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predicting risk

Ruchira M Jha, Jonathan Elmer, Benjamin E Zusman, Shashvat Desai, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo Young Park, Lori A Shutter, Jessica S Wallisch, Yvette P Conley, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury is dynamic and influenced by factors like injury patterns, treatments, and genetics. Existing studies use time invariant summary intracranial pressure measures thus potentially losing critical information about temporal trends. We identified longitudinal intracranial pressure trajectories in severe traumatic brain injury and evaluated whether they predicted outcome. We further interrogated the model to explore whether ABCC8 polymorphisms (a known cerebraledema regulator) differed across trajectory groups...
August 16, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Matthew Shupler, William Godwin, Joseph Frostad, Paul Gustafson, Raphael E Arku, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with dirty fuels is a leading health risk factor within Asia, Africa and Central/South America. The concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is an important metric to evaluate HAP risk, however epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant variation in HAP-PM2.5 concentrations at household, community and country levels. To quantify the global risk due to HAP exposure, novel estimation methods are needed, as financial and resource constraints render it difficult to monitor exposures in all relevant areas...
August 14, 2018: Environment International
Saki Hattori, Akira Suda, Ikuko Kishida, Masatoshi Miyauchi, Yohko Shiraishi, Mami Fujibayashi, Natsuki Tsujita, Chie Ishii, Norio Ishii, Toshio Moritani, Yusuke Saigusa, Yoshio Hirayasu
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk than the general population. Additionally, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity of patients with schizophrenia is lower and more dysfunctional than that of the general population. Nonetheless, the association between ANS dysfunction and mortality in schizophrenia is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ANS activity and mortality in schizophrenia and to evaluate the predictive values of heart rate variability for long-term survival...
August 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Hiroki Abe, Kento Koyama, Shuso Kawamura, Shigenobu Koseki
Stochastic models take into account the uncertainty and variability of predictions in quantitative microbial risk assessment. However, a model that considers thermal inactivation conditions can better predict whether or not bacteria in food are alive. To this end, we describe a novel probabilistic modelling procedure for accurately predicting thermal end point, in contrast to conventional kinetic models that are based on extrapolation of the D value. We used this new model to investigate changes in the survival probability of Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg during thermal processing...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jae-Hyun Kim, Yongjoo Rhee, Yunhwan Lee
This study investigates the different pattern of change in comorbidity over time and its effect on mortality in older adults in South Korea. Data are from the National Health Insurance Service-Korean Senior (NHIS-Korean Senior) claim database, consisting of a random sample of 10% of adults aged 60 years and older. At baseline in 2002 121,733 subjects, who were admitted to the hospital at least once a year between 2002 and 2008, were analyzed. We used the Cox proportional hazards models after growth mixture modeling (GMM) to estimate trajectories in the combined comorbidity Index scores which is the Gagne's method between 2002 and 2008, and their 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality rates...
August 9, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
De Carolis Sara, Tabacco Sara, Rizzo Francesca, Giannini Andrea, Botta Angela, Salvi Silvia, Garufi Cristina, Benedetti Panici Pierluigi, Lanzone Antonio
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of women with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is still debated. About 20-30% of women with APS remain unable to give birth to healthy neonates despite conventional treatment, consisting of prophylactic-dose heparin and low-dose aspirin. These cases are defined "refractory obstetric APS". The early identification of risk factors associated with poor pregnancy outcome could be the optimal strategy to establish criteria for additional therapies, such as hydroxychloroquine, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange...
August 14, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Sundus Naila Maqbool, Haleema Saadiya Nazeer, Mehak Rafiq, Aneela Javed, Rumeza Hanif
Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among women with several genes involved in disease susceptibility. As majority of genome-wide significant variants fall outside the coding region, it is likely that some of them alter specific gene functions. GWAS database was used to interpret the regulatory functions of these genetic variants. A total of 320 SNPs for breast cancer were selected via GWAS, which were entered into the SNAP web portal tool, to determine the one's found to be in Linkage Disequilibrium (r2  < 0...
