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Vaccine drop outs

Sangeethapriya Duraiswamy, Jeanne S Sheffield, Donald Mcintire, Kenneth Leveno, Marlyn J Mayo
BACKGROUND: The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus...
September 1, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ponnerassery S Sudheesh, Kenneth D Cain
This study was aimed at optimizing the efficacy of a recently developed live attenuated immersion vaccine (B.17-ILM) as a promising vaccine against bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonids. Rainbow trout (RBT) fry were vaccinated by immersion, and different parameters affecting vaccination such as fish size, vaccine delivery time, dose, duration of protection, booster regimes and vaccine growth incubation time were optimized. Specific anti-F. psychrophilum immune response was determined by ELISA...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Pai Elia Chambongo, Patrick Nguku, Peter Wasswa, Innocent Semali
INTRODUCTION: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and pentavalent vaccines and its association with community perceptions on vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in Ileje district from October to December 2013...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Lester M Shulman, Yossi Manor, Musa Hindiyeh, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson
Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adam Haji, S Lowther, Z Ngan'ga, Z Gura, C Tabu, H Sandhu, Wences Arvelo
BACKGROUND: Globally, vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for nearly 20% of deaths annually among children <5 years old. Worldwide, many children dropout from the vaccination program, are vaccinated late, or incompletely vaccinated. We evaluated the impact of text messaging and sticker reminders to reduce dropouts from the vaccination program. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted in three selected districts in Kenya: Machakos, Langata and Njoro. Three health facilities were selected in each district, and randomly allocated to send text messages or provide stickers reminding parents to bring their children for second and third dose of pentavalent vaccine, or to the control group (routine reminder) with next appointment date indicated on the well-child booklet...
2016: BMC Public Health
K A Taha Neto, L Nogueira Castilho, L O Reis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Escherichia Coli extract (OM-89) in the prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) through a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were double-blind randomized trials using orally administrated OM-89, 6mg daily, during three months with a minimum of three months of monitoring. Outcomes were the frequency of bacteriuria in 3 and 6 months, dysuria in 6 months and UTI in 6 months...
May 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Timo Vesikari, Aino Forsten, Veronique Bianco, Marie Van der Wielen, Jacqueline M Miller
We studied the persistence of serum bactericidal antibody using rabbit and human complement (rSBA/hSBA, cut-offs 1:8) 5 y after a single dose of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) compared with age-appropriate control vaccines in toddlers and children (NCT00427908). Children were previously randomized (3:1) to receive either MenACWY-TT or control vaccine (MenC-CRM197 in 1-<2 y olds; MenACWY-polysaccharide vaccine [Men-PS] in 2-<11 y olds). Subjects with rSBA-MenC titers <1:8 at any time point were revaccinated with MenC conjugate vaccine and discontinued from the study...
2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ying Zhang, Haitao Huang, Zhigang Gao, Yong Liu, Peng Liu, Yaxing Ding, Lijuan Wang, Derong Chen, Shuqing Wu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to characterize the sera-epidemiology of pertussis immunity levels among community populations and to identify the underlying factors. Moreover, our study will help resolve new issues encountered during the control and prevention of pertussis reemergence. METHODS: The anti-pertussis antibody levels among community populations were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) over three years. Comparative studies were carried out to assess the efficacy of different types of vaccines...
December 16, 2015: Vaccine
Longding Liu, Zhaojun Mo, Zhenglun Liang, Ying Zhang, Rongcheng Li, Kien Chai Ong, Kum Thong Wong, Erxia Yang, Yanchun Che, Jingjing Wang, Chenghong Dong, Min Feng, Jing Pu, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Li Jiang, Soon Hao Tan, Perera David, Teng Huang, Zhenxin Zhou, Xuanyi Wang, Jielai Xia, Lei Guo, Ling Wang, Zhongping Xie, Wei Cui, Qunying Mao, Yan Liang, Hongling Zhao, Ruixiong Na, Pingfang Cui, Haijing Shi, Junzhi Wang, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term effects on immunity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine and its protective efficacy. METHODS: A sub-cohort of 1,100 volunteers from Guangxi Province in China was eligible for enrolment and randomly administered either the EV71 vaccine or a placebo on days 0 and 28 in a phase III clinical trial and then observed for the following 2 years with approval by an independent ethics committee of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China...
2015: BMC Medicine
Heidi Theeten, Koen Van Herck, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Priya Crasta, Pierre Van Damme, Niel Hens
Antibody persistence in two cohorts of adults, who received inactivated hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine (1440El.U; Havrix; GSK Vaccines) according to a 0-6 or 0-12 month schedule in 1992-1993, has been measured annually. After 20 years, >97% of the subjects in both studies were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies. Geometric mean concentrations in the according-to-protocol cohorts were 312 mIU/ml in 34/36 subjects vaccinated initially at 0-6 months (NCT00289757) and 317 mIU/ml in 85/86 subjects vaccinated at 0-12 months (NCT00291876)...
October 13, 2015: Vaccine
Deborah Watson-Jones, Nelly Mugo, Shelley Lees, Muthoni Mathai, Sophie Vusha, Gathari Ndirangu, David A Ross
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes to prevent the disease will need to reach vulnerable girls who may not be able access health and screening services in the future. We conducted formative research on facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination and potential acceptability of a future HPV vaccination programme amongst girls living in hard-to-reach populations in Kenya. METHODS: Stakeholder interviews with Ministry of Health staff explored barriers to and support for the uptake of HPV vaccination...
