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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120205/rhythm-and-synchrony-in-a-cortical-network-model
#1
Logan Chariker, Robert Shapley, Lai-Sang Young
We studied mechanisms for cortical gamma-band activity in the cerebral cortex and identified neurobiological factors that affect such activity. This was done by analyzing the behavior of a previously-developed, data-driven, large-scale network model that simulated many visual functions of monkey V1 cortex [Chariker et al 2016]. Gamma activity was an emergent property of the model. The model's gamma activity, like that of the real cortex, was 1) episodic, 2) variable in frequency and phase, and 3) graded in power with stimulus variables like orientation...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120087/relationship-between-internet-health-information-and-patient-compliance-based-on-trust-empirical-study
#2
Xinyi Lu, Runtong Zhang, Wen Wu, Xiaopu Shang, Manlu Liu
BACKGROUND: The internet has become a major mean for acquiring health information; however, Web-based health information is of mixed quality and may markedly affect patients' health-related behavior and decisions. According to the social information processing theory, patients' trust in their physicians may potentially change due to patients' health-information-seeking behavior. Therefore, it is important to identify the relationship between internet health information and patient compliance from the perspective of trust...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119874/structural-brain-connectivity-in-childhood-disruptive-behavior-problems-a-multidimensional-approach
#3
Koen Bolhuis, Ryan L Muetzel, Argyris Stringaris, James J Hudziak, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Manon H J Hillegers, Tonya White, Steven A Kushner, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Studies of white matter connectivity in children with disruptive behavior have yielded inconsistent results, possibly owing to the trait's heterogeneity, which comprises diverse symptoms like physical aggression, irritability, and delinquency. This study examined associations of global and specific white matter connectivity with childhood disruptive behavior problems, while accounting for their complex multidimensionality. METHODS: In a large cross-sectional population-based study of 10-year-old preadolescents (n = 2567), we assessed four previously described empirically derived dimensions of disruptive behavior problems using the Child Behavior Checklist: physical aggression, irritability, disobedient behavior, and delinquent behavior...
August 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118629/workplace-incivility-among-nationally-certified-ems-professionals-and-associations-with-workforce-reducing-factors-and-organizational-culture
#4
Rebecca E Cash, Kim White-Mills, Remle P Crowe, Madison K Rivard, Ashish R Panchal
BACKGROUND: Incivility, defined as negative interpersonal acts that violate workplace and social norms, has been linked to negative outcomes in healthcare settings. Little is known regarding workplace incivility among emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the prevalence of incivility and factors associated with experiencing workplace incivility; (2) describe the association between incivility and workforce-reducing factors (stress, career satisfaction, turnover intentions, and workplace absences); and (3) quantify the association between incivility and the organizational culture of an EMS agency...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115936/damage-and-failure-of-axonal-microtubule-under-extreme-high-strain-rate-an-in-silico-molecular-dynamics-study
#5
Yuan-Ting Wu, Ashfaq Adnan
As a major cytoskeleton element of the axon, the breaking of microtubules (MTs) has been considered as a major cause of the axon degeneration. High strain rate loading is considered as one of the key factors in microtubule breaking. Due to the small size of microtubule, the real-time behavior of microtubule breaking is hard to capture. This study employs fully-atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine the failure modes of microtubule under different loadings conditions such as, unidirectional stretching, bending and hydrostatic expansion...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115605/executive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-pediatric-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Lydia van den Berg, Al de Weerd, Marieke Reuvekamp, Eveline Hagebeuk, Jaap van der Meere
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy, as a chronic and neurological disease, is generally associated with an increased risk for social and emotional behavior problems in children. These findings are mostly derived from studies on children with different epilepsy types. However, there is limited information about the associations between frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and cognitive and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between FLE and executive and behavioral functioning reported by parents and teachers...
