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fetal AND growth

Gideon Koren, Rana Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is presently estimated to affect more than 1-2 % of babies in North America. In Israel it is quite rarely diagnosed. Many of the children adopted from the former Soviet Union were born to alcoholic women. BACKGROUND: A 4.5 year old boy adopted from Ukraine, presented with inattention, hyperactivity and aggressiveness. He was born with severe intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and continued to grow on the 3rd percentile...
October 2018: Harefuah
Faisal Hayat Nazir, Bruno Becker, Ann Brinkmalm, Kina Höglund, Åsa Sandelius, Petra Bergström, Tugce Munise Satir, Annika Öhrfelt, Kaj Blennow, Lotta Agholme, Henrik Zetterberg
Synaptic function and neurotransmitter release are regulated by specific proteins. Cortical neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) provides an experimental model to obtain more information about synaptic development and physiology in vitro. In this study, expression and secretion of the synaptic proteins, neurogranin (NRGN), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) and synaptotagmin-1 (SYT-1) were analyzed during cortical neuronal differentiation...
October 18, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Chih-Ping Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Liang-Kai Wang, Tung-Yao Chang, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Tzu-Yun Chuang, Chien-Wen Yang, Dai-Dyi Town, Li-Feng Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of a 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) microdeletion encompassing TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2 and NIPA1 in a fetus with ventriculomegaly, microcephaly and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on prenatal ultrasound. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old, gravida 3, para 2, woman was referred to the hospital for amniocentesis because of fetal ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound. Her husband was 31 years old. The couple had two healthy daughters, and there was no family history of mental disorders and congenital malformations...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Veronika Frisova, Ivana Tutkova Svobodova, Michaela Tozzi, Dagmar Raskova
OBJECTIVE: To highlight importance of detailed ultrasound examination in fetuses with known normal karyotype (and micro-array result) from CVS. In case of markedly abnormal ultrasound result repeated karyotyping by amniocentesis should be considered. Sample should be analyzed by routine cytogenetic techniques, however also micro-array and targeted FISH should be added in order to achieve most accurate diagnosis. CASE REPORT: We report prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian Syndrome (PKS) at 18 gestational weeks...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Pei-Yin Tsai, Chiung-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Fetuses with fetal growth restrictions have higher perinatal mortality rates than fetuses without fetal growth restrictions. Vascularization of the fetal kidney is crucial to fetal growth. Hence, we assessed blood flow and vascularization of fetal kidneys in non-growth-restricted as well as growth-restricted fetuses using quantitative three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We undertook a prospective study to evaluate the vascular indices of fetal kidneys; i...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Govind R Chaudhary, Pramod K Yadav, Anil K Yadav, Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Kankshi Sahu, Ashutosh N Pandey, Ajai K Pandey, Shail K Chaube
The maximum number of germ cells is present during the fetal life in mammals. Follicular atresia results in rapid depletion of germ cells from the cohort of the ovary. At the time of puberty, only a few hundred (<1%) germ cells are either culminated into oocytes or further get eliminated during the reproductive life. Although apoptosis plays a major role, necrosis as well as necroptosis, might also be involved in germ cell elimination from the mammalian ovary. Both necrosis and necroptosis show similar morphological features and are characterized by an increase in cell volume, cell membrane permeabilization, and rupture that lead to cellular demise...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Brianna F Moore, Anne P Starling, Sheryl Magzamen, Curtis S Harrod, William B Allshouse, John L Adgate, Brandy M Ringham, Deborah H Glueck, Dana Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have modeled the association between fetal exposure to tobacco smoke and body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories, but not the timing of catch-up growth. Research on fetal exposure to maternal secondhand smoking is limited. OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations between fetal exposure to maternal active and secondhand smoking with body composition at birth and BMI growth trajectories through age 3 years. METHODS: We followed 630 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Healthy Start cohort through age 3 years...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Françoise Lazarini, Lida Katsimpardi, Sarah Levivien, Sébastien Wagner, Pierre Gressens, Natacha Teissier, Pierre-Marie Lledo
