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Vaccine drop outs

Noémie Courtejoie, Henrik Salje, Benoît Durand, Gina Zanella, Simon Cauchemez
Bluetongue virus is a vector-borne pathogen affecting ruminants that has caused major epidemics in France. Reconstructing the history of bluetongue in French cattle under control strategies such as vaccination has been hampered by the high level of sub-clinical infection, incomplete case data and poor understanding of vaccine uptake over time and space. To tackle these challenges, we used three age-structured serological surveys carried out in cattle (N = 22,342) from ten administrative subdivisions called departments...
May 17, 2018: Epidemics
Sara E White, Steven A Harvey, Graciela Meza, Alejandro Llanos, Mitchel Guzman, Dionicia Gamboa, Joseph M Vinetz
BACKGROUND: A transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) to prevent malaria-infected humans from infecting mosquitoes has been increasingly considered as a tool for malaria control and elimination. This study tested the hypothesis that a malaria TBV would be acceptable among residents of a malaria-hypoendemic region. METHODS: The study was carried out in six Spanish-speaking rural villages in the Department of Loreto in the Peruvian Amazon. These villages comprise a cohort of 430 households associated with the Peru-Brazil International Centre for Excellence in Malaria Research...
April 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kibrom Mebrahtu, S Teshale, Wendimeneh Esatu, Tadios Habte, Esayas Gelaye
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease causing considerable economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. Conventional vaccine delivery methods are not suitable for smallholder and rural poultry producers, and thus appropriate vaccination methods need to be sought. This study was carried out with the main objective of evaluating the efficacy of ND I2 vaccine delivered via drinking water and spray under smallholder farmers' condition in Minjar-Shenkora district, central Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Markus Riehl, Meike Harms, Henrike Lucas, Thomas Ebensen, Carlos A Guzmán, Karsten Mäder
The present in-vivo study investigated the behavior and performance of differently charged poly(lactic‑co‑glycolic) acid microparticles (PLGA MP) as vaccination platform. For this purpose, particles loaded with ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected in SKH1 mice. The utilized SKH1 hairless mice exhibit a fully operative immune system and allow parallel imaging investigations due to the lack of hair. Usage of this species enabled the combination of two investigations within a single study protocol, namely noninvasive in-vivo imaging and immune responses directed towards the antigen...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Evans Mokaya, Isaac Mugoya, Jane Raburu, Lora Shimp
Introduction: In Kenya, failure to complete immunization schedules by children who previously accessed immunization services is an obstacle to ensuring that children are fully immunized. Home visit approaches used to track defaulting children have not been successful in reducing the drop-out rate. Methods: This study tested the use of phone contacts as an approach for tracking immunization defaulters in twelve purposively-selected facilities in three districts of western Kenya...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Paul J Birrell, Richard G Pebody, André Charlett, Xu-Sheng Zhang, Daniela De Angelis
BACKGROUND: Real-time modelling is an essential component of the public health response to an outbreak of pandemic influenza in the UK. A model for epidemic reconstruction based on realistic epidemic surveillance data has been developed, but this model needs enhancing to provide spatially disaggregated epidemic estimates while ensuring that real-time implementation is feasible. OBJECTIVES: To advance state-of-the-art real-time pandemic modelling by (1) developing an existing epidemic model to capture spatial variation in transmission, (2) devising efficient computational algorithms for the provision of timely statistical analysis and (3) incorporating the above into freely available software...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Siobhan Botwright, Taylor Holroyd, Shreya Nanda, Paul Bloem, Ulla K Griffiths, Anissa Sidibe, Raymond C W Hutubessy
From 2012 to 2016, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, provided support for countries to conduct small-scale demonstration projects for the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine, with the aim of determining which human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies might be effective and sustainable upon national scale-up. This study reports on the operational costs and cost determinants of different vaccination delivery strategies within these projects across twelve countries using a standardized micro-costing tool...
2017: PloS One
ObianujuNkiruka Okoroafor, Paul Chekwube Eze, Wilfred Sunday Ezema, Chika Nwosu, Christian Okorie-Kanu, P C Animoke, Boniface Anene, John Osita Arinze Okoye
The aim of this project is to study the clinical signs and lesion of velogenic Newcastle disease (vND) in commercial turkeys, and also to find out if La Sota vaccination offered protection against these signs and lesions. The cockerels were included as positive controls. One hundred and twenty turkey poults and cockerels were divided into eight groups as follows: unvaccinated unchallenged turkeys (UUT), unvaccinated challenged turkeys (UCT), vaccinated unchallenged turkeys (VUT), vaccinated challenged turkeys (VCT), and along the same lines, the cockerel groups were UUC, UCC, VUC and vaccinated challenged cockerels (VCC)...
