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Sensitivity impairment

Yao Kou, Mohammad Shboul, Zhihao Wang, Qasem Shersheer, Zhaojie Lyu, Peirong Liu, Xiaodong Zhao, Jing Tian
INTRODUCTION: Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare multisystemic autosomal recessive disease. The primary manifestations of which are developmental delay, neurological impairment, abnormal skin sensitivity to sunlight and unique facial appearance as sunken eyes, large ears, and thin large nose. The disorders of the nucleotide excision repair system significantly are caused by mutations of Excision repair cross-complementing group 6 (ERCC6) and Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 (ERCC8) genes, and the ERCC6 gene mutations are present in approximately 65% of cases...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Melissa Papesh, Jonathan E Elliott, Megan L Callahan, Daniel Storzbach, Miranda M Lim, Frederick Gallun
Many military Service Members and Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blast waves suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in chronic auditory deficits despite normal hearing sensitivity. The current study sought to examine the neurological cause of this chronic dysfunction by testing the hypothesis that blast exposure leads to impaired filtering of sensory information at brainstem and early cortical levels. Groups of blast-exposed and non-blast-exposed participants completed self-report measures of auditory and neurobehavioral status, auditory perceptual tasks involving degraded and competing speech stimuli, and physiological measures of sensory gating, including prepulse inhibition and habituation of the acoustic startle reflex and electrophysiological assessment of a paired-click sensory gating paradigm...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Pedro Robles, Sergio Navarro-Cartagena, Almudena Ferrández-Ayela, Eva Núñez-Delegido, Víctor Quesada
Exposure of plants to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cold, heat, or drought, affects their growth and development, and can significantly reduce their productivity. Plants have developed adaptive strategies to deal with situations of abiotic stresses with guarantees of success, which have favoured the expansion and functional diversification of different gene families. The family of mitochondrial transcription termination factors (mTERFs), first identified in animals and more recently in plants, is likely a good example of this...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ye Tao, Lei Ding, Anhui Yao, Zhen Yang, Qinghua Yang, Limin Qin, Linjun Yu, Yanling Gao, Yi Fei Huang, Zhengwei Li, Dengke Teng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: αB -crystallin (αBC) belongs to the family of small heat shock proteins that are necessary for maintaining oxygen homeostasis. This study was designed to explore the possible effects of αBC on N-methyl- N-nitrosourea (MNU) induced retinal degeneration and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The αBC was injected into the vitreous bodies of MNU administered mice. The retinal morphology and visual function of experimental animals were analyzed by electroretinography (ERG), Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus photographs, optokinetic testing and immunohistochemistry assay...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Friederike Lindemann, David Kuerten, Eva Koch, Matthias Fuest, Claudia Fischer, Andreas Voss, Niklas Plange
PURPOSE: Vascular dysfunction and ischemia are believed to play an important part in the pathogenesis of glaucoma and especially of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). The aim of the present study was to analyze the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability patterns in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and NTG compared with controls. METHODS: In total, 37 patients with POAG, 27 patients with NTG, and 82 control subjects were included in a prospective clinical validation study...
August 15, 2018: Current Eye Research
Marianne A Mahrouse
Therapeutic drug monitoring of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has a great impact in blood pressure control in patient with heart failure, hepatic and renal impairment. To provide an efficient tool for drug assessment in plasma, UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of benazepril hydrochloride (BNZ), fosinopril sodium (FOS), captopril (CAP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in human plasma samples. Solid phase extraction was applied for sample preparation using OASIS® hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced reversed phase sorbents cartridges...
