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Vaccine drop outs

Ana Paula Silva, Marília Greco, Maria Arlene Fausto, Mariângela Carneiro
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the attrition rates and evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up between 1994 and 2011 in an open cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men. METHODS: The Project Horizonte is an open cohort study that aimed to assess the incidence of HIV infection, evaluate the impact of educational interventions, and identify potential volunteers for HIV vaccine trials. The rates of losses to follow-up were estimated for three periods (1994-1999, 2000-2005, and 2006-2011)...
June 26, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
Kelias Phiri Msyamboza, Beatrice Matanje Mwagomba, Moussa Valle, Hastings Chiumia, Twambilire Phiri
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Malawi. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates are estimated to be 75.9 and 49.8 per 100,000 population, respectively. The availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine presents an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. In 2013, the country introduced a school-class-based HPV vaccination pilot project in two districts. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPV vaccine coverage, lessons learnt and challenges identified during the first three years of implementation...
June 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Maria Vadalà
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD)-based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the short-term effect of CBD-enriched hemp oil for relieving symptoms and improving the life quality (QOL) in young girls with adverse drug effects (ADRs) following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
February 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Asamnew Zewdie, Mekitew Letebo, Tinsae Mekonnen
BACKGROUND: Reduction of mortality and morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases in developing countries involves successfully implementing strategies that ensure high coverage and minimize drop-outs and missed opportunities. Achieving maximum coverage, however, has been a challenge due to many reasons, including high rates of defaulters from the program. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons behind defaulting from the immunization program. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two districts of Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia between November 2014 and April 2015...
December 9, 2016: BMC Public Health
Chyongchiou J Lin, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Valory N Pavlik, Anthony E Brown, Song Zhang, Jonathan M Raviotta, Krissy K Moehling, Mary Hawk, Edmund M Ricci, Donald B Middleton, Suchita Patel, Jeannette E South-Paul, Richard K Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: An evidence-based, step-by-step guide, the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program, was the foundation of an intervention to increase adult immunizations in primary care and was tested in a randomized controlled cluster trial. The purpose of this study is to report changes in influenza immunization rates and on factors related to receipt of influenza vaccine. METHODS: Twenty five primary care practices were recruited in 2013, stratified by city (Houston, Pittsburgh), location (rural, urban, suburban) and type (family medicine, internal medicine), and randomized to the intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 12) in Year 1 (2013-14)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sangeethapriya Duraiswamy, Jeanne S Sheffield, Donald Mcintire, Kenneth Leveno, Marlyn J Mayo
BACKGROUND: The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus...
February 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ponnerassery S Sudheesh, Kenneth D Cain
This study was aimed at optimizing the efficacy of a recently developed live attenuated immersion vaccine (B.17-ILM) as a promising vaccine against bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonids. Rainbow trout (RBT) fry were vaccinated by immersion, and different parameters affecting vaccination such as fish size, vaccine delivery time, dose, duration of protection, booster regimes and vaccine growth incubation time were optimized. Specific anti-F. psychrophilum immune response was determined by ELISA...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Pai Elia Chambongo, Patrick Nguku, Peter Wasswa, Innocent Semali
INTRODUCTION: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and pentavalent vaccines and its association with community perceptions on vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in Ileje district from October to December 2013...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Lester M Shulman, Yossi Manor, Musa Hindiyeh, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson
Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adam Haji, S Lowther, Z Ngan'ga, Z Gura, C Tabu, H Sandhu, Wences Arvelo
BACKGROUND: Globally, vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for nearly 20% of deaths annually among children <5 years old. Worldwide, many children dropout from the vaccination program, are vaccinated late, or incompletely vaccinated. We evaluated the impact of text messaging and sticker reminders to reduce dropouts from the vaccination program. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted in three selected districts in Kenya: Machakos, Langata and Njoro. Three health facilities were selected in each district, and randomly allocated to send text messages or provide stickers reminding parents to bring their children for second and third dose of pentavalent vaccine, or to the control group (routine reminder) with next appointment date indicated on the well-child booklet...
February 16, 2016: BMC Public Health
K A Taha Neto, L Nogueira Castilho, L O Reis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Escherichia Coli extract (OM-89) in the prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) through a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were double-blind randomized trials using orally administrated OM-89, 6mg daily, during three months with a minimum of three months of monitoring. Outcomes were the frequency of bacteriuria in 3 and 6 months, dysuria in 6 months and UTI in 6 months...
May 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Timo Vesikari, Aino Forsten, Veronique Bianco, Marie Van der Wielen, Jacqueline M Miller
We studied the persistence of serum bactericidal antibody using rabbit and human complement (rSBA/hSBA, cut-offs 1:8) 5 y after a single dose of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) compared with age-appropriate control vaccines in toddlers and children (NCT00427908). Children were previously randomized (3:1) to receive either MenACWY-TT or control vaccine (MenC-CRM197 in 1-<2 y olds; MenACWY-polysaccharide vaccine [Men-PS] in 2-<11 y olds). Subjects with rSBA-MenC titers <1:8 at any time point were revaccinated with MenC conjugate vaccine and discontinued from the study...