In developed countries, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected newborns are at high risk of developing sensorineural handicaps, such as hearing loss, requiring extensive follow-up. However early prognostic tools for auditory damage in children are not yet available. In the fetus, CMV infection leads to early olfactory bulb (OB) damage, suggesting that olfaction might represent a valuable prognosis for neurological outcome of this viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that in utero CMV inoculation causes fetal infection and growth retardation in mice of both sexes...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rachel C West, Gerrit J Bouma, Quinton A Winger
Early human placental development strongly resembles carcinogenesis in otherwise healthy tissues. The progenitor cells of the placenta, the cytotrophoblast, rapidly proliferate to produce a sufficient number of cells to form an organ that will contribute to fetal development as early as the first trimester. The cytotrophoblast cells begin to differentiate, some towards the fused cells of the syncytiotrophoblast and some towards the highly invasive and migratory extravillous trophoblast. Invasion and migration of extravillous trophoblast cells mimics tumor metastasis...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Wentao Yu, Wei Gao, Dan Rong, Zhixian Wu, Raouf A Khalil
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension and often fetal intrauterine growth restriction, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Defective placentation and apoptosis of invasive cytotrophoblasts cause inadequate remodeling of spiral arteries, placental ischemia and reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). RUPP causes imbalance between the anti-angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin and the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, and stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-inducible factor, reactive oxygen species, and angiotensin AT1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies...
October 19, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Teresa M MacDonald, Lisa Hui, Alice J Robinson, Kirsten M Dane, Anna L Middleton, Stephen Tong, Susan P Walker
OBJECTIVES: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major risk factor for stillbirth and most commonly arises from uteroplacental insufficiency. Despite clinical examination and third trimester fetal biometry, cases of FGR often remain undetected antenatally. Placental insufficiency is known to be associated with altered blood flow resistance in maternal, placental, and fetal vessels. We evaluated the performance of individual, and combined Doppler blood flow resistance measurements for the prediction of term FGR...
October 18, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Michelle F Mottola, Taniya S Nagpal, Roberta Bgeginski, Margie H Davenport, Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Gregory A Davies, Kristi B Adamo, Linda G Slater, Nick Barrowman, Ruben Barakat, Stephanie-May Ruchat
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical concerns regarding the supine position at rest due to the gravid uterus obstructing aorta and vena caval flow may impinge uterine blood flow (UBF) to the fetus and maternal venous return. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Online databases up to 11 December 2017. STUDY CRITERIA: Eligible population (pregnant without contraindication to exercise), intervention (frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of supine exercise), comparator (no exercise or exercise in left lateral rest position, upright posture or other supine exercise), outcomes (potentially adverse effects on maternal blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, oxygen saturation, fetal movements, UBF, fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns; adverse events such as bradycardia, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, perinatal mortality and other adverse events as documented by study authors), and study design (except case studies and reviews) published in English, Spanish, French or Portuguese...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Regina A Nascimento, José S Possomato-Vieira, Victor H Gonçalves-Rizzi, Gisele F Bonacio, Elen Rizzi, Carlos A Dias-Junior
Preeclampsia is manifested as maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in hypertension and doxycycline reduces blood pressure by inhibition of MMPs. Moreover, excessive levels of MMPs and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have been related to preeclampsia. We investigated the involvement of MMPs in hypertension in pregnancy induced by Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. To this end, zimography was performed to evaluate the activity of MMPs -2 and -9 in placenta, uterus and thoracic aorta, and systolic blood pressure, feto-placental development and metabolites of NO were evaluated...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Trond M Michelsen, Tore Henriksen, Dominik Reinhold, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
We sought to identify proteins secreted by the human placenta into the maternal and fetal circulations. Blood samples from the maternal radial artery and uterine vein and umbilical artery and vein were obtained during cesarean section in 35 healthy women with term pregnancy. Slow off-rate modified aptamer (SOMA) protein-binding technology was used to quantify 1310 known proteins. The uteroplacental and umbilical venoarterial concentration differences were calculated. Thirty-four proteins were significantly secreted by the placenta into the maternal circulation, including placental growth factor, growth/differentiation factor 15, and matrix metalloproteinase 12...