August 14, 2018: Gene
Ling-Bing Meng, Ze-Mou Yu, Peng Guo, Qing-Qing Wang, Ruo-Mei Qi, Meng-Jie Shan, Jian Lv, Tao Gong
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases (CCVDs) are global health problems due to the characteristic of high mortality. It is found that atherosclerosis (AS), a main cause of CCVDs, is significantly relevant to the change of intimal and media thickness. Neutrophil count (NEU) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (N/L) are recognized possible risk factors for atherosclerosis (AS). However, there are few studies on the separate relationship between carotid intimal thickness, media thickness and NEU, N/L...
August 3, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Duy Van Le, James Montgomery, Kenneth C Kirkby, Joel Scanlan
OBJECTIVE: Instruments rating risk of harm to self and others are widely used in inpatient forensic psychiatry settings. A potential alternate or supplementary means of risk prediction is from the automated analysis of case notes in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) using Natural Language Processing (NLP). This exploratory study rated presence or absence and frequency of words in a forensic EHR dataset, comparing four reference dictionaries. Seven machine learning algorithms and different time periods of EHR analysis were used to probe which dictionary and which time period were most predictive of risk assessment scores on validated instruments...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Basil M Saour, Jeffrey H Wang, Michael P Lavelle, Roy O Mathew, Mandeep S Sidhu, William E Boden, Joseph D Sacco, Eric J Costanzo, Mohammad A Hossain, Tuhsar Vachharanji, Anas Alrefaee, Arif Asif
INTRODUCTION: Reliable markers to predict sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) remain elusive, but echocardiogram (ECG) parameters may help stratify patients. Given their roles as markers for myocardial dispersion especially in high risk populations such as those with Brugada syndrome, we hypothesized that the Tpeak to Tend (TpTe) interval and TpTe/QT are independent risk factors for SCD in ESRD. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted on a cohort of patients with ESRD starting hemodialysis...
August 16, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Chang-Hee Lee, Ji-Hoon Jung, Seung Hyun Son, Chae Moon Hong, Ju Hye Jeong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Post I-131 ablation single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT can show radioactive iodine (RAI)-avid cervical metastatic lymph nodes (mLN) in differentiated thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of RAI-avid mLN on post I-131 ablation SPECT/CT and the risk factors related to metastasis among patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the low- or intermediate-risk groups. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Among 339 patients with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by I-131 ablation, 292 (228 women, 64 men) belonging to the low- or intermediate-risk groups before I-131 ablation, and with sufficient clinical follow-up data were enrolled...
2018: PloS One
Tanya Holt, Michael Prodanuk, Gregory Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Determining care disposition for pediatric patients during interfacility transport is often challenging. Severity of illness scoring can assist with this process. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare currently utilized scoring systems and their ability to reliably match pediatric transport patients' severity of illness with the level of care necessary. METHODS: The retrospective transport registry review for our region included 209 patients <18 years, transported between 2015 and 2016 and admitted to tertiary care...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Luca Segreti, Mario Giannotti Santoro, Andrea Di Cori, Giulio Zucchelli, Stefano Viani, Raffaele De Lucia, Veronica Della Tommasina, Valentina Barletta, Luca Paperini, Ezio Soldati, Maria Grazia Bongiorni
Increasing device implantations, patient comorbidities and longer life expectancy contribute to an increased need for lead extraction. Even if transvenous lead extraction are highly successful procedures, some serious procedural complications are reported. In order to identify those patients who are at higher risk, risk stratification scores were proposed. Areas covered: The major obstacles to lead extractions are represented by the body's response to the foreign implanted material and by the following development of fibrotic reaction between the lead and the vascular system...
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Angela M Groves, Jacqueline P Williams, Eric Hernady, Christina Reed, Bruce Fenton, Tanzy Love, Jacob N Finkelstein, Carl J Johnston
Biomarkers could play an essential role during triage in the aftermath of a radiological event, where exposure to radiation will be heterogeneous and complicated by concurrent trauma. Used alongside biodosimetry, biomarkers can identify victims in need of treatment for acute radiation effects, and might also provide valuable information on later developing consequences that need to be addressed as part of a treatment strategy. Indeed, because the lung is particularly sensitive to radiation and resultant late effects not only affect quality of life, but can also lead to morbidity, the risk of developing downstream pulmonary complications in exposed individuals requires assessment...
