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Gastric content

Audrey Machado Dos Reis, Ana Valéria Fruchtenicht, Sérgio Henrique Loss, Luis Fernando Moreira
To meet the nutritional requirements of patients admitted to intensive care units, it is necessary to establish a diet schedule. Complications associated with enteral nutrition by tube feeding are not uncommon and may reduce the delivery of required nutrient to patients in intensive care units. Research on the osmolality, fat content, caloric intensity and fiber content of formulas are under way, and a substantial number of studies have focused on fiber content tolerability or symptom reduction. We conducted a systematic review of dietary fiber use and safety in critically ill patients in 8 studies based on diarrhea, other gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal distension, gastric residual volume, vomiting and constipation), intestinal microbiota, length of stay in the intensive care unit and death...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Min Wang, Yan Sun, Shu-Jing Zhang, Yu-Shan Gao, Ya-Nan Wei, Peng-Na Zhao, Miao Liu, Jia-Min Yang, Feng-Jie Zheng, Hong Xu, Yu-Hang Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of San-Ao Decoction (, SAD) on water metabolism of bronchial asthra model mice. METHODS: Forty-five female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control, model and SAD groups by a random number table, 15 mice in each group. A composite method with ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge was developed to establish bronchial asthma model. Mice in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with distilled water without aerosol inhalation challenge...
October 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Ya-Qi Yu, Jin-Yan Yang
Oral bioaccessibility of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in soil, dust and concentrate fines from a vanadium titanomagnetite mining region was assessed by a whole digestive system in-vitro scheme. The scheme including the addition of sweat and the large intestinal digestion was used to estimate the oral bioaccessibility of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in the whole digestive system for the first time. Higher oral bioaccessibility of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) was determined in gastric and small intestinal phases demonstrating that their major roles for vanadium digestion and absorption...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Cong Xie, Xuyi Wang, Richard L Young, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
The gastrointestinal tract stores ingested nutrients in the stomach which are then delivered to the small intestine at a controlled rate to optimize their digestion and absorption. The interaction of nutrients with the small and large intestine generates feedback that slows gastric emptying, induces satiation, and reduces postprandial glycemic excursions. The mechanisms underlying these nutrient-gut interactions are complex; it has only recently been appreciated that the gut has the capacity to detect intraluminal contents in much the same way as the tongue, via activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors, and that ensuing signaling mechanisms modulate the release of an array of gut hormones that influence gastrointestinal motility, appetite and glycemia...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Luz Barona-Lleo, Rafael Barona-De Guzman, Claudio Krstulovic
OBJECTIVE: Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) is a disease characterized by the presence of symptoms, signs and tissue alterations in the aero-digestive upper tract as a consequence of the gastric contents retrograde movement. In most cases diagnosis is clinical and it is established by the presence of symptoms and endoscopic laryngeal signs. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative Likelihood Ratio (LR) of the salivary pepsin assay (PEP-test, RD Biomed, Hull, UK) as diagnostic tool of LPR...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Saeed Ahmad, Samya Perveen, Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Tayyeba Rehman
Background Euphorbia granulata is herb of family Euphorbiaceae having several traditional uses. The aim of the study is to summarize reported nutritional and medicinal value along with ethnomedical records. Methods The papers on nutritional and medicinal value of E. granulata are collected from electronic search engines (Google Scholar, PubMed). Synonyms are confirmed from "The plant List." Results Pharmacological studies suggest that the extracts of E. granulata possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, antiulcerative colitis and spasmolytic properties...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Zaida Salmón González, Miriam Vieitez Santiago, Maria Martino González, Jose Luis Hernández, Juan Alonso Gutierrez
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency. It's characterized by laboratory findings of hyperkaliemia, hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. Disruption is caused by massive tumor cell lysis in which the contents os the lysed tumor cells are released into bloodstream. TLS is a complication that occurs more frequently in hematological tumors or with a large tumor burden, but what is exceptional its appearance spontaneously (STLS). In this article, we report a case of STLS in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma...
October 9, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Rimon Sobhi Azzam
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a clinical condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is the main pathophysiological mechanism of GERD. Symptoms and complications can be related to the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, oral cavity, larynx and/or the lung. Symptoms and other possible manifestations of GERD are heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, non-cardiac chest pain, chronic cough, chronic laryngitis, asthma and dental erosions...
October 4, 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Caroline Giezenaar, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Whey protein, when ingested on its own, load-dependently slows gastric emptying and stimulates gut hormone concentrations in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrate (dextrose) and fat (olive oil) to whey protein. In randomized, double-blind order, 13 healthy young men (age: 23 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24 ± 1 kg/m²) ingested a control drink (450 mL; ~2 kcal/'control') or iso-volumetric drinks containing protein/carbohydrate/fat: (i) 14 g/28 g/12...
October 7, 2018: Nutrients
Kristin Sæbø Pettersen, Taran Skjerdal, Yngvild Wasteson, Toril Lindbäck, Gerd Vegarud, Irene Comi, Marina Aspholm
The food industry is under pressure to reduce the NaCl content in food, but the consequences on the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive in the human host and cause listeriosis is not known. In this study, a recently developed internationally harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) model was used to investigate the survival of L. monocytogenes in the gastric and intestinal phases after exposure to 5 or 0.5% NaCl. Six isolates from three Scandinavian foodborne listeriosis outbreaks, all related to NaCl containing foods, the EGDe reference strain and an EGDe mutant, deleted for the major stress regulator gene, sigB, were included...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Seniha Guler, Murat Unal
The aim of the study was to evaluate of surface roughness and color changes of the resin-based five restorative dental materials after aging in liquids at different pH values. Totally 250 specimens were prepared, including 50 specimens for the each material group from five different restorative materials (G1[Filtek Z550], G2[Beautifil II], G3[Vertise Flow], G4[Dyract XP], G5[GCFujiIILC]), using the 10-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness molds. A total of 50 specimens in the each group, were divided into five subgroups (n = 10) to be immerse into five liquids at different pH...