August 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114958/a-positive-psychology-motivational-interviewing-intervention-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-proof-of-concept-trial
#7
Christopher M Celano, Taylor A Gianangelo, Rachel A Millstein, Wei-Jean Chung, Deborah J Wexler, Elyse R Park, Jeff C Huffman
Objective Eighteen million Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not follow recommended guidelines for physical activity. Motivational interviewing (MI) has had modest effects on activity and related behaviors in T2D. Positive psychological attributes (e.g., optimism) are associated with superior medical outcomes in T2D, and positive psychology (PP) interventions promote such attributes. There had been no study in T2D of a combined PP-MI intervention to promote well-being and health behavior adherence. We developed a novel, telephone-delivered, 16-week PP-MI intervention and explored its feasibility and impact in T2D patients in a single-arm, proof-of-concept trial...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114932/autism-at-a-glance-a-pilot-study-optimizing-thin-slice-observations
#8
Lauren H Hampton, Philip R Curtis, Megan Y Roberts
Borrowing from a clinical psychology observational methodology, thin-slice observations were used to assess autism characteristics in toddlers. Thin-slices are short observations taken from a longer behavior stream which are assigned ratings by multiple raters using a 5-point scale. The raters' observations are averaged together to assign a "thin-slice" value for each observation. In this study, a total of 60 toddlers were selected from a video archive: 20 children with typical development, 20 children with developmental language disorder, and 20 children with autism...
August 16, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114906/development-of-an-analytical-method-for-estimating-three-dimensional-distribution-of-sediment-associated-radiocesium-at-a-reservoir-bottom
#9
Kotaro Ochi, Yoshimi Urabe, Tsutomu Yamada, Yukihisa Sanada
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the distributions of sediment-associated radiocesium were investigated to evaluate the dispersion and accumulation of radiocesium in the reservoir field. To develop an analytical method for measuring the horizontal and vertical distributions of radiocesium on a wide scale, we obtained 253 gamma-ray spectra at the bottoms of 64 ponds in Fukushima during 2014-2016 by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. For visualizing horizontal distribution, correlation between detector counting rate and radiocesium concentration of the bottom sediment was confirmed...
August 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113209/oral-sensorimotor-intervention-enhances-breastfeeding-establishment-in-preterm-infants
#10
Sandra Fucile, Miona Milutinov, Kevyn Timmons, Kimberly Dow
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of an oral sensorimotor intervention on breastfeeding establishment and maintenance in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one preterm infants born ≤34 weeks gestation were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received a 15-minute program consisting of stroking the peri-oral structures for the first 5 minutes, tongue exercises for the next 5 minutes, followed by non-nutritive sucking for the final 5 minutes...
August 16, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112924/the-difficulties-in-emotion-regulation-scale-parent-report-a-psychometric-investigation-examining-adolescents-with-and-without-adhd
#11
Nóra Bunford, Anne E Dawson, Steven W Evans, A Raisa Ray, Joshua M Langberg, Julie Sarno Owens, George J DuPaul, Darcey M Allan
Emotion dysregulation is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and confers risk for behavior problems and functional impairment; however, there is little guidance on best practices for measurement in adolescents. We developed a parent-report version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-P)). Evidence of reliability and validity was evaluated in a large community online sample (Study 1: n = 978; Mage = 13.52 years; SD = 1.93) and in two samples of adolescents with ADHD (Study 2, Sample 1: n = 78; Mage = 12...
August 16, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112537/entangled-chain-polymer-liquids-under-continuous-shear-deformation-consequences-of-a-microscopically-anharmonic-confining-tube
#12
Shi-Jie Xie, Kenneth S Schweizer
We generalize our non-classical theory for the shear rheology of entangled flexible polymer liquids to address the consequences of a deformation-modified anharmonic tube confinement field. Numerical results for stress-strain curves, orientational relaxation time, primitive path (PP) step orientational order parameter, dynamic tube diameter and transverse entropic barrier under nonequilibrium conditions are presented as a function of dimensionless shear rate, strain and degree of entanglement. Deformation-induced changes of the tube field have essentially no effect on rheology under fast deformations conditions corresponding to Rouse Weissenberg numbers WiR > 1 because of the dominance of PP chain stretch...
August 16, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111231/confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-behavior-rating-inventory-of-executive-function-in-a-neuro-pediatric-sample-and-its-application-to-mental-disorders
#13
Marianne Halvorsen, Børge Mathiassen, Tarjei Amundsen, Jonas Ellingsen, Per Håkan Brøndbo, Jørgen Sundby, Oddmar Ole Steinsvik, Monica Martinussen
The construct validity of the 9-scale version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) parent form was examined in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 281). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model separating the inhibitory behavioral control dimension from the emotional control and metacognitive problem-solving dimensions. The Metacognitive factor was also related to a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after controlling for age, gender, IQ, adaptive functioning, and a conventional behavioral rating scale, which included inattention-hyperactivity symptoms...
