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Gastric content

Kyoichi Adachi, Takumi Notsu, Tomoko Mishiro, Mayumi Okada, Eiko Okimoto, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Aim Esophageal mucosal breaks are considered to occur circumferentially in locations with high exposure to acid. In the present study, we investigated the circumferential localization of esophageal mucosal breaks based on their distance from the esophagogastric junction. Subjects and methods The vertical and circumferential localization of 625 esophageal longitudinal mucosal breaks was examined in 398 patients with mild reflux esophagitis. Results The number of mucosal breaks in which the distal end was located 0-1 cm from the esophagogastric junction was 454, while those in which the distal end was located 1-2, 2-3, and >3 cm from the junction were 125, 28, and 18, respectively...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
David Y Graham, Muhammad Miftahussurur
The stomach contents contain of both acid and proteolytic enzymes. How the stomach digests food without damaging itself remained a topic of investigation for decades. One candidate was gastric urease, which neutralized acid by producing ammonia from urea diffusing from the blood and potentially could protect the stomach. Discovery that gastric urease was not mammalian resulted in a research hiatus until discovery that gastric urease was produce by Helicobacter pylori which caused gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ayhan Kaydu, Erhan Gokcek
BACKGROUND Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is a serious perioperative complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of portable ultrasonography in the preoperative evaluation of the gastric contents of patients. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship between gastric antrum cross-sectional area and age and body mass index (BMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS This single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study included 120 patients who underwent surgery. Measurements the gastric antral cross-sectional areas and quantitative and qualitative measurements of the stomach were taken by ultrasonography guidance in all patients...
August 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
E N Kashinskaya, E P Simonov, M R Kabilov, G I Izvekova, K B Andree, M M Solovyev
AIMS: The aim of this work was to study the gut microbial diversity from eight species of wild fish with different feeding habits, digestive physiology (gastric vs. agastric) and provide comparative structural analysis of the microbial communities within their environment (food items, water, sediments, and macrophytes). METHODS AND RESULTS: The microbiota of fish gut and their prey items were studied using next generation high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Huan Chen, Hang Su, Ling Yuan, Yi-Fan Miao, Yu-Mei Zhang, Juan Li, Wen-Fu Tang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Shu-and Mu-points of Lung and Large Intestine Meridians combined with administration of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD) in the treatment of inflammatory injury in rats with acute pancreatitis, so as to reveal their synergetic anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control, model, DCQD, EA, EA+DCQD, with 8 rats in each group...
June 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Marta Santos-Hernández, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Isidra Recio
The present study evaluates casein and whey protein gastrointestinal digests as inducers of CCK and GLP-1 secretion and expression in STC-1 cells. In vitro digests were characterized regarding protein, peptide and free amino acid content. Digests from the intestinal phase containing small size peptides and free amino acids behaved as more potent CCK inducers than digests from the gastric phase. However, GLP-1 release was maximized with casein gastric digests and whey protein intestinal digests. Human jejunal digests from the same substrates showed a comparable response, except for casein jejunal digests which exerted a higher effect than in vitro casein gastrointestinal digests...
August 9, 2018: Food & Function
Vanessa de Brito Poveda, Ana Carolina Breviglieri Alves Castilho, Lilia de Souza Nogueira, Renata Eloah Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Rita de Cássia Gengo E Silva
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences in nurses' clinical practice for assessing residual gastric volume and identifying the theoretical framework which supports their practice. METHOD: A cross-sectional study carried out by sending an online questionnaire by e-mail to nurses registered at the Regional Nursing Council of the State of São Paulo. RESULTS: This study included 598 nursing professionals, with 484 only providing care to adults and 114 exclusively to children...
August 6, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Hanif
OBJECTIVE: Raft is an emerging drug delivery system which is suitable for controlled release drug delivery and targeting. The present study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of raft, in vitro release of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate and conduct bioavailability studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Box behnken design was used with three independent and dependent variables. Independent variables were sodium alginate (X1 ), pectin (X2 ) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K100M (X3 ) while dependent variables were percentage drug release at 2 (Y2 ), 4 (Y4 ) and 8 h (Y8 )...
August 7, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
François-Pierrick Desgranges, Marine Simonin, Sophie Barnoud, Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Eloise Cercueil, Julien Erbacher, Bernard Allaouchiche, Dominique Chassard, Lionel Bouvet
BACKGROUND: Emergent obstetrical procedures may require general anaesthesia in parturients at full cervical dilatation or immediately after vaginal birth. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the predictive factors of higher estimated gastric content in parturients at full cervical dilatation with epidural analgesia and allowed to drink during the labour, and to assess the ability of the antral area measured in the semirecumbent position (SR-CSA) to identify higher estimated gastric content in this setting...
August 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Dawlat A Sayed, Amel M Soliman, Sohair R Fahmy
OBJECTIVE: evaluate the antiulcer healing effect of echinochrome pigment (Ech 5 and 10 mg/kg) extracted from sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus). METHODS: Severe gastric ulceration induced in rats by administration of indomethacin in combination with cold stress (IND + CS) for 2 h. The antiulcer effect of Ech was indicated by determination of gastric juice volume, gastric juice acidity, and ulcer index as well as determination of gastric malondialdhyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) activities...
