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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317615/insulin-resistance-review-of-the-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Habib Yaribeygi, Farin Rashid Farrokhi, Alexandra E Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Most human cells utilize glucose as the primary substrate, cellular uptake requiring insulin. Insulin signaling is therefore critical for these tissues. However, decrease in insulin sensitivity due to the disruption of various molecular pathways causes insulin resistance (IR). IR underpins many metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, impairments in insulin signaling disrupting entry of glucose into the adipocytes, and skeletal muscle cells. Although the exact underlying cause of IR has not been fully elucidated, a number of major mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin receptor mutations, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suggested...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317580/glucose-intolerance-in-monosodium-glutamate-obesity-is-linked-to-hyperglucagonemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-%C3%AE-cells
#2
Thiago R Araujo, Joel A da Silva, Jean F Vettorazzi, Israelle N Freitas, Camila Lubaczeuski, Emily A Magalhães, Juliana N Silva, Elane S Ribeiro, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro, Maria L Bonfleur, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro
Obesity predisposes to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is often characterized by insulin resistance, changes in insulin clearance, and β-cell dysfunction. However, studies indicate that, for T2D development, disruptions in glucagon physiology also occur. Herein, we investigated the involvement of glucagon in impaired glycemia control in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice. Male Swiss mice were subcutaneously injected daily, during the first 5 days after birth, with MSG (4 mg/g body weight [BW]) or saline (1...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316966/early-gestational-ethanol-exposure-in-mice-effects-on-brain-structure-energy-metabolism-and-adiposity-in-adult-offspring
#3
Christine R Zhang, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Lisa Yamada, Whitney Fleming, Nina Kaminen-Ahola, Arttu Ahola, Graham Galloway, Suyinn Chong
We examined whether an early-life event - ethanol exposure in the initial stages of pregnancy - affected offspring brain structure, energy metabolism, and body composition in later life. Consumption of 10% (v/v) ethanol by inbred C57BL/6J female mice from 0.5 to 8.5 days post coitum was used to model alcohol exposure during the first 3-4 weeks of gestation in humans, when pregnancy is not typically recognized. At adolescence (postnatal day [P] 28) and adulthood (P64), the brains of male offspring were scanned ex vivo using ultra-high field (16...
April 25, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316957/differences-in-glucose-metabolism-among-women-with-spinal-cord-injury-may-not-be-fully-explained-by-variations-in-body-composition
#4
Jia Li, Gary R Hunter, Yuying Chen, Amie McLain, Daniel L Smith, Ceren Yarar-Fisher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in glucose metabolism among women with paraplegic, and tetraplegic spinal cord injury (SCI) in comparison to their able-bodied (AB) counterparts after adjusting for differences in body composition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Following an overnight fast, each participant consumed a 75-g glucose solution for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed before and 30-, 60-, and 120-minute post-consumption...
October 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316767/episomal-expression-of-human-glutathione-reductase-hugr-in-leishmania-sheds-light-on-evolutionary-pressure-for-unique-redox-metabolism-pathway-impaired-stress-tolerance-ability-of-leishmania-donovani
#5
Jay Prakash, Sunita Yadav, Gundappa Saha, Adarsh Kumar Chiranjivi, Suresh Kumar, Santanu Sasidharan, Prakash Saudagar, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Trypanothione based redox metabolism is unique to the Trypanosomatida family. Despite extensive studies on redox metabolism of Leishmania parasites, a prominent question of why Leishmania adopt this unique redox pathway remains elusive. We have episomally expressed human glutathione reductase (HuGR) in Leishmania donovani (LdGR+) and investigated its effect. LdGR+ strain has slower growth compared to the wild type (Ld) indicating decreased survival ability of the strain. Further, LdGR+ strain showed enhanced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and more sensitivity to the anti-leishmanial drug, Miltefosine, inferring increased stress level...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316647/intracellular-acidosis-via-activation-of-akt-girdin-signaling-promotes-post-ischemic-angiogenesis-during-hyperglycemia
#6
Hong-Ming Zhang, Mo-Yan Liu, Jun-Xiu Lu, Mo-Li Zhu, Qun Jin, Song Ping, Peng Li, Xu Jian, Ya-Ling Han, Shuang-Xi Wang, Xiao-Yan Li
AIMS: The impaired angiogenesis is the major cause of diabetic delayed wound healing. The molecular insight remains unknown. Previous study has shown that high glucose (HG) activates Na+ /H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) and induces intracellular alkalinization, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study is to investigate whether activation of NHE1 in endothelial cells by HG damages the angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used western blot to detect the phosphorylations of both Akt and Girdin, and pH-sensitive BCECF fluorescence to assay NHE1 activity and pHi value, respectively...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316483/assessing-social-affiliative-behavior-a-comparison-of-in-vivo-and-video-tasks
#7
Cristina P Garcia, Lauren T Catalano, Kristen R Dwyer, Julie M McCarthy, Melanie E Bennett, Jack J Blanchard
Social affiliation, or engagement in positive social interactions, is often profoundly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Valid measures of social affiliation are needed to understand these impairments and their symptom and functional correlates; however, such measures are limited and have not been validated. This pilot study evaluated one such measure-the video-based Social Affiliation Interaction Task (SAIT)-and a novel in vivo behavioral measure, the Affiliative Conversation Task (ACT). Twenty participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) and 35 nonpsychiatric controls (CT) completed both tasks and measures of negative symptoms and functioning...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316050/aging-alters-envelope-representations-of-speech-like-sounds-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#8
Aravindakshan Parthasarathy, Björn Herrmann, Edward L Bartlett
Hearing impairment in older people is thought to arise from impaired temporal processing in auditory circuits. We used a systems-level (scalp recordings) and a microcircuit-level (extracellular recordings) approach to investigate how aging affects the sensitivity to temporal envelopes of speech-like sounds in rats. Scalp-recorded potentials suggest an age-related increase in sensitivity to temporal regularity along the ascending auditory pathway. The underlying cellular changes in the midbrain were examined using extracellular recordings from inferior colliculus neurons...
