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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545918/multilayer-network-switching-rate-predicts-brain-performance
#1
Mangor Pedersen, Andrew Zalesky, Amir Omidvarnia, Graeme D Jackson
Large-scale brain dynamics are characterized by repeating spatiotemporal connectivity patterns that reflect a range of putative different brain states that underlie the dynamic repertoire of brain functions. The role of transition between brain networks is poorly understood, and whether switching between these states is important for behavior has been little studied. Our aim was to model switching between functional brain networks using multilayer network methods and test for associations between model parameters and behavioral measures...
December 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544899/modelization-of-nutrient-removal-processes-at-a-large-wwtp-using-a-modified-asm2d-model
#2
Jakub Drewnowski, Jacek Makinia, Lukasz Kopec, Francisco-Jesus Fernandez-Morales
The biodegradation of particulate substrates starts by a hydrolytic stage. Hydrolysis is a slow reaction and usually becomes the rate limiting step of the organic substrates biodegradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate a novel hydrolysis concept based on a modification of the activated sludge model (ASM2d) and to compare it with the original ASM2d model. The hydrolysis concept was developed in order to accurately predict the use of internal carbon sources in enhanced biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes at a full scale facility located in northern Poland...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542328/rare-earth-elements-alter-redox-balance-in-methylomicrobium-alcaliphilum-20z-r
#3
Ilya R Akberdin, David A Collins, Richard Hamilton, Dmitry Y Oshchepkov, Anil K Shukla, Carrie D Nicora, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Joshua N Adkins, Marina G Kalyuzhnaya
Background: Rare Earth Elements (REEs) control methanol utilization in both methane- and methanol-utilizing microbes. It has been established that the addition of REEs leads to the transcriptional repression of MxaFI-MeDH [a two-subunit methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), calcium-dependent] and the activation of XoxF-MeDH (a one-subunit MeDH, lanthanum-dependent). Both enzymes are pyrroquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and show significant homology; however, they display different kinetic properties and substrate specificities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542319/consciousness-in-neurocritical-care-cohort-study-using-fmri-and-eeg-connect-me-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-prospective-study-and-a-tertiary-clinical-care-service
#4
Anine P Skibsted, Moshgan Amiri, Patrick M Fisher, Annette Sidaros, Melita Cacic Hribljan, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Joan Lilja S Højgaard, Miki Nikolic, John Hauerberg, Martin E Fabricius, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Kirsten Møller, Daniel Kondziella
Aims and Objectives: To facilitate individualized assessment of unresponsive patients in the intensive care unit for signs of preserved consciousness after acute brain injury. Background: Physicians and neuroscientists are increasingly recognizing a disturbing dilemma: Brain-injured patients who appear entirely unresponsive at the bedside may show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional MRI (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG). According to a recent meta-analysis, roughly 15% of behaviorally unresponsive brain-injured patients can participate in mental tasks by modifying their brain activity during EEG- or fMRI-based paradigms, suggesting that they are conscious and misdiagnosed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539782/beneficial-effects-of-leptin-substitution-on-impaired-eating-behavior-in-lipodystrophy-are-sustained-beyond-150-weeks-of-treatment
#5
Janett Püschel, Konstanze Miehle, Karsten Müller, Arno Villringer, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer, Haiko Schlögl
AIM: Metreleptin treatment in lipodystrophy patients improves eating behavior with increased satiety and reduced hunger. However, no data are available whether effects are maintained beyond 52 weeks of treatment. METHODS: A prospective study with measurements at baseline and at >150 weeks of metreleptin treatment was performed. Five female lipodystrophy patients with indication for metreleptin were included. Behavioral aspects of hunger- and satiety regulation were assessed by validated eating behavior questionnaires and visual analog scales assessing hunger and satiety feelings before and after a standardized meal...
January 2019: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539242/experimentation-and-cfd-modeling-of-continuous-degradation-of-formaldehyde-by-immobilized-ralstonia-eutropha-in-a-semi-pilot-scale-plug-flow-bioreactor
#6
Alireza Habibi, Mehran Nalband, Elham Jalilnejad
This study focuses on continuous formaldehyde (FA) biodegradation by Ralstonia eutropha immobilized on polyurethane foam in a semi-pilot-scale plug flow packed-bed bioreactor. The stepwise increasing of the influent FA concentration from 43.9 to 1325.1 mg L-1 was studied in the bioreactor during 70 days of operation. A complete removal of FA was achieved for inlet concentration up to 425.5 mg L-1 and the initial specific biodegradation rate reached to its maximum value about 44.3 mg gcell -1  h-1 at 425...