August 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Lutz Schmitz, Claus Oster-Schmidt, Eggert Stockfleth
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are defined as intraepithelial proliferation of atypical keratinocytes. Given their potential for progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, they may eventually evolve into a life-threatening disease. In recent decades, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of AKs, primarily due to changes in recreational activities and demographic trends in industrialized countries. As it is currently impossible to predict if and when a given AK might progress to invasive carcinoma, rigorous treatment of field cancerization is a key component in preventing potential progression...
August 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Da-Yong Lu, Peng-Peng Zhu, Hong-Ying Wu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Bin Xu, Ting-Ren Lu
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is still a major event of human mortality worldwide. Yet human suicide prediction, prevention and therapeutic systems at this moment are generally ineffective in the clinic. No diagnostic system is reliable for significantly suicidal prevention and mortality reduction. As a result, human suicide etiopathologic investigation (especially at genetic/molecular levels in the clinical settings) is quite necessary. In order to boost human suicide researches, emerging human suicide diagnostic/treatment study will be transformed from clinical symptom observations into new generations of candidate drug targets and therapeutics...
August 16, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Carlo Pavone, Luigi Candela, Dario Fontana, Alchiede Simonato
AIM: Assessing the incidence of immediate postoperative complications and 90-day mortality in high-risk patients who have undergone radical cystectomy; evaluating the correlation between preoperative conditions and surgery outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a monocentric retrospective observational study in which data of 65 patients have been analyzed. High-risk criteria: (a) Age ≥75 years, (b) obesity, (c) age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥8, (d) anemic status, and (e) pT ≥3...
August 2018: Urologia
Julie K Black, Anna C Whittaker, George M Balanos
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a negative health outcome of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Risk factors associated with OSA development include low physical activity (PA), high body mass index (BMI), and increasing age (>50 years) and weight loss is usually recommended as treatment. This cross-sectional study examined the association between PA, BMI and OSA severity in manual workers. Fifty-five participants, (23 females, 32 males) mean age 55.2, were examined for OSA and completed a PA and anthropometric assessment...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Celalettin Ustun, Elizabeth Morgan, Erica E M Moodie, Sheeja Pullarkat, Cecilia Yeung, Sigurd Broesby-Olsen, Robert Ohgami, Young Kim, Wolfgang Sperr, Hanne Vestergaard, Dong Chen, Philip M Kluin, Michelle Dolan, Krzysztof Mrózek, David Czuchlewski, Hans-Peter Horny, Tracy I George, Thomas Kielsgaard Kristensen, Nam K Ku, Cecilia Arana Yi, Michael Boe Møller, Guido Marcucci, Linda Baughn, Ana-Iris Schiefer, J R Hilberink, Vinod Pullarkat, Ryan Shanley, Jessica Kohlschmidt, Janie Coulombe, Amandeep Salhotra, Lori Soma, Christina Cho, Michael A Linden, Cem Akin, Jason Gotlib, Gregor Hoermann, Jason Hornick, Ryo Nakamura, Joachim Deeg, Clara D Bloomfield, Daniel Weisdorf, Mark R Litzow, Peter Valent, Gerwin Huls, Miguel-Angel Perales, Gautam Borthakur
BACKGROUND: Although the prognosis of core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is better than other subtypes of AML, 30% of patients still relapse and may require allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). However, there is no validated widely accepted scoring system to predict patient subsets with higher risk of relapse. METHODS: Eleven centers in the US and Europe evaluated 247 patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22). RESULTS: Complete remission (CR) rate was high (92...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Xing Liu, Yiming Li, Zhiyan Sun, Shaowu Li, Kai Wang, Xing Fan, Yuqing Liu, Lei Wang, Yinyan Wang, Tao Jiang
The presence of contrast enhancement (CE) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is conventionally regarded as an indicator for tumor malignancy. However, the biological behaviors and molecular mechanism of enhanced tumor are not well illustrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular profiles associated with anaplastic gliomas (AGs) presenting CE on postcontrast T1-weighted MR imaging. In this retrospective database study, RNA sequencing and MR imaging data of 91 AGs from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and 64 from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were collected...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Medicine
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