September 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315639/erythroferrone-is-not-required-for-the-glucoregulatory-and-hematologic-effects-of-chronic-erythropoietin-treatment-in-mice
#9
Richard Coffey, Ugo Sardo, Léon Kautz, Victoria Gabayan, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz
Erythropoietin (EPO) acts on erythroid progenitor cells to promote their survival and differentiation to mature erythrocytes. Along with this canonical role, EPO is also reported to modulate energy metabolism, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. EPO also stimulates the production of the hormone erythroferrone (ERFE) which acts to suppress hepcidin production, thus increasing dietary iron absorption and mobilizing stored iron for use in erythropoiesis. ERFE (initially termed myonectin) was also reported have an effect on systemic lipid metabolism by promoting the clearance of nonesterifed fatty acids (NEFA) from circulation...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315581/long-term-neurological-morbidity-following-endoscopic-transnasal-resection-of-juvenile-angiofibroma
#10
Davide Mattavelli, Vittorio Rampinelli, Marco Ferrari, Alberto Schreiber, Bruno Guarneri, Piero Nicolai
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Although transnasal endoscopic resection (TER) of juvenile angiofibroma (JA) is unquestionably less invasive than traditional external approaches, several endonasal and neurovascular structures are sacrificed during the procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term neurological morbidity and related quality of life following TER of JA. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: All patients who underwent TER for JA at the Unit of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of the University of Brescia from 1994 to 2016 were contacted to know their availability to undergo a battery of tests aimed to assess lacrimal secretion (Schirmer test), impairment of sensitive nerves (electrophysiological threshold test), and impact on quality of life of tearing reduction and sensitivity impairment with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (0-10), respectively...
October 12, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314995/her2-decreases-drug-sensitivity-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-inducing-stem-cell-like-property-in-a-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-way
#11
Wenxiang Wang, Yuxia Gao, Jing Hai, Jing Yang, Shufeng Duan
Increasing evidence shows that cancer stem cells are responsible for drug resistance and relapse of tumors. In breast cancer, HER2 induces Herceptin resistance by inducing cancer stem cells. In this study, we explored the effect of HER2 on cancer stem cells induction and drug sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines. Firstly, we found that HER2 overexpression (HER2 OE) induced, while HER2 knockdown (HER2 KD) decreased CD44+/CD24- population. Consistently, HER2 expression was closely correlated with the sphere formation efficiency (SFE) of ovarian cancer cells...
October 12, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314940/effects-of-normative-adjustments-to-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment
#12
Erika A Pugh, Emily C Kemp, Christopher H van Dyck, Adam P Mecca, Emily S Sharp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate optimal cutoff scores and the effects of normative adjustments on the performance of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening instrument for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD-dementia). METHODS: 499 adults 48 to 91 years-old enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and were administered the MoCA during baseline. Participants were classified as either cognitively normal (CN), MCI, or AD-dementia by clinical assessment...
September 21, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314576/quality-of-life-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-relationships-with-negative-affectivity-memory-somatic-symptoms-and-social-support
#13
Irene Cano-López, Kevin G Hampel, Mercedes Garcés, Vicente Villanueva, Esperanza González-Bono
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative contribution of factors non-directly related to seizures such as negative affectivity, social support, somatic symptoms and memory performance on quality of life (QOL) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Seventy patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were consecutively recruited from the inpatient Epilepsy Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, between April 2015 and October 2017...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314563/menopause-and-diabetes-emas-clinical-guide
#14
Radoslaw Slopien, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Blazej Meczekalski, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Jesse D Jaremek, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
INTRODUCTION: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. AIMS: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM...
