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Morteza Bashash, Maelle Marchand, Howard Hu, Christine Till, E Angeles Martinez-Mier, Brisa N Sanchez, Niladri Basu, Karen E Peterson, Rivka Green, Lourdes Schnaas, Adriana Mercado-García, Mauricio Hernández-Avila, Martha María Téllez-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal-based studies have raised concern over the potential impact of fluoride exposure on neurobehavioral development as manifested by lower IQ and deficits in attention. To date, no prospective epidemiologic studies have examined the effects of prenatal fluoride exposure on behavioral outcomes using fluoride biomarkers and sensitive measures of attention. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between prenatal fluoride exposure and symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
Hui Liu, Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Yanbing Hou, Bei Cao, Bi Zhao, Huifang Shang
The current study aimed to investigate the occurrence and clinical associations of rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) from a cohort of Chinese patients. 158 treatment-naive PD patients in total were enrolled in the study. Each patient was categorized as PD with or without RBD according to the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ). Of 158 patients, 31 PD patients (19.62%) reported RBD. PD patients with RBD showed higher Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score, higher Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) score, higher Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) score, higher Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score, higher PD Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) score, lower Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) score and higher scores for the cognitions and communication domains from the PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
M Dülle, H Özcoban, C S Leopold
This study focuses on the behavior of powder particles in a rotary tablet press with special focus on the feed frame system. To obtain a better knowledge of the continuous manufacturing of tablets, the experimental setup was carried out with a production scale rotary tablet press. The behavior of the powder particles at different flow rates through the tablet press, residual moisture contents, particle sizes, and amounts of tracer was investigated. The residence time distribution was evaluated using the tracer indigo carmine, which was sprayed onto microcrystalline cellulose particle as solution with fluidized bed spray granulator to obtain a tracer blend...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Joseph A Lombardo, Matthew V Macellaio, Bing Liu, Stephanie E Palmer, Leslie C Osborne
Behavioral states marked by varying levels of arousal and attention modulate some properties of cortical responses (e.g. average firing rates or pairwise correlations), yet it is not fully understood what drives these response changes and how they might affect downstream stimulus decoding. Here we show that changes in state modulate the tuning of response variance-to-mean ratios (Fano factors) in a fashion that is neither predicted by a Poisson spiking model nor changes in the mean firing rate, with a substantial effect on stimulus discriminability...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
D M Heyes, D Dini, E R Smith
The viscoelastic behavior of sheared fluids is calculated by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation, and complementary analytic solutions of a time-dependent extension of Eyring's model (EM) for shear thinning are derived. It is argued that an "incremental viscosity," η i , or IV which is the derivative of the steady state stress with respect to the shear rate is a better measure of the physical state of the system than the conventional definition of the shear rate dependent viscosity (i...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Liara Rizzi, Luciane Missiaggia, Matheus Roriz-Cruz
The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aβ1-42 and p-Tau181 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels can predict progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) in a 3-year follow-up study. All participants were evaluated blindly by a behavioral neurologist and a neuropsychologist, and classified according to the Petersen criteria for aMCI and according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Individuals were also submitted to lumbar puncture at baseline...
October 10, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
Lucas Melo Neves, Carla Silva-Batista, Raquel Marquesini, Telma Fátima da Cunha, Elisa Dimateo, Luciana Nascimento, Acácio Moreira-Neto, Angelo Corrêa de Lima Miliatto, Sheila das Chagas Mendes, Flavia Saad, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Valeria Juday, Beny Lafer, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depression disorder presents increased rates of cognitive decline, reduced hippocampal volume, poor sleep quality, hypertension, obesity, suicidal ideation and behavior, and decreased functionality. Although continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) improves some of the aforementioned symptoms, comorbidities, and conditions, recent studies have suggested that performing aerobic exercise with motor complexity (AEMC) may be more beneficial for cognitive decline, hippocampal volume, and functionality...
