed to be a developmental neurotoxicant. Our group evaluated previously its impact on three-dimensional neurospheres in vitro . The current work aims to investigate the neurotoxic effects of a lower concentration of TCE on the same system. To perform the experiment, neural progenitor cells were obtained from the brains of nine newborn rats. Afterward, these cells were cultured in both growth and differentiation media to get the neurospheres...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Luís Amaro, Daniela M Correia, Teresa Marques-Almeida, Pedro M Martins, Leyre Pérez, José L Vilas, Gabriela Botelho, Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez, Clarisse Ribeiro
Polymer-based piezoelectric biomaterials have already proven their relevance for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, the morphology of the scaffolds plays also an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present work reports on poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a biocompatible, biodegradable, and piezoelectric biopolymer that has been processed in different morphologies, including films, fibers, microspheres, and 3D scaffolds. The corresponding magnetically active PHBV-based composites were also produced...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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