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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750070/low-hiv-incidence-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-receiving-a-community-based-combination-hiv-prevention-intervention-in-a-high-hiv-incidence-setting-in-south-africa
#1
Geoffrey Fatti, Najma Shaikh, Debra Jackson, Ameena Goga, Jean B Nachega, Brian Eley, Ashraf Grimwood
BACKGROUND: Young Southern African women have the highest HIV incidence globally. Pregnancy doubles the risk of HIV acquisition further, and maternal HIV acquisition contributes significantly to the paediatric HIV burden. Little data on combination HIV prevention interventions during pregnancy and lactation are available. We measured HIV incidence amongst pregnant and postpartum women receiving a community-based combination HIV prevention intervention in a high HIV incidence setting in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749544/combined-eeg-fmri-and-esi-improves-localisation-of-paediatric-focal-epilepsy
#2
Maria Centeno, Tim M Tierney, Suejen Perani, Elhum A Shamshiri, Kelly StPier, Charlotte Wilkinson, Daniel Konn, Serge Vulliemoz, Frédéric Grouiller, Louis Lemieux, Ronit M Pressler, Christopher A Clark, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
Objective Surgical treatment in epilepsy is effective if the epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be correctly localized and characterized. Here we use simultaneous Electroencephalography-functional MRI (EEG-fMRI) data to derive EEG-fMRI and Electrical Source Imaging (ESI) maps. Their yield and their individual and combined ability to 1) localize the epileptogenic zone and 2) predict seizure outcome was then evaluated. Methods Fifty-three children with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent EEG-fMRI. Interictal discharges were mapped using both EEG-fMRI haemodynamic responses and Electrical Source Imaging (ESI)...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749396/validity-of-broselow-tape-for-estimating-weight-of-indian-children
#3
Vivek Shah, Sandeep B Bavdekar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The Broselow tape has been validated in both ambulatory and simulated emergency situations in the United States and is believed to reduce complications arising from inaccurate drug dosing and equipment sizing in paediatric population. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the actual weight and weight determined by Broselow tape in the Indian children and to derive an equation for determination of weight based on height in the Indian children...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749163/development-of-a-paediatric-head-voxel-model-database-for-dosimetric-applications
#4
Andreas Stratis, Nathan Touyz, Guozhi Zhang, Reinhilde Jacobs, Ria Bogaerts, Hilde Bosmans
OBJECTIVES: To develop a database of paediatric head voxel models intended for Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetric applications. METHODS: Seventeen head and neck CT image datasets were retrieved from the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS) of our hospital and were reformed into voxel models. Twenty two organs were segmented at each dataset. The segmented organ masses were compared to the respective age and gender specific ICRP reference mass value. Adjustments were made such that segmented and reference mass values coincide within a tolerance of 10%...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748509/clinical-characteristics-and-thrombosis-outcomes-of-paediatric-antiphospholipid-syndrome-analysis-of-58-patients
#5
Jingran Ma, Hongmei Song, Min Wei, Yanyan He
The study aims to analyse the clinical and immunological manifestations of paediatric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in patients, based on the 2006 revised classification criteria of definite APS. Fifty-eight paediatric patients with APS were enrolled and analysed retrospectively. A total of 37 female and 21 male patients with a mean age of 14 ± 3 years at disease onset were included. Fourteen (24%) cases were primary APS, and 40 (69%) cases were secondary to systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE). Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and hypocomplementemia were more common in secondary APS than in primary APS...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748395/variation-in-caries-treatment-proposals-among-dentists-in-norway-the-best-interest-of-the-child
#6
A Rønneberg, A B Skaare, B Hofmann, I Espelid
AIM: To explore variation in treatment-related-decisions for severe caries in children among dentists in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Norway. It was also to evaluate the treatment choices in relation to the best interest of children and a child's rights to enjoy the highest standard of health care. METHODS: A pre-coded questionnaire was sent electronically to all general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in the PDS in eight counties in Norway (n = 611)...