August 14, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
María Limones, Julio Sevillano, María G Sánchez-Alonso, Emilio Herrera, María Del Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have investigated the effect of maternal nutrition on metabolic programming of the offspring, the question whether a nutritional insult during early gestation favours an altered metabolic state of the mother that persists during the remainder period of pregnancy, when foetal growth is maximal, remains to be answered. METHODS: To address this issue, we analysed the effect of 40% food restriction during the first 12 days of gestation on glucose tolerance, as well as on liver and adipose tissue metabolism, in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Sam Z Bacharach, Helen M Nasser, Natalie E Zlebnik, Hannah M Dantrassy, Daniel E Kochli, Utsav Gyawali, Joseph F Cheer, Donna J Calu
RATIONALE: Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are critical gatekeepers of dopaminergic signaling, and disrupting cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) signaling alters DA dynamics to attenuate cue-motivated behaviors. Prior studies suggest that dopamine (DA) release plays a critical role in driving sign-tracking. OBJECTIVES: Here, we determine whether systemic injections of rimonabant, a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, during Pavlovian lever autoshaping impair the expression of sign-tracking...
August 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Irène Calero-Romero, Marc R Suter, Bernard Waeber, Francois Feihl, Thierry Kuntzer
Objective: To evaluate the area of the vascular flare in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Methods: Healthy controls and patients with genetically confirmed FAP were prospectively examined, on the upper and lower limbs, for thermal sensitivity (Medoc TSA-II thermal analyzer) and for axon reflex-mediated flare. The latter was induced by iontophoresis of histamine on the forearm and leg on 2 different visits. We used laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to measure the flare area (LDIflare)...
August 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Ning Sun, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Ruo-Lan Du, Sen-Yuan Cai, Kun Zhang, Lok-Yan So, Kwan-Choi Cheung, Chao Zhuo, Yu-Jing Lu, Kwok-Yin Wong
The filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein is generally recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target. In the present study, a small organic molecule (tiplaxtinin) was identified for the first time as an excellent cell division inhibitor by using a cell-based screening approach from a library with 250 compounds. Tiplaxtinin possesses potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive pathogens. Both in vitro and in vivo results reveal that the compound is able to disrupt dynamic assembly of FtsZ and Z-ring formation effectively through the mechanism of stimulating FtsZ polymerization and impairing GTPase activity...
October 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Kálmán Bódis, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance occurs in obesity, but also in lipodystrophy. Although adipose tissue controls metabolic fluxes and participates in inter-organ crosstalk, the role of energy metabolism within white adipose tissue for insulin resistance is less clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Medline search identified in vivo studies in humans on energy and lipid metabolism in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies in adipocyte cultures and transgenic animal models were included for the better understanding of the link between abnormal energy metabolism in adipose tissue and insulin resistance...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Qin Yang, Archana Vijayakumar, Barbara B Kahn
The cause of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not limited to impaired insulin signalling but also involves the complex interplay of multiple metabolic pathways. The analysis of large data sets generated by metabolomics and lipidomics has shed new light on the roles of metabolites such as lipids, amino acids and bile acids in modulating insulin sensitivity. Metabolites can regulate insulin sensitivity directly by modulating components of the insulin signalling pathway, such as insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) and AKT, and indirectly by altering the flux of substrates through multiple metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, lipid oxidation, protein synthesis and degradation and hepatic gluconeogenesis...