February 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Chi-Wen Tseng, Chien-Ju Chiu, Anna Kanci, Amir H Noormohammadi, Glenn F Browning, Philip F Markham
Control of the important poultry pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is highly dependent on safe and efficacious attenuated vaccines. In order to assess a novel vaccine candidate we evaluated the safety and efficacy of the M. gallisepticum mutant 26-1. The oppD1 gene in this mutant has been interrupted by a signature-tagged transposon and previous studies have shown that it can colonise the respiratory tract of chickens without inducing significant disease. The capacity of the oppD1 mutant to induce protective immunity in the respiratory tract after vaccination by eye-drop was assessed by challenging vaccinated birds with an aerosol of the virulent M...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Roger P Baxter, Ned Lewis, Bruce Fireman, John Hansen, Nicola P Klein, Justin R Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are not licensed in children younger than 2 years of age because of a wheezing safety signal that has not been fully elucidated. In 2000, the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center conducted a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (RCT) of LAIV in children. As many of these children were still enrolled in Kaiser Permanente in 2014, we could assess the possible long-term association between LAIV and subsequent asthma diagnosis...
May 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ana Paula Silva, Marília Greco, Maria Arlene Fausto, Mariângela Carneiro
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the attrition rates and evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up between 1994 and 2011 in an open cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men. METHODS: The Project Horizonte is an open cohort study that aimed to assess the incidence of HIV infection, evaluate the impact of educational interventions, and identify potential volunteers for HIV vaccine trials. The rates of losses to follow-up were estimated for three periods (1994-1999, 2000-2005, and 2006-2011)...
June 26, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
Kelias Phiri Msyamboza, Beatrice Matanje Mwagomba, Moussa Valle, Hastings Chiumia, Twambilire Phiri
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Malawi. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates are estimated to be 75.9 and 49.8 per 100,000 population, respectively. The availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine presents an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. In 2013, the country introduced a school-class-based HPV vaccination pilot project in two districts. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPV vaccine coverage, lessons learnt and challenges identified during the first three years of implementation...
June 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Maria Vadalà
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD)-based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the short-term effect of CBD-enriched hemp oil for relieving symptoms and improving the life quality (QOL) in young girls with adverse drug effects (ADRs) following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
February 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Asamnew Zewdie, Mekitew Letebo, Tinsae Mekonnen
BACKGROUND: Reduction of mortality and morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases in developing countries involves successfully implementing strategies that ensure high coverage and minimize drop-outs and missed opportunities. Achieving maximum coverage, however, has been a challenge due to many reasons, including high rates of defaulters from the program. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons behind defaulting from the immunization program. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two districts of Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia between November 2014 and April 2015...
December 9, 2016: BMC Public Health
Chyongchiou J Lin, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Valory N Pavlik, Anthony E Brown, Song Zhang, Jonathan M Raviotta, Krissy K Moehling, Mary Hawk, Edmund M Ricci, Donald B Middleton, Suchita Patel, Jeannette E South-Paul, Richard K Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: An evidence-based, step-by-step guide, the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program, was the foundation of an intervention to increase adult immunizations in primary care and was tested in a randomized controlled cluster trial. The purpose of this study is to report changes in influenza immunization rates and on factors related to receipt of influenza vaccine. METHODS: Twenty five primary care practices were recruited in 2013, stratified by city (Houston, Pittsburgh), location (rural, urban, suburban) and type (family medicine, internal medicine), and randomized to the intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 12) in Year 1 (2013-14)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sangeethapriya Duraiswamy, Jeanne S Sheffield, Donald Mcintire, Kenneth Leveno, Marlyn J Mayo
BACKGROUND: The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus...
February 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ponnerassery S Sudheesh, Kenneth D Cain
This study was aimed at optimizing the efficacy of a recently developed live attenuated immersion vaccine (B.17-ILM) as a promising vaccine against bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonids. Rainbow trout (RBT) fry were vaccinated by immersion, and different parameters affecting vaccination such as fish size, vaccine delivery time, dose, duration of protection, booster regimes and vaccine growth incubation time were optimized. Specific anti-F. psychrophilum immune response was determined by ELISA...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Pai Elia Chambongo, Patrick Nguku, Peter Wasswa, Innocent Semali
INTRODUCTION: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and pentavalent vaccines and its association with community perceptions on vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in Ileje district from October to December 2013...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Lester M Shulman, Yossi Manor, Musa Hindiyeh, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson
Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adam Haji, S Lowther, Z Ngan'ga, Z Gura, C Tabu, H Sandhu, Wences Arvelo
BACKGROUND: Globally, vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for nearly 20% of deaths annually among children <5 years old. Worldwide, many children dropout from the vaccination program, are vaccinated late, or incompletely vaccinated. We evaluated the impact of text messaging and sticker reminders to reduce dropouts from the vaccination program. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted in three selected districts in Kenya: Machakos, Langata and Njoro. Three health facilities were selected in each district, and randomly allocated to send text messages or provide stickers reminding parents to bring their children for second and third dose of pentavalent vaccine, or to the control group (routine reminder) with next appointment date indicated on the well-child booklet...
February 16, 2016: BMC Public Health
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