July 26, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748015/evaluation-of-problem-based-learning-curriculum-implementation-in-a-clerkship-rotation-of-a-newly-established-african-medical-training-institution-lessons-from-the-university-of-botswana
#7
Stephane Tshitenge Tshitenge, Chiratidzo Ellen Ndhlovu, Radiance Ogundipe
INTRODUCTION: Problem-based Learning (PBL) curricula, like all curricula, require systematic evaluation as there is a risk of implementing a dysfunctional PBL curriculum. The study intended to evaluate the PBL curriculum delivery from the perspective of the clerkship students at the University of Botswana-Faculty of Medicine. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clerkship students in Family Medicine, Paediatrics, Internal Medicine and Surgery. During a 4-week period, each respondent completed weekly a questionnaire based survey tool...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746800/the-changing-nature-of-relationships-between-parents-and-healthcare-providers-when-a-child-dies-in-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#8
Ashleigh E Butler, Helen Hall, Beverley Copnell
AIM: To explore bereaved parents' interactions with healthcare providers when a child dies in a paediatric intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Though most children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit will survive, 2-5% will die during their stay. The parents of these children interact and form relationships with numerous healthcare staff during their child's illness and death. Though previous studies have explored the parental experience of child death in intensive care generally, the nature of their relationships with healthcare providers during this time remains unknown...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746779/hepatic-farnesoid-x-receptor-protein-level-and-circulating-fibroblast-growth-factor-19-concentration-in-children-with-nafld
#9
Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi, Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Silvio Veraldi, Rita De Vito, Cristiano De Stefanis, Valentina D'Oria, Joerg Jahnel, Evelyn Zohrer, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid is ineffective in some patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) but the explanation is uncertain. We investigated hepatic FXR expression, and measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and bile acids (BAs) in children with NAFLD to investigate relationships with NASH. METHODS: 33 children with NAFLD who underwent diagnostic liver biopsy were studied. Hepatic FXR protein levels and circulating FGF19 concentrations were compared with those analyzed in five control subjects with proven normal liver histology...
July 26, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745959/closed-arterial-lab-sampling-devices-a-study-of-compliance-and-best-practice
#10
Ann Benedict, Adam Mayer, Heather Craven
As the quality of patient care continues to improve, nursing professionals are continuously tasked with researching, implementing, and evaluating best practices. The practice of obtaining blood samples from paediatric patients, using a conventional three-way stopcock method, has been associated with peripheral arterial catheter intraluminal contamination and catheter-related bloodstream infections. A paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU), in a large medical centre in the USA, set an objective to mitigate the risk of possible contamination by implementing the use of closed arterial lab sampling devices...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745394/opioids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Andrew L Gray, Elliot Krane, Navil Sethna, Miranda Al van Tilburg, Boris Zernikow, Philip J Wiffen
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as importantWe designed a suite of seven reviews on chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol as priority areas) in order to review the evidence for children's pain utilising pharmacological interventions in children and adolescents...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745279/paediatric-nanofibrous-bioprosthetic-heart-valve
#12
REVIEW
Mehrdad Namdari, Babak Negahdari, Ali Eatemadi
The search for an optimal aortic valve implant with durability, calcification resistance, excellent haemodynamic parameters and ability to withstand mechanical loading is yet to be met. Thus, there has been struggled to fabricate bio-prosthetics heart valve using bioengineering. The consequential product must be resilient with suitable mechanical features, biocompatible and possess the capacity to grow. Defective heart valves replacement by surgery is now common, this improves the value and survival of life for a lot of patients...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744925/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-oral-itraconazole-for-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-children
#13
Sarah Allegra, Giovanna Fatiguso, Silvia De Francia, Fabio Favata, Elisa Pirro, Chiara Carcieri, Amedeo De Nicolò, Jessica Cusato, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
Itraconazole is a first-generation triazole agent with an extended spectrum of activity; it is licensed in adults for superficial and systemic fungal infections; no recommendation has been yet established for use in children patients. Its variable and unpredictable oral bioavailability make it difficult to determine the optimal dosing regimen. Hence, therapeutic drug monitoring, highly available in clinical practice, may improve itraconazole treatment success and safety. The aim of the study was to describe in paediatrics the oral itraconazole pharmacokinetics, used for prophylaxis...