October 10, 2018: Trials
Mike J Crawford, Lavanya Thana, Jennie Parker, Oliver Turner, Kwek Pei Xing, Mary McMurran, Paul Moran, Timothy Weaver, Barbara Barrett, Amy Claringbold, Paul Bassett, Rahil Sanatinia
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychological treatment for people with some types of personality disorder. However, the high intensity and cost of these interventions limit their availability. Lower-intensity interventions are increasingly being offered to people with personality disorder, but their clinical and cost effectiveness have not been properly tested in experimental studies. We therefore set out to develop a low intensity intervention for people with personality disorder and to test the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to compare the clinical effectiveness of this intervention with that of treatment as usual (TAU)...
October 10, 2018: Trials
Sandhya S Pillalamarri, Lauren M Huyett, Aiman Abdel-Malek
BACKGROUND: Medical device technology is evolving at a rapid pace, with increasing patient expectations to use modern technologies for diabetes management. With the significant expansion of the use of wireless technology and complex, securely connected digital platforms in medical devices, end user needs and behaviors have become essential areas of focus. METHODS: This article provides a detailed description of the user-centered design approach implemented in developing the Omnipod DASH™ Insulin Management System (Insulet Corp...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Zuzana Kosutzka, Stephen Tisch, Cecilia Bonnet, Marta Ruiz, Elodie Hainque, Marie-Laure Welter, Francois Viallet, Carine Karachi, Soledad Navarro, Marjan Jahanshahi, Sophie Rivaud-Pechoux, David Grabli, Emmanuel Roze, Marie Vidailhet
BACKGROUND: Good short-term results of pallidal deep brain stimulation have been reported in myoclonus-dystonia. Efficacy and safety in the long term remain to be established. In addition, the actual impact of DBS treatment on social inclusion is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term clinical outcome, quality of life, and social adjustment of GPi-DBS in patients with ε-sarcoglycan (DYT11)-positive myoclonus-dystonia. METHODS: Consecutive myoclonus-dystonia patients with ε-sarcoglycan mutations who underwent GPi-DBS were evaluated at least 5 years postoperatively...
October 9, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Nastasja Robstad, Frank Siebler, Ulrika Söderhamn, Thomas Westergren, Liv Fegran
The purpose of this pilot study was to design and test research instruments to measure qualified intensive care nurses' implicit and explicit attitudes and behavioral intentions toward obese intensive care patients. In previous studies researchers have demonstrated that some health professionals hold negative attitudes toward obese patients; however, little is known about qualified intensive care nurses' attitudes toward these patients. Our cross-sectional pilot study involved Implicit Association Tests, the Anti-fat Attitude questionnaire, an explicit bias scale comprising ratings of explicit beliefs and feelings, assessment of behavioral intentions based on vignettes, and demographic questions...
October 10, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Z Aida Maziha, A Imran, I Azlina, M Y Harmy
Introduction: Nicotine cravings and withdrawal symptoms are associated with higher rates of relapse. It has been shown that combining behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy leads to a higher long-term abstinence rate in those who quit smoking. Al-Quran recitation has been proven to reduce anxiety among athletes before tournaments and pulse and heart rates among patients awaiting cardiac operations. As most of the patients who wish to stop smoking experience high-anxiety states, we postulate that Al-Quran recitation will also able to reduce craving among smokers attempting to quit smoking...
2018: Malaysian Family Physician
Tracey Fay-Stammbach, David John Hawes
Despite the well-documented impact of early maltreatment on children's executive function (EF), there has been limited consensus about how to best assess this neurocognitive domain in high-risk, vulnerable preschool-aged children. Relevant studies have generally utilized either performance-based tests or caregiver ratings of EF, yet multi-method research has been rare. This study examined the EF profiles of preschoolers exposed to maltreatment, as indexed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), and investigated associations between caregiver ratings and performance-based measures (Happy-Sad Stroop, Tapping Test, and Dimensional Change Card Sort - DCCS) of EF in this population...
