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fetal AND growth

Nanthini Jayabalan, Andrew Lai, Valeska Ormazabal, Stefanie Adam, Dominic Guanzon, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ratana Lim, Thomas Jansson, Harold David McIntyre, Martha Lappas, Carlos Salomon
Context: Molecules produced by adipose tissue (AT) function as an endocrine link between maternal AT and fetal growth by regulating placental function in normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective: We hypothesised that AT-derived exosomes from women with GDM carry a specific set of proteins that influences glucose metabolism in placenta. Design: Exosomes were isolated from omental AT-conditioned media from pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (exo-NGT, n=65) and women with GDM (exo-GDM, n=82)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Unzila Ali Nayeri, Catalin S Buhimschi, Guomao Zhao, Irina A Buhimschi, Vineet Bhandari
We aimed to test the hypothesis that determinants of the perinatal clinical exposome related to the underlying etiology of premature birth (PTB) impact differently on select neonatal outcomes. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 377 singleton preterm neonates [gestational age (GA) at birth: 23-34 weeks] separated into three distinct contemporaneous newborn cohorts: i) spontaneous PTB in the setting of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (yes-IAI, n = 116); ii) spontaneous PTB in the absence of IAI (no-IAI, n = 130), and iii) iatrogenic PTB for preeclampsia (iPTB-PE, n = 131)...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Olof Stephansson, Sven Cnattingius, Lisa M Bodnar, KariJ Johansson
BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies have consistently shown that maternal weight gain in pregnancy is positively associated with fetal size, but it is unknown whether the association is causal. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy weight gain on fetal growth using a sibling comparison design to control for unmeasured confounding by genetic and shared environmental factors. METHODS: Our study population included 44,457 infants (21,680 women) with electronic medical records in the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetrical Database, 2008-2014...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology
Christina E Hayward, Kirsty R McIntyre, Colin P Sibley, Susan L Greenwood, Mark R Dilworth
Fetal delivery of calcium, via the placenta, is crucial for appropriate skeletal mineralization. We have previously demonstrated that maternofetal calcium transport, per gram placenta, is increased in the placental specific insulin-like growth factor 2 knockout mouse (P0) model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared to wild type littermates (WTL). This effect was mirrored in wild-type (WT) mice comparing lightest vs. heaviest (LvH) placentas in a litter. In both models increased placental calcium transport was associated with normalization of fetal calcium content...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mette Hollensted, Claus T Ekstrøm, Oluf Pedersen, Hans Eiberg, Torben Hansen, Anette Prior Gjesing
BACKGROUND: The genetics of fetal insulin release and/or action have been suggested to affect fetal growth, adult insulin resistance and adult body composition. The genetic correlation between body composition at birth versus glycaemic regulation and body composition in adulthood have, however, not been well studied. We therefore aimed to investigate these genetic correlations in a family-based cohort. METHODS: A Danish family cohort of 434 individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with subsequent calculation of surrogate measures of serum insulin response and insulin sensitivity...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Mark A Underwood, Stephen Wedgwood, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Robin H Steinhorn
In the premature infant, poor growth in utero (fetal growth restriction) and in the first weeks of life (postnatal growth restriction) are associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension. In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic data supporting these associations, present a novel rodent model of postnatal growth restriction and review five promising mechanisms by which poor nutrition may affect the developing lung. These observations support the hypothesis that nutritional and/or pharmacologic interventions early in life may be able to decrease risk of the pulmonary complications of extreme prematurity...
December 4, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Cédric Gasse, Kim Paquette, Suzanne Demers, Stéphanie Roberge, Emmanuel Bujold, Amélie Boutin
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a complication of pregnancy associated with major neonatal morbidity and commonly diagnosed at birth based on birth weight below the 5th or the 10th centile. There is no consensus on the use of routine third-trimester ultrasound for the detection of FGR in a general population. This systematic review aims to estimate the performance of third-trimester ultrasound markers in the screening for babies who are small for gestational age in low-risk or general population...