July 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744815/mammalian-diaphanous-related-formin-1-restricts-early-phases-of-influenza-a-nws-33-virus-h1n1-infection-in-llc-mk2-cells-by-affecting-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#14
Flora De Conto, Alessandra Fazzi, Sergey V Razin, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Silvana Belletti, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
Viruses depend on cellular machinery to efficiently replicate. The host cytoskeleton is one of the first cellular systems hijacked by viruses in order to ensure their intracellular transport and promote the development of infection. Our previous results demonstrated that stable microfilaments and microtubules interfered with human influenza A/NWS/33 virus (H1N1) infection in semi-permissive LLC-MK2 cells. Although formins play a key role in cytoskeletal remodelling, few studies addressed a possible role of these proteins in development of viral infection...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743935/direct-acting-antivirals-for-paediatric-hcv-we-got-there
#15
Etienne M Sokal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743733/paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-presenting-lesion
#16
David J McCreary, Guy Millman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743619/organ-and-effective-doses-from-paediatric-interventional-cardiology-procedures-in-chile
#17
Carlos Ubeda, Patricia Miranda, Eliseo Vano, Diego Nocetti, Carlos Manterola
The aim of this study was to present the results of organ and effective doses for paediatric patients for different types of interventional cardiology procedures for age and weight groups, derived from a patient dosimetry pilot programme carried out in Chile, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over seven years, a retrospective collection of demographic and patient dose data was obtained: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose at patient entrance reference point...
July 22, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743279/childhood-interstitial-lung-diseases-in-immunocompetent-children-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-decade-s-experience
#18
Vishal Saddi, Sean Beggs, Bruce Bennetts, Joanne Harrison, Neil Hime, Nitin Kapur, Jill Lipsett, Lawrence M Nogee, Amy Phu, Sadasivam Suresh, André Schultz, Hiran Selvadurai, Stephanie Sherrard, Roxanne Strachan, Julian Vyas, Yvonne Zurynski, Adam Jaffé
BACKGROUND: Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a rare heterogeneous group of respiratory disorders. In the absence of randomized controlled clinical trials, global collaborations have utilized case series with an aim to standardising approaches to diagnosis and management. Australasian data are lacking. The aim of this study was to calculate prevalence and report the experience of chILD in Australasia over a decade. METHODS: Paediatric pulmonologists in Australia and New Zealand involved in the care of patients aged 0-18 years with chILD completed a questionnaire on demographics, clinical features and outcomes, over a 10 year period...
July 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741003/singapore-paediatric-resuscitation-guidelines-2016
#19
Gene Yong Kwang Ong, Irene Lai Yeen Chan, Agnes Suah Bwee Ng, Su Yah Chew, Yee Hui Mok, Yoke Hwee Chan, Jacqueline Soo May Ong, Sashikumar Ganapathy, Kee Chong Ng
We present the revised 2016 Singapore paediatric resuscitation guidelines. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's Pediatric Taskforce Consensus Statements on Science and Treatment Recommendations, as well as the updated resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council released in October 2015, were debated and discussed by the workgroup. The final recommendations for the Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016 were derived after carefully reviewing the current available evidence in the literature and balancing it with local clinical practice...
July 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740616/unlocking-the-potential-of-established-products-toward-new-incentives-rewarding-innovation-in-europe
#20
Gabrielle Nayroles, Sandrine Frybourg, Sylvie Gabriel, Åsa Kornfeld, Fernando Antoñanzas-Villar, Jaime Espín, Claudio Jommi, Nello Martini, Gérard de Pouvourville, Keith Tolley, Jürgen Wasem, Mondher Toumi
Background: Many established products (EPs - marketed for eight years or more) are widely used off-label despite little evidence on benefit-risk ratio. This exposes patients to risks related to safety and lack of efficacy, and healthcare providers to liability. Introducing new indications for EPs may represent a high societal value; however, manufacturers rarely invest in R&D for EPs. The objective of this research was to describe incentives and disincentives for developing new indications for EPs in Europe and to investigate consequences of current policies...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
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