December 11, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537283/multicomponent-analysis-of-t-1-relaxation-in-bovine-articular-cartilage-at-low-magnetic-fields
#7
Oleg V Petrov, Siegfried Stapf
PURPOSE: The multi-exponential character of T1 relaxation in bovine articular cartilage was investigated at low magnetic fields below 0.5 T. The ultimate aim was to identify a parameter based on the T1 relaxation time distribution as a biomarker to biochemical features of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Osteoarthritis conditions were simulated by enzymatic digestion of cartilage with trypsin. Fast-field cycling NMR relaxometry was carried out in the magnetic field range B0 = 70 μT to 600 mT...
December 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534169/comparison-of-nitrous-oxide-midazolam-and-nitrous-oxide-promethazine-for-pediatric-dental-sedation-a-randomized-cross-over-clinical-trial
#8
Sedigheh Mozafar, Majid Bargrizan, Mojtaba Vahid Golpayegani, Shahnaz Shayeghi, Rahil Ahmadi
Background: This study compared the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide (N2 O)/midazolam and N2 O/promethazine for dental treatment of uncooperative children. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, cross-over, clinical trial investigation Eighteen healthy uncooperative children with a pair of similar teeth requiring the same treatment were included. Combination of N2 O/midazolam was given in one visit, where N2 O/promethazine was administrated in the other appointment for each patient in a cross-over manner...
November 2018: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532574/relationship-between-early-menarche-obesity-and-disordered-eating-behaviors-a-school-based-cross-sectional-survey-in-northern-saudi-arabia
#9
Mashael Almuhlafi, Khalil Abu Jamilah, Adel F Almutairi, Mahmoud Salam
Background: Obesity and disordered eating (DE) behaviors are serious health concerns, regularly observed among female adolescents, which could progress to adverse psychological and nutritional sequels. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and the self-reported DE behaviors among high school female students and to evaluate their self-perception of body image, peer pressures, and need for dietary consultation. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2018...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525674/optical-study-of-p-doping-in-gaas-nanowires-for-low-threshold-and-high-yield-lasing
#10
Juan Arturo Alanis, Mykhaylo Lysevych, Tim Burgess, Dhruv Saxena, Sudha Mokkapati, Stefan Skalsky, Xiaoyan Tang, Peter Mitchell, Alex S Walton, Hark Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish, Patrick Parkinson
Semiconductor nanowires suffer from significant non-radiative surface recombination; however, heavy p-type doping has proven to be a viable option to increase the radiative recombination rate and, hence, quantum efficiency of emission, allowing the demonstration of room-temperature lasing. Using a large-scale optical technique, we have studied Zn-doped GaAs nanowires to understand and quantify the effect of doping on growth and lasing properties. We measure the non-radiative recombination rate ( knr ) to be (0...
December 11, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521307/spray-printed-and-self-assembled-honeycomb-electrodes-of-silicon-decorated-carbon-nanofibers-for-li-ion-batteries
#11
Sang Ho Lee, Kexue Li, Chun Huang, Jack Evans, Patrick S Grant
Directional, micron-scale honeycomb pores in Li-ion battery electrodes were fabricated using a layer-by-layer, self-assembly approach based on spray printing of carbon nanofibers. By controlling the drying behavior of each printed electrode layer through optimization of (i) the volume ratio of fugitive bi-solvent carriers in the suspension, and (ii) the substrate temperature during printing, self-assembled, honeycomb pore channels through the electrode were created spontaneously and reliably on current collector areas larger than 20 cm × 15 cm...
December 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517363/effect-of-auditory-motor-training-on-auditory-processing-of-school-children
#12
Fátima Aparecida Gonçalves, Márcia Ribeiro Vieira, Liliane Desgualdo Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To compare performance in Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo Central and Scale of Auditory Behaviors scores before and after auditory and motor training. METHODS: Sample comprising 162 children aged 9 to 11 years and attending public schools in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil; 122 out of 162 children were allocated to one of three experimental groups: Multisensory; Auditory/Motor and Motor/Auditory. Experimental groups were submitted to 8 hours of auditory, visuospatial and motor stimulation over the course of 8 weeks...