December 3, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Wietske A Ester, Pauline W Jansen, Hans W Hoek, Frank C Verhulst, Vincent W Jaddoe, Andrea H Marques, Henning Tiemeier, Ezra S Susser, Sabine J Roza
Background: Although studies showed that an adverse intrauterine environment increases the obesity risk in adulthood, little is known about consequences of fetal growth and birth size for eating behaviour. We examined whether fetal and birth size are associated with childhood eating behaviour. Methods: Participants were 4350 mother-child dyads of the prospective cohort study Generation R. We assessed the relation between fetal and birth size measurements with child eating behaviour at age 4 years by maternal report on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Mariana de Oliveira-Klein, Augusto César Cardoso-Dos-Santos, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Nelson Rosa Fagundes, Ursula Matte, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is an important peptide hormone involved in the reproduction and fetal development of mammals, and it is suggested that it may influence the human twinning rate. This study aimed to test such possible association, investigating the genetic polymorphisms IGF1 (CA)n and IGFBP3 rs2854744 in the population from Candido Godoi (CG), a small city located in the South of Brazil that has a high prevalence of twin births. A case-control study was performed comprising a total of 39 cases (representing about 40% of the mothers of twins who were born in CG after 1995) and 214 controls (mothers of non-twin children), 97 of whom were living in CG while 117 were living in Porto Alegre...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Jérôme Mairesse, Manuela Zinni, Julien Pansiot, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Charlie Demene, Marina Colella, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Mickael Tanter, Stefania Maccari, Pierre Gressens, Daniel Vaiman, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas, Olivier Baud
Prematurity and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are frequent conditions associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We have previously identified early deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation as a putative mechanism linking FGR and abnormal trajectory of the developing brain. While the oxytocin system was also found to be impaired following adverse perinatal events, its role in the modulation of neuroinflammation in the developing brain is still unknown. We used a double-hit rat model of perinatal brain injury induced by gestational low protein diet (LPD) and potentiated by postnatal injections of subliminal doses of interleukin-1β (IL1β) and a zebrafish model of neuroinflammation...
December 2, 2018: Glia
Eva Morsing, Mariya Malova, Anna Kahn, Jimmy Lätt, Isabella M Björkman-Burtscher, Karel Maršál, David Ley
Background: Children born very preterm (PT) after fetal growth restriction (FGR) exhibit cognitive impairment at early school age. The relationship between neurodevelopmental impairment and attained regional brain volumes is unknown. Methods: We studied 23 preterm children with FGR (PT-FGR), 24 matched preterm children AGA (PT-AGA), and 27 matched term AGA children (T-AGA) by measuring brain volumes with magnetic resonance imaging at early school age. Cognitive and motor functions were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children and the ABC-Movement score...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yang Liu, Lele Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Wenjing Han, Kun Yang, Honghao Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Rui Su, Zhihong Liu, Ruijun Wang, Zhiying Wang, Yanhong Zhao, Zhixin Wang, Jinquan Li
Inner Mongolia cashmere goat marks a precious gerplasm genetic resource due to its excellent cashmere traits. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to investigate the cashmere development mechanism of cashmere goat and to search for the important cashmere growth-related candidate genes. Fetal skin samples at 10 different periods of cashmere goat were collected in this research. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing was conducted on RNA samples from side skin of cashmere goat fetuses collected at three critical periods of skin hair follicle initiation, growth and development (namely, 45, 55 and 65 days) after balanced mix in line with the previous research results...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
M Eslier, P Dolley, C Albert, G Benoist, M Dreyfus
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the knowledge of couples concerning the prenatal screening ultrasound in order to improve information. METHODS: This prospective, observational and comparative study was carried out in three maternal centers: a level III maternity, a level II private maternity, and a private gynecologist's office where prenatal screening ultrasounds were performed between the first of March 2018 and the 31th of April 2018. A questionnaire was given to all pregnant women coming to consult for a prenatal screening ultrasound...