October 9, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Erkan Baysak, Fatma Duygu Kaya Yertutanol, Ilker Dalgar, Selçuk Candansayar
OBJECTIVE: Prospective data of risky online gamers in Turkey is missing. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the change in gaming behaviors and addiction rates of Travian players within two years to search diagnostic stability of internet gaming disorder and some psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: 110 responders completed the whole questionnaire package including 21-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
L V Beloussov, T G Troshina, N S Glagoleva, S V Kremnyov
Several important morphogenetic processes belong to the category of collective cell movements (CCM), by which we mean coordinated rearrangements of many neighboring cells. The causes of the dynamic order established during CCM are still unclear. We performed statistical studies of rates and angular orientations of cell rearrangements in two kinds of embryonic tissues, which we categorized as "committed" (in the sense of being capable of autonomous CCM) as opposed to "naïve" tissues, which are those that require external forces in order to exhibit full scale CCM...
October 6, 2018: Bio Systems
John B Zamjahn, Raquel Baroni de Carvalho, Megan H Bronson, Deborah D Garbee, John T Paige
Objective: The Objective Structured Assessment of Debriefing (OSAD) is an evidence-based, 8-item tool that uses a behaviorally anchored rating scale in paper-based form to evaluate the quality of debriefing in medical education. The objective of this project was twofold: 1) to create an easy-to-use electronic format of the OSAD (eOSAD) in order to streamline data entry; and 2) to pilot its use on videoed debriefings. Materials and Methods: The eOSAD was developed in collaboration with the LSU Health New Orleans Epidemiology Data Center using SurveyGizmo (Widgix Software, LLC, Boulder, CO, USA) software...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Thomas Forkmann, Lena Spangenberg, Dajana Rath, Nina Hallensleben, Ulrich Hegerl, Anette Kersting, Heide Glaesmer
Suicidal ideation is a major risk factor for suicidal behavior and has recently been shown to be fluctuating in studies applying ecological momentary assessments (EMAs). The aims of this study are to introduce a reliable and valid item set for assessing suicidal ideation and relevant proximal risk factors that can be used in future EMA studies within suicidology. Additionally, we provide data on the ability of the items to capture moment-to-moment variability and discuss feasibility aspects of EMA studies on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Astha Jaikaria, Seema Thakur, Parul Singhal, Deepak Chauhan, Cheranjeevi Jayam, Kartik Syal
Introduction: It is common to encounter a patient who is anxious to the magnitude that precludes the possibility of provision of dental treatment. This study aims to evaluate and compare the sedative effect of oral combinations of midazolam-ketamine (MK), dexmedetomidine-fentanyl (DF), and dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK) in a group of uncooperative children requiring dental treatment. Methodology: This was a prospective, randomized, triple-blind study where 36 children who were 3-9 year old with American Society of Anesthesiologists -I status and presenting early childhood caries were randomly assigned to: Group A - 0...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Charles P Lewis, Deniz Doruk Camsari, A Irem Sonmez, Aiswarya Lakshmi Nandakumar, Marjorie A Gresbrink, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul E Croarkin
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. Prior research using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has implicated deficits in GABAergic cortical inhibition in adolescent suicidal behavior, yet no studies have assessed whether cortical inhibition varies over time in conjunction with changes in suicidal ideation (SI). This study examined dynamic changes in long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), a TMS measure of GABAB -mediated inhibition, and their relationship with changes in SI in a small sample of adolescents undergoing pharmacologic treatment for depression...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
A Oerlemans, M F P van Dael, R C H Vermeulen, F G M Russel, P T J Scheepers
Young children differ from adults in their exposure and susceptibility to environmental chemicals (e.g. pesticides) because of various factors such as behavior, diet and physiology. Their heightened vulnerability to environmental stressors makes it important to obtain appropriate urine samples for exposure characterization. However, collecting urine from non-toilet-trained children has been shown to be methodologically and practically challenging. Four urine collection approaches were tested: a disposable diaper, a urine bag, a collection pad and the clean catch...
October 4, 2018: Toxicology Letters
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