2015: PloS One
R Van den Brom, I Santman-Berends, S Luttikholt, L Moll, E Van Engelen, P Vellema
In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before...
June 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Ferenc Garzuly, Ferenc Schneider, János László Iványi, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Mariann Varga, Krisztián Sütő, Balázs Tolvaj, Bernadette Kálmán
INTRODUCTION: Nearly 6000 autoptic studies were carried out during the last 50 years at the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Markusovszky University Teaching Hospital, Hungary. AIM: The aim of the authors was to present those previously frequent and often fatal conditions that can be prevented or treated today. METHOD: Retrospective analyses of the neuropathological documentations. RESULTS: Measles-related subacute sclerosing panencephalitis caused death in 13 cases, the last occurred in 1991...
October 26, 2014: Orvosi Hetilap
Abhijeet Anand, Mark A Pallansch, Concepcion F Estivariz, Howard Gary, Steven G F Wassilak
BACKGROUND: The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) has recommended introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at ≥14 weeks of age through the routine immunization program in countries currently not using IPV. METHODS: We analyzed all available unrestricted data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys since 2005 in sub-Saharan Africa (31 countries) and in South and Southeast Asia (9 countries) to determine coverage of the following injectable vaccines delivered through the routine immunization schedule: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine dose 1 (DTP1), DTP2, DTP3, and measles vaccine...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aftab A Ansari
There has clearly been a deluge of international press coverage of the recent outbreak of Ebolavirus in Africa and is partly related to the "fear factor" that comes across when one is confronted with the fact that once infected, not only is the speed of death in a majority of cases rapid but also the images of the cause of death such as bleeding from various orifices gruesome and frightening. The fact that it leads to infection and death of health care providers (10% during the current epidemic) and the visualization of protective gear worn by these individuals to contain such infection adds to this "fear factor"...
December 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
Shrinivas Kambali, Nopakoon Nantsupawat, Melanie Lee, Kenneth Nugent
The highest prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) occurs in foreign born immigrants in the United States. Contact investigations at work sites with mostly immigrant workers present multiple practical problems. Recently 402 contacts were investigated at a meat packing plant in rural Texas by the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS). Our objective was to study the approach and effectiveness of this intensive investigation. We reviewed information, including symptoms, BCG status, TB history, X-rays, and treatment, on the sentinel case and 47 contacts managed by the Texas DSHS TB Division in Lubbock, TX...
June 2015: Journal of Community Health
William Mbabazi, Anthony K Lako, Daniel Ngemera, Richard Laku, Mostafah Yehia, Nathan Nshakira
INTRODUCTION: Since the comprehensive peace agreement was signed in 2005, institutionalization of immunization services in South Sudan remained a priority. Routine administrative reporting systems were established and showed that national coverage rates for DTP-3 rose from 20% in 2002 to 80% in 2011. This survey was conducted as part of an overall review of progress in implementation of the first EPI Multi-Year Plan for South Sudan 2007-2011. This report provides maiden community coverage estimates for immunization...
2013: Pan African Medical Journal
Thomas R Kosten, Coreen B Domingo, Daryl Shorter, Frank Orson, Charles Green, Eugene Somoza, Rachelle Sekerka, Frances R Levin, John J Mariani, Maxine Stitzer, D Andrew Tompkins, John Rotrosen, Vatsal Thakkar, Benjamin Smoak, Kyle Kampman
AIMS: We evaluated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of succinylnorcocaine conjugated to cholera toxin B protein as a vaccine for cocaine dependence. METHODS: This 6-site, 24 week Phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial assessed efficacy during weeks 8 to 16. We measured urine cocaine metabolites thrice weekly as the main outcome. RESULTS: The 300 subjects (76% male, 72% African-American, mean age 46 years) had smoked cocaine on average for 13 days monthly at baseline...
July 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Marta Pastor, Amaia Esquisabel, Iratxe Marquínez, Arturo Talavera, José Luis Pedraz
Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has been recommended in some endemic areas and epidemic situations since 1999. Although safe and effective vaccines are currently on the market, the burden of transport and storage remains an issue. Herein, we report an approach to develop an alternative OCV in the form of a gastro-resistant powder. Heat-killed Vibrio cholerae (VC) was encapsulated with a spray-drying technique at different temperatures. Cellulose acetate phthalate (Aquacoat® CPD) was chosen as the core polymer and the addition of alginate was studied...
July 2014: Journal of Drug Targeting
Shantanu K Kar, Binod Sah, Bikash Patnaik, Yang Hee Kim, Anna S Kerketta, Sunheang Shin, Shyam Bandhu Rath, Mohammad Ali, Vittal Mogasale, Hemant K Khuntia, Anuj Bhattachan, Young Ae You, Mahesh K Puri, Anna Lena Lopez, Brian Maskery, Gopinath B Nair, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
INTRODUCTION: The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with recent cholera outbreaks in Haiti and Zimbabwe, as well as with cholera endemicity in countries throughout Asia and Africa, make a compelling case for supplementary cholera control measures in addition to existing interventions. Clinical trials conducted in Kolkata, India, have led to World Health Organization (WHO)-prequalification of Shanchol, an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) with a demonstrated 65% efficacy at 5 years post-vaccination...
February 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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