November 29, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Jorge Lopez-Tello, Maria Angeles Jimenez-Martinez, Emilio A Herrera, Bernardo J Krause, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common obstetric complication with immediate and life-long consequences for offspring health. Yet the mechanisms underlying its aetiology require elucidation. Recent work in the guinea pig shows that progressive uterine artery occlusion induced IUGR and vascular dysfunction in pups. Here we explore the extent to which uterine artery occlusion influences fetal outcomes via impacts on placental morphology. Our study demonstrates that uterine artery occlusion severely compromised both the labyrinth exchange zone (increased fibrosis and reduced vascularisation, trophoblast volume, surface area and diffusing capacity) and interlobium zone (increased apoptosis), which likely contributed to the IUGR observed...
December 2018: Placenta
Kevin S Kolahi, Amy M Valent, Kent L Thornburg
INTRODUCTION: The placenta employs an efficient and selective fatty acid transport system to supply lipids for fetal development. Disruptions in placental fatty acid transport lead to restricted fetal growth along with cardiovascular and neurologic deficits. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in human placental fatty acid trafficking during the initial steps of uptake, or the importance of fatty acid chain length in determining uptake rates. METHODS: We employed BODIPY fluorophore conjugated fatty acid analogues of three chain lengths, medium (BODIPY-C5), long (BODIPY-C12), and very-long (BODIPY-C16), to study fatty acid uptake in isolated human trophoblast and explants using confocal microscopy...
December 2018: Placenta
B N Radford, V K M Han
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pregnancy condition in which fetal growth is suboptimal for gestation, and this population is at increased risk for type 2 diabetes as adults. In humans, maternal malnutrition and placental insufficiency are the most common causes of FGR, and both result in fetal undernutrition. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in mice will cause FGR and alter glucose metabolism in adult offspring. Pregnant CD-1 mice were subjected to MNR (70% of average ad libitum) or control (ad libitum) from E6...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Liran Hiersch, Rania Okby, Howie Freeman, Hadar Rosen, Ori Nevo, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
OBJECTIVE: Twin fetuses growth is delayed during the third trimester compared to singletons. Whether this phenomenon should be considered a normal physiologic characteristic of twins or a pathologic process inherent to twin pregnancies is currently unclear. Information on the growth rate of the individual fetal biometric indices may provide more insight into the mechanisms underlying these differences between twins and singletons. Our aim was to compare fetal growth pattern between twin and singleton fetuses...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Satoru Ikenoue, Kei Miyakoshi, Yoshifumi Kasuga, Daigo Ochiai, Tadashi Matsumoto, Mamoru Tanaka
INTRODUCTION: The average birth weight in Japan has gradually decreased and the number of low birth weight infant has increased over the last 30 years. Japanese pregnant women are characterized with lower prevalence of obesity than those in other developed countries, and maternal underweight before pregnancy is independently associated with low birth weight. However, the association between maternal inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in Japanese uncomplicated pregnant women has not been fully understood...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yingya Zhao, Yuhan Zhou, Qingyang Zhu, Bing Xia, Wenjuan Ma, Xirong Xiao, Huijing Shi, Yunhui Zhang
BACKGROUND: The association between antibiotic use during pregnancy and neonatal birth outcomes has received considerable attention. Most of the previous assessment of antibiotic exposure during pregnancy relied on questionnaires and clinical prescriptions, and very few studies examined pregnancy exposure to antibiotics using human biomonitoring data. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between the cumulative exposure of antibiotics during the whole pregnancy and neonatal birth measurements using biomonitoring data of antibiotics in meconium...
November 27, 2018: Environment International
David A Close, Allen Xinwei Wang, Stanton J Kochanek, Tongying Shun, Julie L Eiseman, Paul A Johnston
Animal and clinical studies demonstrate that cancer drug combinations (DCs) are more effective than single agents. However, it is difficult to predict which DCs will be more efficacious than individual drugs. Systematic DC high-throughput screening (HTS) of 100 approved drugs in the National Cancer Institute's panel of 60 cancer cell lines (NCI-60) produced data to help select DCs for further consideration. We miniaturized growth inhibition assays into 384-well format, increased the fetal bovine serum amount to 10%, lengthened compound exposure to 72 h, and used a homogeneous detection reagent...
November 30, 2018: SLAS Discovery
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