August 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111162/tongue-reduction-surgery-and-feeding-difficulties-in-infants-with-beckwith-wiedemann-syndrome-a-case-series
#14
Nicole Prendeville, Debbie Sell
OBJECTIVE: To profile the pre- and post-operative feeding difficulties in infants with macroglossia in Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome (m-BWS) who have had tongue reduction surgery (TRS) and to pilot a bespoke feeding rating scale. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series designed with two pre-operative and one 3-month post-operative feeding assessments. A 4-point Likert-type scale was developed and applied retrospectively to describe the feeding behaviors for liquids, purées, and solids...
August 15, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110884/a-class-of-rate-independent-lower-order-gradient-plasticity-theories-implementation-and-application-to-disc-torsion-problem
#15
Emin Semih Perdahcıoğlu, Celal Soyarslan, Emin Erkan Aşık, Ton van den Boogaard, Swantje Bargmann
As the characteristic scale of products and production processes decreases, the plasticity phenomena observed start to deviate from those evidenced at the macroscale. The current research aims at investigating this gap using a lower-order gradient enhanced approach both using phenomenological continuum level as well as crystal plasticity models. In the phenomenological approach, a physically based hardening model relates the flow stress to the density of dislocations where it is assumed that the sources of immobile dislocations are both statistically stored (SSDs) as well as geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs)...
August 14, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110280/scintillation-and-bit-error-rate-analysis-of-a-partially-coherent-flat-topped-array-laser-beam-in-maritime-and-terrestrial-non-kolmogorov-atmospheric-environments-on-a-slant-path
#16
Shole Golmohammady, Masoud Yousefi, Ahmad Mashal, Bijan Ghafary
In this paper, on the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, a semi-analytical expression for describing the on-axis scintillation index of a partially coherent flat-topped laser beam through non-Kolmogorov maritime and terrestrial atmospheric environments on a slant path is derived. Consequently, by using the log-normal intensity probability density function, the bit error rate (BER) is evaluated. The effects of source factors (such as wavelength, order of flatness, and beam width) and the non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere parameters (such as the Kolmogorov inner scale, the spectral power-law exponent, and the turbulence structure constant) on propagation behavior of the scintillation index, and hence on the BER, are studied in detail...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109898/success-factors-for-universal-access-to-antiretroviral-treatments-in-south-africa
#17
Marlène Guillon
This article studies the epidemiological and economic impacts of a universal testing and treatment policy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in South Africa. A model of disease transmission is built to simulate several implementation scenarios of the policy. Different behavioral responses in the general population are considered. The results show that the success of a large-scale HIV testing and treatment program in South Africa depends on its implementation conditions. The policy can lead to a reduction of the HIV epidemic, even in the case of a large relapse in preventive behaviors in the general population, if implementation conditions are favorable...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107636/anhedonia-and-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-in-psychiatric-outpatients-the-role-of-acuity
#18
Mariah Hawes, Igor Galynker, Shira Barzilay, Zimri S Yaseen
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia-impairment related to the experience of pleasure-has been identified as a potential risk factor for suicide, with some mixed findings. The current study sought to clarify the role of acuity of anhedonia in the relationship between anhedonia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors by comparing acutely and chronically anhedonic subjects on severity of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history. METHODS: Psychiatric outpatients (N = 395) were administered the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation and a modified version of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHPS); SI measures were readministered at a 1-month follow-up (N = 289, 73%)...
August 14, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107471/the-effect-of-reciprocity-priming-on-organ-donor-registration-intentions-and-behavior
#19
Ronan E O'Carroll, Jody Quigley, Christopher B Miller
Background: Internationally the demand for organ transplants far exceeds the available supply of donated organs. Purpose: We examine if a digital reciprocity prime based on reciprocal altruism can be used to increase organ donor registration intentions and behavior. Methods: Four hundred twenty participants (223 females) from England and Scotland aged 18+ who were not currently registered organ donors were randomized by block allocation using a 1:1 ratio to receive either a reciprocity prime or control message...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106386/old-pathogen-new-challenges-a-narrative-review-of-the-multilevel-drivers-of-syphilis-increasing-in-american-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#20
Kenneth H Mayer
Since the turn of the current century, syphilis incidence and prevalence have been increasing more rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) than any other US subpopulation, exceeding their previously high rates in the 1970s and 1980s, before the AIDS epidemic. The reasons for these trends are multifactorial and complex, involving individual behavioral, sociocultural, structural, and biological factors, which will be reviewed in this article. Men who have sex with men tend to have more sexual partners than heterosexuals, and engage in practices (e...
September 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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