August 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie
OBJECTIVE: Vigna subterranea is widely consumed as a traditional staple food in Nigeria and some West African countries. The ethanolic seed extract of V. subterranea (EEVS) was investigated for its gastroprotective effects on aspirin plus pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcerated rats using an in vivo assay. METHODS: Gastric mucosal ulceration was induced experimentally in Groups 2 to 5 using aspirin plus pylorus ligation. Rats in Group 1 were orally pretreated with 3% Tween 80 only as normal control...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Bashirat Bello, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Joo Shun Tan, Tengku Azmi Tengku Ibrahim, Yew Joon Tam, Arbakariya B Ariff, Mohd Yazid Manap, Sahar Abbasiliasi
This paper deliberates the extraction, characterization and examination of potential application of soluble polysaccharides of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a prebiotic. The PKC was defatted and crude polysaccharide was obtained through water, citric acid or NaOH extraction. The physiochemical properties of the extracted polysaccharides viz. total carbohydrates, protein content, solubility rate, monosaccharides composition, structural information and thermal properties were also determined. The extracted soluble polysaccharides were further subjected to a digestibility test using artificial human gastric juice...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Hannah Pischon, Anne Petrick, Matthias Müller, Nils Köster, Jörg Pietsch, Lars Mundhenk
Contaminated honey is a common cause of grayanotoxin intoxication in humans. Intoxication of animals, especially cattle, is usually due to ingestion of plants of the Ericaceae family, such as Rhododendron. Here, we report the ingestion of Pieris japonica as the cause of grayanotoxin I intoxication in 2 miniature pigs that were kept as pets. The pigs showed sudden onset of pale oral mucosa, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypersalivation, tremor, and ataxia that progressed to lateral recumbency. The pathological examination of one pig revealed no specific indications for intoxication except for the finding of plant material of Pieris japonica in the intestine...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
L Roncati, A Manenti, G Barbolini, A Maiorana
The histology of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRC) of the stomach has been revisited with the support of current immuno- histochemical techniques in order to explain particular features of this tumor; its great capacity of local diffusion and lymph node metastasis, also through a neo-lymphoangiogenesis. An observational retrospective study on 50 cases of SRC in stage II and III has been performed with the addition of histochemical (Alcian Blue, DDD-Fast Blue B, Mercury Orange) and immunohistochemical (cytocheratin, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD10, CD56, CD68, perforin, granzyme B, podoplanin, collagen type IV) investigations for each case...
2018: Neoplasma
Claudia Vignali, Matteo Moretti, Angelo Groppi, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Tajana, Luca Morini
We report the analysis of the synthetic cathinones α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), both pyrovalerone derivatives, in blood, urine, gastric contents, main tissues and hair of a deceased person. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by LC-MS-MS. All the biological samples were collected during autopsy and extracted/purified onto a solid phase extraction cartridge before instrumental analysis. The method was validated for blood and urine and proved to be highly sensitive and specific for both the synthetic cathinones (limit of detection: 0...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Ramadan Gawad, Vivek Fellner
Objective: To determine the effect of gut pH and rumen microbial fermentation on glycerol encapsulated in alginate and alginate-chitosan polymers. Methods: Glycerol (G) was encapsulated at 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 % (w/w) with sodium alginate (A) and alginate-chitosan (AC) polymers. Surface morphology and chemical modifications of the beads were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectra. Encapsulation efficiency was determined at the 5% glycerol inclusion level in two experiments...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Farid M Shamji, Richard Inculet
When a malignant fistula develops between esophagus and trachea, the underlying cancer is invariably incurable whether the primary site is in the esophagus or in the trachea. The frequent complication of this fistula is nonresolving aspiration pneumonia, either from ingestion or from backward flow of gastric contents into the esophagus. Pulmonary sepsis causes fatality in about 6 to 12 weeks if aspiration through the fistula is not treated quickly. The fistula develops in untreated esophageal cancer in approximately 5% to 15% of cases, lung cancer in less than 1% of cases, and tracheal cancer in 14...
August 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
M J McDonnell, D O'Toole, C Ward, J P Pearson, J L Lordan, A De Soyza, M Loebinger, J D Chalmers, J G Laffey, R M Rutherford
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common comorbidity in bronchiectasis, and is often associated with poorer outcomes. The cause and effect relationship between GORD and bronchiectasis has not yet been fully elucidated and a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the interaction and potential therapies is required. This review explores the underlying pathophysiology of GORD, its clinical presentation, risk factors, commonly applied diagnostic tools, and a detailed synthesis of original articles evaluating the prevalence of GORD, its influence on disease severity and current management strategies within the context of bronchiectasis...
August 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Stephen C Haskins, Richelle Kruisselbrink, Jan Boublik, Christopher L Wu, Anahi Perlas
This article in our series on point-of-care ultrasound (US) for the regional anesthesiologist and pain management specialist describes the emerging role of gastric ultrasonography. Although gastric US is a relatively new point-of-care US application in the perioperative setting, its relevance for the regional anesthesiologist and pain specialist is significant as our clinical practice often involves providing deep sedation without a secured airway. Given that pulmonary aspiration is a well-known cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality, the ability to evaluate for NPO (nil per os) status and risk stratify patients scheduled for anesthesia is a powerful skill set...
July 27, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
L Chen, J J Fang, G Meng, S B Xiao, M Qin, Y Wang
OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between the movement distance of small intestinal contents and survival time in female SD rat models after one-time satiation, and to evaluate its application value for postmortem interval estimation. METHODS: Adult female SD rats were randomly divided into postprandial groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after feeding) and control group. The postprandial groups were fed for 1 h, meanwhile control group was kept fasting. All rats were sacrificed at the given time...
June 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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