October 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Pan Li, Wenni Tian, Zhuo Jiang, Zuanhao Liang, Xueyin Wu, Bing Du
Bacillus sp. DU-106, a newly isolated member of Bacillus cereus group, exhibits the predominant ability to produce L-lactic acid. The probiotic potency of test strain revealed its survivability at acidic pH, bile salts and viability in simulated gastric juice in vitro . The acute oral toxicity test indicated its no toxicity to laboratory mice in vivo . We further determined the complete genome of strain DU-106 to understand genetic basis as a potential probiotic. It has a circular chromosome and three plasmids for a total genome 5,758,208 bp in size with a G + C content of 35...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Supawon Srettabunjong
With limited knowledge on epidemiological and morphological characteristics of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), this study was aimed to identify such data in Thai SUNDS autopsy cases. All the cases were men and nondrug abusers aged 20-49 years old. Most cases were originated in the Northeastern region of Thailand. Half of them were found dead from midnight to 6 a.m., with a peak time at 2 a.m. The death rate was relatively higher in May and June. Most SUNDS cases were blue-collar workers (93...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Damien P Belobrajdic, Colin L D Jenkins, Claus T Christophersen, Anthony R Bird
PURPOSE: Intestinal fermentation of inulin-type fructans, including oligofructose, can modulate adiposity, improve energy regulation, and increase mineral absorption. We aimed to determine whether cereal fructans had greater effects on reducing adiposity and improving mineral absorption compared with oligofructose. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments that contained 0% fructan (control), or 5% fructan provided by oligofructose (OF), a barley grain fraction (BGF), or a wheat stem fraction (WSF)...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Reham Waheed Hammad, Rania Abdel Baset Sanad, Nevine Shawky Abdelmalk, Randa Latif Aziz, Faisal A Torad
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an esophageal injury occurred when the stomach contents reflux abnormally into the esophagus. GERD complications include esophageal adenocarcinoma. Mosapride (MOS) is a safe prokinetic agent potentially used to treat GERD. Yet, its low solubility and bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism limits its applications. This study aimed to formulate MOS nanostructured lipid carriers (MOS-NLCs) via the intranasal route to improve its bioavailability. Melt-emulsification low temperature-solidification technique using 23 full factorial design was adopted to formulate MOS-NLCs...
October 2, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Xiaofeng He, Minke Shi, Bin Cao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of the gastric tube diameter on quality of life of esophagus cancer patients after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. METHODS: Clinical and follow-up data of 188 esophageal cancer patients who underwent Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Drum Tower Clinical Medicine College, Nanjing Medical University from January 2015 to June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria included age <75 years old, good foundation health situation, no distant metastasis, complete follow-up data for one-year after surgery, and middle-lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
September 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Stephen M Roberts, Yvette W Lowney, Leah D Stuchal
Bioaccessibilities of PCDD/PCDF congeners contributing to cancer risk were determined in twelve soil samples from the American Creosote Works Superfund site in Florida. Based upon sample locations, congener profiles (i.e., the same dominant congeners), and total (Toxic Equivalent; TEQ) concentrations, each of these samples has PCDD/PCDF contamination reasonably attributable to the site. Bioaccessibility was determined using a 2-phase in vitro extraction method that included both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions of the human GI tract...
September 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Marta Giergiel, Maciej M Durkalec, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Bartosz Sell, Iwona Stolarska, Andrzej Posyniak
The article reports a case of acute copper sulfate (CuSO4) poisoning in 2-day-old turkeys. The first incidences were noticed 2 h after placing the animals in the poultry house, where turkeys were provided with wood shaving bedding. Post-mortem examination showed wood shavings present in gastric and intestinal contents and numerous lesions in the alimentary tract: dark green color of the koilin lining, and surface erosions, deep ulceration, and severe congestion of the gizzard. The copper (Cu) concentration in samples of the liver, kidney, heart, gizzard content, gizzard muscle, gizzard lining, and wood shavings from the bedding was determined...
September 27, 2018: Poultry Science
Azza A Mahmoud, Alaa H Salama, Rehab N Shamma, Faten Farouk
The aim of this study was to design a novel carrier for enhancing the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug, aripiprazole (ARP). Silicosan, the applied carrier, was obtained by chemical interaction between tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and chitosan HCl. Different ARP-loaded silicosan particles were successfully prepared in absence and presence of one of the following surfactants; Tween 80, Poloxamer 407 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared ARP-loaded silicosan particles were thoroughly investigated for their structures using FTIR, XRD, and DSC analysis as well as their particle size, zeta potential, flowability, drug content, and in vitro drug release efficiencies...
September 26, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Natalia Rosa-Sibakov, Margherita Re, Anni Karsma, Arja Laitila, Emilia Nordlund
In legumes such as faba bean, phytic acid can form very stable complexes with proteins, thus hindering their accessibility for gastrointestinal digestion. This study was set up to investigate the influence of enzymatic phytase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation ( Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076) on phytic acid reduction as well as on the protein quality and digestibility of faba bean flour. The soluble protein and release of free amino acids from faba bean flours were followed during a simulated in vitro digestion process...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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