November 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314288/kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-mesyl-sal-b-attenuates-behavioral-sensitization-to-cocaine-with-fewer-aversive-side-effects-than-salvinorin-a-in-rodents
#15
Bronwyn M Kivell, Kelly F Paton, Nitin Kumar, Aashish S Morani, Aimee Culverhouse, Amy Shepherd, Susan A Welsh, Andrew Biggerstaff, Rachel S Crowley, Thomas E Prisinzano
The acute activation of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) produces antinociceptive and anti-cocaine effects, however, their side-effects have limited further clinical development. Mesyl Sal B is a potent and selective KOPr analogue of Salvinorin A (Sal A), a psychoactive natural product isolated from the plant Salvia divinorum . We assessed the antinociceptive, anti-cocaine, and side-effects of Mesyl Sal B. The anti-cocaine effects are evaluated in cocaine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine in male Sprague Dawley rats...
October 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314283/ceacam1-in-liver-injury-metabolic-and-immune-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Andrea Kristina Horst, Sonia M Najjar, Christoph Wagener, Gisa Tiegs
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. CEACAM1 regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance, and controls liver tolerance and mucosal immunity. Obese insulin-resistant humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease manifest loss of hepatic CEACAM1...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312593/investigation-of-whole-mitochondrial-genome-variation-in-normal-tension-glaucoma
#17
Agnieszka Piotrowska-Nowak, Ewa Kosior-Jarecka, Aleksandra Schab, Dominika Wrobel-Dudzinska, Ewa Bartnik, Tomasz Zarnowski, Katarzyna Tonska
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. However, the cause of retinal ganglion cell loss and damage of the optic nerve in its pathogenesis is largely unknown. The high energy demands of these cells may reflect their strong dependence on mitochondrial function and thus sensitivity to mitochondrial defects. To address this issue, we studied whole mitochondrial genome variation in normal tension glaucoma patients and control individuals from the Polish population using next generation sequencing...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311906/high-n-glycan-multiplicity-is-critical-for-neuronal-adhesion-and-sensitizes-the-developing-cerebellum-to-n-glycosylation-defect
#18
Daniel Medina-Cano, Ekin Ucuncu, Lam Son Nguyen, Michael Nicouleau, Joanna Lipecka, Jean-Charles Bizot, Christian Thiel, François Foulquier, Nathalie Lefort, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Laurence Colleaux, Ida Chiara Guerrera, Vincent Cantagrel
Proper brain development relies highly on protein N-glycosylation to sustain neuronal migration, axon guidance and synaptic physiology. Impairing the N-glycosylation pathway at early steps produces broad neurological symptoms identified in congenital disorders of glycosylation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects. We generated a cerebellum specific knockout mouse for Srd5a3 , a gene involved in the initiation of N-glycosylation. In addition to motor coordination defects and abnormal granule cell development, Srd5a3 deletion causes mild N-glycosylation impairment without significantly altering ER homeostasis...
October 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310850/a-novel-detection-method-of-cleaved-plasma-high-molecular-weight-kininogen-reveals-its-correlation-with-alzheimer-s-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment
#19
Hitomi Yamamoto-Imoto, Daria Zamolodchikov, Zu-Lin Chen, S Lloyd Bourne, Syeda Rizvi, Pradeep Singh, Erin H Norris, Frances Weis-Garcia, Sidney Strickland
Introduction: Accumulation of β-amyloid is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). β-Amyloid activates the plasma contact system leading to kallikrein-mediated cleavage of intact high-molecular-weight kininogen (HKi) to cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen (HKc). Increased HKi cleavage is observed in plasma of AD patients and mouse models by Western blot. For potential diagnostic purposes, a more quantitative method that can measure HKc levels in plasma with high sensitivity and specificity is needed...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309810/characteristics-and-determinants-of-dietary-intake-and-physical-activity-in-a-group-of-patients-with-multiple-chemical-sensitivity
#20
Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Helena Marcos-Pasero, Rocío de la Iglesia, Isabel Espinosa-Salinas, Ana Ramírez de Molina, Guillermo Reglero, Viviana Loria-Kohen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex, acquired, chronic syndrome of multifactorial etiology with multiple symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional habits, dietary characteristics and physical activity, as well as their determinants, of a population diagnosed with MCS, which may allow for a more precise approach to nutritional improvement. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional study in patients diagnosed with MCS...
October 8, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
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