August 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Morgana Favero, Nathaniel P Sotuyo, Emily Lopez, Jennifer A Kearney, Ethan M Goldberg
Dravet syndrome is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy largely due to heterozygous loss-of-function mutation of the gene SCN1A , which encodes the type 1 neuronal voltage gated sodium (Na+ ) channel α subunit Nav1.1. Prior studies in mouse models of Dravet syndrome ( Scn1a +/- mice) indicate that, in cerebral cortex, Nav1.1 is predominantly expressed in GABAergic interneurons, in particular in parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking basket cells (PVINs). This has led to a model of Dravet syndrome pathogenesis in which Nav1...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Angelika Więckowska, Olga Gajewska-Woźniak, Anna Głowacka, Benjun Ji, Kamil Grycz, Julita Czarkowska-Bauch, Małgorzata Skup
Complete thoracic spinal cord transection (SCT) impairs excitatory cholinergic inputs to ankle extensor (Soleus; Sol) but not to flexor (Tibialis Anterior; TA) α-motoneurons (MNs) modifiable by locomotor training applied post-transection. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Sol and TA MNs adapt to changes in cholinergic environment by differential regulation of their muscarinic receptors M2 (M2R). We examined Chrm2 (M2R gene) transcript level, high-affinity [3 H]QNB ligand binding, distribution and density of M2R immunolabeling in lumbar (L) segments in intact and SCT rats, with or without inclusion of 5-week treadmill locomotor training...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Inge M G J Bronckers, Maartje J van Geel, Peter C M van de Kerkhof, Elke M G J de Jong, Marieke M B Seyger
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis can have a substantial impact on health-related quality of life(HRQoL), life course and work productivity. Young adulthood is a critical, sensitive period of development that includes major life changing decisions. The impact of psoriasis on this vulnerable population is yet unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess QoL, life course and work productivity in young adults with psoriasis and identify characteristics influencing these patient-reported outcomes(PRO)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Daniel H Baker, Freya A Lygo, Tim S Meese, Mark A Georgeson
Our ability to detect faint images is better with two eyes than with one, but how great is this improvement? A meta-analysis of 65 studies published across more than 5 decades shows definitively that psychophysical binocular summation (the ratio of binocular to monocular contrast sensitivity) is significantly greater than the canonical value of √2. Several methodological factors were also found to affect summation estimates. Binocular summation was significantly affected by both the spatial and temporal frequency of the stimulus, and stimulus speed (the ratio of temporal to spatial frequency) systematically predicts summation levels, with slow speeds (high spatial and low temporal frequencies) producing the strongest summation...
August 13, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Selen Serel Arslan, Hasan Erkan Kılınç, Ömer Faruk Yaşaroğlu, Numan Demir, Aynur Ayşe Karaduman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the Pediatric version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (PEDI-EAT-10) to detect aspiration in children with neurological impairments. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-four children were included. Swallowing function was imaged with videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The penetration and aspiration scale (PAS) was used to determine the penetration and aspiration severity. Parents completed the PEDI-EAT-10, which is a 10 item, reliable, and valid dysphagia symptom specific outcome instrument...
August 13, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Louis Bherer, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Susan Muir-Hunter, Karen Z H Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, William McIlroy, Laura Middleton, José A Morais, Ryota Sakurai, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, Olivier Beauchet, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Caterina Rosano, Stephanie Studenski, Joe Verghese
Background: A new paradigm is emerging in which mobility and cognitive impairments, previously studied, diagnosed, and managed separately in older adults, are in fact regulated by shared brain resources. Deterioration in these shared brain mechanisms by normal aging and neurodegeneration increases the risk of developing dementia, falls, and fractures. This new paradigm requires an integrated approach to measuring both domains. We aim to identify a complementary battery of existing tests of mobility and cognition in community-dwelling older adults that enable assessment of motor-cognitive interactions...
June 21, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Christopher M Weise, Kewei Chen, Yinghua Chen, Xiaoying Kuang, Cary R Savage, Eric M Reiman
Background: Previous publications indicate that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related cortical atrophy may develop in asymmetric patterns, with accentuation of the left hemisphere. Since fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRgl) provide a sensitive and specific marker of neurodegenerative disease progression, we sought to investigate the longitudinal pattern of rCMRgl in amyloid-positive persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, hypothesizing asymmetric declines of cerebral glucose metabolism...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Cécilia Tremblay, Pascali Durand Martel, Johannes Frasnelli
Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) exhibit a considerably diminished sense of smell. The olfactory system is intimately connected to the trigeminal system, responsible for the perception of sensations such as freshness, warmth or piquancy in odorants. Usually, olfactory impairment is associated with a similar reduction of trigeminal sensitivity. A recent study suggests that the trigeminal system is not affected in patients with PD. To test this, we evaluated perception of mixed olfactory/trigeminal stimuli in 23 patients with idiopathic PD and compared them to 22 healthy matched controls...
August 6, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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