November 29, 2018: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515348/application-of-animated-cartoons-in-reducing-the-pain-of-dressing-changes-in-children-with-burn-injuries
#13
Zhicai Feng, Qiyu Tang, Junqing Lin, Quanyong He, Cheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological management remains one of the central pain interventional therapies in the burn unit. VR and other distraction treatments for adults have achieved great advantages in pain relief. METHODS: A within-subject study was conducted to evaluate 54 participants aged from 3 to 7. In the control group, a standard analgesic, ibuprofen, was used over the period of dressing change, whereas animated cartoons were played simultaneously in the intervention-group condition...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515252/longitudinal-screening-detects-cognitive-stability-and-behavioral-deterioration-in-als-patients
#14
Susan Woolley, Ray Goetz, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jennifer Murphy, Jonathan Hupf, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Howard Andrews, Daragh Heitzman, Richard Bedlack, Jonathan Katz, Richard Barohn, Eric Sorenson, Bjorn Oskarsson, Americo Fernandes Filho, Edward Kasarskis, Tahseen Mozaffar, Sharon Nations, Andrea Swenson, Agnes Koczon-Jaremko, Georgia Christodoulou, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods: We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510909/internet-and-mobile-based-aftercare-and-relapse-prevention-in-mental-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#15
REVIEW
Severin Hennemann, Sylvia Farnsteiner, Lasse Sander
Background: Mental disorders are characterized by a high likelihood of recurrence. Thus, aftercare and follow-up interventions aim to maintain treatment gains and to prevent relapse. Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) may represent promising instruments in tertiary prevention. This systematic review summarizes and evaluates the research on the efficacy of IMIs as aftercare or follow-up interventions for adults with mental health issues. Methods: A systematic database search (PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CENTRAL) was conducted and studies selected according to predefined eligibility criteria (RCTs, adult population, clinical symptoms/disorder, assessed with validated instruments, clinical-psychological intervention rationale, aftercare/follow-up intervention, web-/mobile-based, minimum follow-up measurement of three months, inclusion of a control group)...
December 2018: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510523/pro-mdd-study-protocol-effectiveness-of-outpatient-treatment-programs-for-major-depressive-disorder-metacognitive-therapy-vs-behavioral-activation-a-single-center-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Anja Schaich, Laura Heikaus, Nele Assmann, Sandra Köhne, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Michael Hüppe, Adrian Wells, Ulrich Schweiger, Jan Philipp Klein, Eva Fassbinder
Background: Major depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe mental disorder associated with considerable disability and high costs. Over the last decades, various psychotherapies for MDD have been developed and researched, among others Behavioral Activation (BA) and Metacognitive Therapy (MCT). MCT and BA target different maintaining factors of MDD and have not been compared to date. The PRO* MDD randomized controlled trial will compare MCT and BA in the routine clinical setting of an outpatient clinic. Methods and Design: We aim to recruit 128 MDD patients, who will be randomly assigned to either MCT or BA...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509275/capturing-fine-scale-travel-behaviors-a-comparative-analysis-between-personal-activity-location-measurement-system-palms-and-travel-diary
#17
Mingyu Kang, Anne V Moudon, Philip M Hurvitz, Brian E Saelens
BACKGROUND: Device-collected data from GPS and accelerometers for identifying active travel behaviors have dramatically changed research methods in transportation planning and public health. Automated algorithms have helped researchers to process large datasets with likely fewer errors than found in other collection methods (e.g., self-report travel diary). In this study, we compared travel modes identified by a commonly used automated algorithm (PALMS) that integrates GPS and accelerometer data with those obtained from travel diary estimates...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508769/an-evaluation-of-the-feasibility-acceptability-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder-and-chronic-pain
#18
Declan T Barry, Mark Beitel, Christopher J Cutter, David A Fiellin, Robert D Kerns, Brent A Moore, Lindsay Oberleitner, Lynn M Madden, Christopher Liong, Joel Ginn, Richard S Schottenfeld
AIMS: The primary study aim was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for opioid use disorder and chronic pain. The secondary aim was to examine its preliminary efficacy. METHODS: In a 12-week pilot randomized clinical trial, 40 methadone-maintained patients were assigned to receive weekly manualized CBT (n = 21) or Methadone Drug Counseling (MDC) to approximate usual drug counseling (n = 19). RESULTS: Twenty of 21 patients assigned to CBT and 18 of 19 assigned to MDC completed the pilot study...
November 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508669/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-qualitative-review-of-safety-and-efficacy
#19
REVIEW
Fady Rachid
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. It has a lifetime prevalence of 1-3% in the general population and commonly has a chronic course. First-line treatments consist of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy but up to 60% of patients respond partially or not at all to these treatments. This paper reviewed the literature on the safety and efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and discussed future directions for research and clinical application...
November 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504096/the-effect-of-left-behind-phenomenon-and-physical-neglect-on-behavioral-problems-of-children
#20
Yu-Jie Wen, Xian-Bin Li, Xi-Xi Zhao, Xue-Qi Wang, Wen-Peng Hou, Qi-Jing Bo, Wei Zheng, Christine Pao, Tony Tan, Chuan-Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: Left-behind children have a high incidence of behavioral problems in some Eastern countries, especially China. We sought to assess the combined effects of physical neglect, a major embodiment of the left-behind phenomenon, and the trauma of being left behind on subsequent behavioral problems. METHOD: 776 children (including 600 left-behind children) aged 12-16 years were chosen by cluster sampling in rural China. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Conners Teacher Rating Scale were used to evaluate physical neglect and behavioral problems...
November 29, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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