2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ying Zhang, Haitao Huang, Zhigang Gao, Yong Liu, Peng Liu, Yaxing Ding, Lijuan Wang, Derong Chen, Shuqing Wu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to characterize the sera-epidemiology of pertussis immunity levels among community populations and to identify the underlying factors. Moreover, our study will help resolve new issues encountered during the control and prevention of pertussis reemergence. METHODS: The anti-pertussis antibody levels among community populations were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) over three years. Comparative studies were carried out to assess the efficacy of different types of vaccines...
December 16, 2015: Vaccine
Longding Liu, Zhaojun Mo, Zhenglun Liang, Ying Zhang, Rongcheng Li, Kien Chai Ong, Kum Thong Wong, Erxia Yang, Yanchun Che, Jingjing Wang, Chenghong Dong, Min Feng, Jing Pu, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Li Jiang, Soon Hao Tan, Perera David, Teng Huang, Zhenxin Zhou, Xuanyi Wang, Jielai Xia, Lei Guo, Ling Wang, Zhongping Xie, Wei Cui, Qunying Mao, Yan Liang, Hongling Zhao, Ruixiong Na, Pingfang Cui, Haijing Shi, Junzhi Wang, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term effects on immunity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine and its protective efficacy. METHODS: A sub-cohort of 1,100 volunteers from Guangxi Province in China was eligible for enrolment and randomly administered either the EV71 vaccine or a placebo on days 0 and 28 in a phase III clinical trial and then observed for the following 2 years with approval by an independent ethics committee of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China...
September 17, 2015: BMC Medicine
Heidi Theeten, Koen Van Herck, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Priya Crasta, Pierre Van Damme, Niel Hens
Antibody persistence in two cohorts of adults, who received inactivated hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine (1440El.U; Havrix; GSK Vaccines) according to a 0-6 or 0-12 month schedule in 1992-1993, has been measured annually. After 20 years, >97% of the subjects in both studies were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies. Geometric mean concentrations in the according-to-protocol cohorts were 312 mIU/ml in 34/36 subjects vaccinated initially at 0-6 months (NCT00289757) and 317 mIU/ml in 85/86 subjects vaccinated at 0-12 months (NCT00291876)...
October 13, 2015: Vaccine
Deborah Watson-Jones, Nelly Mugo, Shelley Lees, Muthoni Mathai, Sophie Vusha, Gathari Ndirangu, David A Ross
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes to prevent the disease will need to reach vulnerable girls who may not be able access health and screening services in the future. We conducted formative research on facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination and potential acceptability of a future HPV vaccination programme amongst girls living in hard-to-reach populations in Kenya. METHODS: Stakeholder interviews with Ministry of Health staff explored barriers to and support for the uptake of HPV vaccination...
2015: PloS One
R Van den Brom, I Santman-Berends, S Luttikholt, L Moll, E Van Engelen, P Vellema
In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before...
June 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Ferenc Garzuly, Ferenc Schneider, János László Iványi, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Mariann Varga, Krisztián Sütő, Balázs Tolvaj, Bernadette Kálmán
INTRODUCTION: Nearly 6000 autoptic studies were carried out during the last 50 years at the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Markusovszky University Teaching Hospital, Hungary. AIM: The aim of the authors was to present those previously frequent and often fatal conditions that can be prevented or treated today. METHOD: Retrospective analyses of the neuropathological documentations. RESULTS: Measles-related subacute sclerosing panencephalitis caused death in 13 cases, the last occurred in 1991...
October 26, 2014: Orvosi Hetilap
Abhijeet Anand, Mark A Pallansch, Concepcion F Estivariz, Howard Gary, Steven G F Wassilak
BACKGROUND: The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) has recommended introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at ≥14 weeks of age through the routine immunization program in countries currently not using IPV. METHODS: We analyzed all available unrestricted data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys since 2005 in sub-Saharan Africa (31 countries) and in South and Southeast Asia (9 countries) to determine coverage of the following injectable vaccines delivered through the routine immunization schedule: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine dose 1 (DTP1), DTP2, DTP3, and measles vaccine...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aftab A Ansari
There has clearly been a deluge of international press coverage of the recent outbreak of Ebolavirus in Africa and is partly related to the "fear factor" that comes across when one is confronted with the fact that once infected, not only is the speed of death in a majority of cases rapid but also the images of the cause of death such as bleeding from various orifices gruesome and frightening. The fact that it leads to infection and death of health care providers (10% during the current epidemic) and the visualization of protective gear worn by these individuals to contain such infection adds to this "fear factor"...
December 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
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