October 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Matteo Lambertini, Samuel Martel, Christine Campbell, Sébastien Guillaume, Florentine S Hilbers, Uwe Schuehly, Larissa Korde, Hatem A Azim, Serena Di Cosimo, Richard C Tenglin, Jens Huober, José Baselga, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Martine Piccart-Gebhart, Richard D Gelber, Evandro de Azambuja, Michail Ignatiadis
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the safety of using anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) targeted agents during pregnancy. To date, only retrospective studies have assessed the prognosis of patients with a pregnancy after prior early breast cancer, with no data in HER2-positive patients. METHODS: The Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization (NeoALTTO) trial and the Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization (ALTTO) trial were randomized phase 3 trials for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer...
October 18, 2018: Cancer
Yehudit Michelson, Yaniv Lustig, Shira Avivi, Eli Schwartz, Amos Danielli
Background: Zika virus has created global alarm as it has been associated with catastrophic fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, spontaneous abortion, and intrauterine growth restriction. Current serological assays that detect antiviral antibodies suffer from low sensitivity and high cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. Methods: Here, utilizing a novel Magnetic Modulation Biosensing (MMB) system and the Zika non-structural 1 (NS1) protein, we show highly sensitive and specific Zika serological assays...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Haiqin Liao, Dan Zhou, Kui Tang, Minzhi Ouyang, Xiaofang Wang, Ming Zhang
To evaluate relationship of maternal hepatic vein Doppler flow parameters and cardiac output (CO) with neonatal birth weight in uncomplicated pregnancies (UP) and pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) .
 Methods: Hepatic vein impedance index (HVI), venous pulse transit time (VPTT), and CO were measured in women with UP at the 14th-37th weeks and complicated by FGR at the 26th-37th weeks who underwent maternal hepatic hemodynamic and echocardiographic examination during the ultrasonography...
September 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Dailiany Orechio, Paula Fratini, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Patricia Castelucci, Maria Angelica Miglino
The incidence of diabetes mellitus in dogs is increasing in recent years, mainly because of genetic and/or environmental factors, including endocrine disorders (like in humans); failure of suitable control of blood sugar levels, which triggers hyperglycemia; glycosuria and weight loss, which demands the development of innovative treatments to cure or treat this complex disease in dogs. The present study established for the first time a protocol to obtain and characterize cells derived from pancreas of canine fetuses...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Eugenia Lee, Tracy Popowics, Susan W Herring
The development of the mandibular symphysis in late fetal and postnatal pigs, Sus scrofa dom. (n = 17), was studied as a model for the early fusing symphysis of anthropoid primates, including humans. The suture-like ligaments occurring in species that retain a mobile symphysis are not present in the pig. Instead, cartilage is the predominant tissue in the mandibular symphysis prior to fusion. In late fetuses the rostrum of the fused Meckel's cartilages forms a minor posterior component of the symphysis whereas the major component is secondary cartilage, developing bilaterally and joined at the midline with mesenchyme...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Agnese Lanzetti, Annalisa Berta, Eric G Ekdale
Extant baleen whales (Mysticeti) share a distinct suite of extreme and unique adaptations to perform bulk filter feeding, such as a long, arched skull and mandible and the complete loss of adult dentition in favor of baleen plates. However, mysticetes still develop tooth germs during ontogeny. In the fossil record, multiple groups document the transition from ancestral raptorial feeding to filter feeding. Fetal specimens give us an extraordinary opportunity to observe when and how this macroevolutionary transition occurs during gestation...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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